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SPECIES:  Heracleum maximum
Common cowparsnip in Yosemite National Park. Photo by Charles Webber © California Academy of Sciences.

 


Introductory

SPECIES: Heracleum maximum
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION: Esser, Lora L. 1995. Heracleum maximum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/hermax/all.html []. Revisions: On 22 May 2018, the common and scientific names of this species were changed from: cow parsnip, Heracleum lanatum to: Heracleum maximum, common cowparsnip. Images, and citations of authorities supporting these name changes [78,94], were added.
ABBREVIATION: HERMAX SYNONYMS: Heracleum lanatum Michx. [36,42,63,68,82] Heracleum sphondylium L. var. lanatum (Michx.) Dorn [18,78] Heracleum sphondylium L. subsp. montanum (Schleich) Briq. [15,26,78] NRCS [78] PLANT CODE: HEMA80 COMMON NAMES: common cowparsnip American cowparsnip cow parsnip TAXONOMY: The scientific name of common cowparsnip is Heracleum maximum Bartr. [26,39,46,78,80,94] (Apiaceae). There are no recognized infrataxa. LIFE FORM: Forb FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS: No special status OTHER STATUS: NO-ENTRY


DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Heracleum maximum
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION: Common cowparsnip occurs from Newfoundland west to Alaska and south to California, Arizona, New Mexico, Kansas, Missouri, and Georgia [22,26,30,47,68]. It is not found in northern Canada or in the extreme southern and southeastern regions of the United States.
Distribution of common cowparsnip. Map courtesy of USDA, NRCS. 2018. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC [2018, January 29] [78].
ECOSYSTEMS: 
   FRES11  Spruce - fir
   FRES17  Elm - ash - cottonwood
   FRES19  Aspen - birch
   FRES20  Douglas-fir
   FRES21  Ponderosa pine
   FRES23  Fir - spruce
   FRES25  Larch
   FRES26  Lodgepole pine
   FRES28  Western hardwoods
   FRES29  Sagebrush
   FRES34  Chaparral - mountain shrub
   FRES35  Pinyon - juniper
   FRES36  Mountain grasslands
   FRES37  Mountain meadows
   FRES38  Plains grasslands
   FRES39  Prairie
   FRES41  Wet grasslands
   FRES44  Alpine


STATES: 
     AK  AZ  CA  CO  CT  DE  GA  ID  IL  IN
     IA  KS  KY  ME  MD  MA  MI  MN  MO  MT
     NE  NV  NH  NJ  NM  NY  NC  ND  OH  OR
     PA  RI  SC  SD  TN  UT  VT  VA  WA  WV
     WI  WY  AB  BC  MB  NB  NF  NS  ON  PE
     PQ  SK



BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS: 
    1  Northern Pacific Border
    2  Cascade Mountains
    3  Southern Pacific Border
    4  Sierra Mountains
    5  Columbia Plateau
    6  Upper Basin and Range
    8  Northern Rocky Mountains
    9  Middle Rocky Mountains
   10  Wyoming Basin
   11  Southern Rocky Mountains
   12  Colorado Plateau
   13  Rocky Mountain Piedmont
   14  Great Plains
   15  Black Hills Uplift
   16  Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands


KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS: 
   K003  Silver fir - Douglas-fir forest
   K004  Fir - hemlock forest
   K008  Lodgepole pine - subalpine forest
   K011  Western ponderosa forest
   K012  Douglas-fir forest
   K014  Grand fir - Douglas-fir forest
   K015  Western spruce - fir forest
   K018  Pine - Douglas-fir forest
   K019  Arizona pine forest 
   K021  Southwestern spruce - fir forest
   K023  Juniper - pinyon woodland
   K025  Alder - ash forest
   K037  Mountain-mahogany - oak scrub
   K038  Great Basin sagebrush
   K049  Tule marshes
   K050  Fescue - wheatgrass
   K051  Wheatgrass - bluegrass
   K052  Alpine meadows and barren
   K055  Sagebrush steppe
   K063  Foothills prairie
   K064  Grama - needlegrass - wheatgrass
   K066  Wheatgrass - needlegrass
   K067  Wheatgrass - bluestem - needlegrass
   K074  Bluestem prairie
   K081  Oak savanna
   K093  Great Lakes spruce - fir forest
   K098  Northern floodplain forest
   K107  Northern hardwoods - fir forest


SAF COVER TYPES: 
     5  Balsam fir
    12  Black spruce
    13  Black spruce - tamarack
    16  Aspen
    18  Paper birch
    38  Tamarack
    63  Cottonwood
   107  White spruce
   203  Balsam poplar
   204  Black spruce
   205  Mountain hemlock
   206  Engelmann spruce - subalpine fir
   208  Whitebark pine
   210  Interior Douglas-fir
   211  White fir
   212  Western larch
   217  Aspen
   218  Lodgepole pine
   220  Rocky Mountain juniper
   221  Red alder
   235  Cottonwood - willow
   236  Bur oak
   237  Interior ponderosa pine


SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES: 
NO-ENTRY


HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES: 
Common cowparsnip occurs in a wide variety of forested habitat types, as well
as grassland, shrubland, meadow, alpine, and riparian zones
[3,13,14,34,85].  

Common cowparsnip is a member of the Pacific silver fir (Abies amabilis)
old-growth forest in Washington [2].  Common cowparsnip occurs in whitebark
pine (Pinus albicaulis) communities of Montana [3].  It is a common
understory species in subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) and Engelmann
spruce (Picea engelmannii) habitat types of the Intermountain West
[9,12,20,69].  A subalpine fir/common cowparsnip association in Montana, and a
common cowparsnip-western coneflower (Rudbeckia occidentalis) community type
in Wyoming are described [14,20].  A climax black hawthorn (Crataegus
douglasii)-common cowparsnip habitat type has been described for Washington
and Idaho [13,50].  A climax quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides)/common cow 
parsnip habitat type has been described for Utah and Wyoming [57,58].

Common cowparsnip is found in seral quaking aspen community types in Wyoming,
Idaho, Utah, Colorado, and Montana [7,34,41,57,58,85], and is a dominant
understory species in quaking aspen-dominated communities of Utah,
Colorado, and Montana [41,64].  An quaking aspen/common cowparsnip habitat
type has been described for Colorado and Idaho [34,41].  In Canada, common cow 
parsnip is a member of the subboreal, aspen-dominated spruce zone [8,11,75].

In eastern Idaho, western Wyoming, and northern Utah, common cowparsnip occurs
in a red-osier dogwood (Cornus sericea)/common cowparsnip riparian habitat
type [86].  A California false hellebore (Veratrum californicum)-common cowparsnip 
habitat type has been described in Washington [32].  Common cowparsnip
occurs in riparian areas dominated by willow (Salix spp.) throughout the
Intermountain West [19,29,77].

The following publications list common cowparsnip as a community dominant or
codominant:  

Steppe vegetation of Washington [13]
A vegetation study in the subalpine zone of the western North Cascades,
  Washington [20]
Riparian community type classification of eastern Idaho-western Wyoming
  [86] 

Species not previously mentioned but commonly associated with common cow 
parsnip include incense-cedar (Calocedrus decurrens), black cottonwood
(Populus trichocarpa var. hastata), narrowleaf cottonwood (P.
angustifolia), thinleaf alder (Alnus incana ssp. tenuifolia), Sitka
alder (A. sinuata), bigtooth maple (Acer grandidentatum), bigleaf maple
(A. macrophyllum), Pacific yew (Taxus brevifolia), dwarf bilberry
(Vaccinium myrtillus), grouse whortleberry (V. scoparium), roses (Rosa
spp.), mountain snowberry (Symphoricarpos oreophilus), western snowberry
(S. occidentalis), Saskatoon serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia),
bristly gooseberry (Ribes setosum), common chokecherry (Prunus
virginiana), California hazel (Corylus cornuta var. californica), fowl
bluegrass (Poa palustris), California brome (Bromus carinatus), blue
wildrye (Elymus glaucus), field horsetail (Equisetum arvense), bluejoint
reedgrass (Calamagrostis canadensis), fireweed (Epilobium
angustifolium), western aster (Aster occidentalis), large-leaved avens
(Geum macrophyllum), sweet-scented bedstraw (Galium triflorum), stinging
nettle (Urtica dioica), Sitka valerian (Valeriana sitchensis), smooth
woodrush (Luzuli hitchcockii), menziesia (Menziesia ferruginea),
queencup beadlily (Clintonia uniflora), tall larkspur (Delphinium
occidentalis), Richardson's geranium (Geranium richardsonii), saw
groundsel (Senecio serra), and bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum)
[11,12,20,29,57,58].  

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Heracleum maximum
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE: Common cowparsnip is a valuable forage species for livestock, deer, elk, moose, and bear [37,42,43,54]. In West Virginia common cowparsnip provides forage for livestock and deer [10]. Moose in Montana and Yellowstone National Park eat common cowparsnip [40,54]. In low elevation riparian areas it is an important food for grizzly bear, especially in the spring [43,52,81,88]. In Glacier National Park, common cowparsnip comprised 15 percent of grizzly bear total diet volume, spring through fall, in 1967-1971 and 1982-1985 [43]. In Waterton Lakes National Park, Alberta, grizzly feeding sites were examined from June to early August; 77 percent of the cropped umbelliferous plants were common cowparsnip (stems, petioles, and blossoms) [28]. Black bear in Alberta common cowparsnip in summer [37]. PALATABILITY: Palatability ratings for common cowparsnip are as follows [15]: CO MT ND UT cattle good good good good sheep good good good fair horses good good good fair NUTRITIONAL VALUE: Common cowparsnip nutritional values are rated as follows [15,29]: UT CO WY MT elk good ---- poor good mule deer good ---- good good white-tailed deer good ---- good pronghorn poor ---- poor poor upland game birds fair ---- fair fair waterfowl poor ---- poor fair small nongame birds fair ---- fair poor small mammals good ---- fair poor Energy and protein content ratings of common cowparsnip are poor [15]. COVER VALUE: Common cowparsnip cover values are rated as follows [15]: UT CO WY MT elk poor ---- poor ---- mule deer poor ---- fair ---- white-tailed deer ---- fair ---- ---- pronghorn poor ---- poor ---- upland game birds fair ---- fair poor waterfowl poor ---- fair ---- small nongame birds good ---- good poor small mammals good ---- good poor Yellow-bellied sapsuckers in Idaho ues common cowparsnip as cover [19], and Columbian sharp-tailed grouse use the black hawthorn-common cowparsnip habitat type as escape cover, especially in the winter [50]. VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES: Common cowparsnip is rated moderately good for erosion control, short-term revegetation potential, and long-term revegetation potential [15]. Common cowparsnip has fair soil stabilization value if seeded in the fall in quaking aspen, mountain brush, and subalpine herbland communities of Intermountain rangelands [72]. OTHER USES AND VALUES: Native Americans of Alaska, British Columbia, the Great Plains, and Arizona used common cowparsnip for medicinal and nutritional purposes [26,39,42,48]. Native Americans in Alaska ate the inside of stems raw and boiled the roots to extract sugar [39]. In Arizona, the Apache ate the young leaves and stems and used the roots to treat epilepsy [42]. Common cowparsnip is planted as an ornamental [38]. In the Great Plains cases of dermatitis have been reported in people who came in contact with the foliage of common cowparsnip [26]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS: In Washington common cowparsnip is sensitive to grazing and can be eliminated from steppe vegetation if overgrazed [13]. In Colorado common cowparsnip decreases with grazing [41]. Common cowparsnip is sensitive to soil compaction or severe soil disturbances which may be caused by mechanical scarification or trampling [9,67]. In high mountain ecosystems of Utah, common cowparsnip should be broadcast or drill-seeded in the fall at 1 to 2 pounds per acre in a mixed seeding for best forage results [38]. Parsnip webworm, a European-introduced herbivorous insect, feeds on developing flowers and seeds of common cowparsnip. Floral herbivory can decrease seed production by up to 40 percent and seed biomass 53 percent [5,33]. Common cowparsnip appears to persist or increase after clearcutting [4,12], but to decrease after soil scarification [87].

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Heracleum maximum
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS: Common cowparsnip is a native, perennial forb that grows from 3.3 to 10 feet (1-3 m) tall [24,26,35] and has broad, flat-topped umbels [33,80]. It grows from a stout taproot or a cluster of fibrous roots [35,39,72,82]. Leaves are 8 to 20 inches (20-50 cm) long and wide [26,59,82]. The egg-shaped fruit is 0.32 to 0.48 inch (8-12 mm) long and 0.24 to 0.36 (6-9 mm) wide [26,82]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM: Hemicryptophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES: Common cowparsnip reproduces by seed [15,38]. For successful germination in the laboratory, seed should not be stored more than 3 years [72,73]. Some flowers within an umbel only produce stamens, while others are hermaphroditic. Secondary umbels develop synchronously approximately 10 to 14 days after the primary umbel. Hermaphroditic flower and seed production may be increased by herbivory [33]. The potential for common cowparsnip to regenerate vegetatively is not clear; Cole and Trull [9] include common cowparsnip in a group of plants that "regenerate rapidly from subsurface adventitious buds." SITE CHARACTERISTICS: Common cowparsnip occurs in a variety of habitats including woodlands, forest openings, grasslands, and riparian areas such as wet meadows, stream terraces, alluvial benches, floodplains, and stream and lake margins [26,28,29,82]. It is commonly found growing in snow-maintained disclimaxes such as avalanche chutes [28,47,55]. Common cowparsnip is a facultative wetland species [29]; it grows best in moist, shaded areas [35,59,84] but can also be found in open woodlands and clearings [35,38,44,56,80]. Common cowparsnip grows best on moist to semiwet soils with good drainage [24,34,44,47]. It grows best on loam and sandy loam soils derived from limestone and shale, but occurs on clay, clay loam, and gravelly substrates as well [1531,65]. Elevations for common cowparsnip for several states are as follows: feet meters Arizona 7,500-9,000 2,250-2,700 [42] California <8,500 <2,600 [35] Colorado 4,700-10,500 1,410-3,150 [15,30] Montana 4,200-8,500 1,260-2,550 [3,29] Utah 5,200-9,000 1,560-2,700 [15] Washington 3,300-5,775 1,000-1,750 [2,9] Wyoming 3,400-12,500 1,020-3,750 [15] SUCCESSIONAL STATUS: Common cowparsnip occurs in seral and climax communities. It is shade tolerant, but also grows in some open habitats [29,38,41,44,58]. Common cow parsnip is a common understory species in quaking aspen community types, which are often successional in subalpine forests of the Intermountain region [4,20,29,41]. Common cowparsnip is a member of the red alder (Alnus rubra) association of Oregon that may be replaced in 30 to 50 years by black cottonwood or in 30 to 70 years by grand fir (Abies grandis) [31]. The red-osier dogwood-common cowparsnip community type of Utah and southeastern Idaho is an early seral type that colonizes streambanks and adjacent areas [60]. In the black hawthorn-common cowparsnip habitat type of Washington, common cowparsnip can grow as well with or without the black hawthorn canopy [13]. Common cowparsnip occurs in climax aspen forests throughout the Intermountain West, and in mature to climax subalpine forests in Wyoming and Montana [14,41,58]. Studies of common cowparsnip in clearcuts indicates that its response to canopy removal is variable. In northern Utah common cowparsnip cover was variable in both control and clearcut stands. Early succession following a 1974 clearcut of aspen communities (with no slash treatment) in northern Utah was studied. Percent understory cover of common cowparsnip on clearcuts and uncut controls was [4]: 1973 1975 1976 1977 cut control cut control cut control cut control 0 1.5 1.8 0 0.7 0.3 0.4 0.4 The effects of clearcutting on wildlife habitat were studied in a moist subalpine forest in central Colorado. Understory cover of common cowparsnip before and after clearcutting (with no slash treatment) was [12]: before logging years after logging (1978-1982) (1976) 1 2 3 4 5 cover(%) 0.6 3.1 8.2 8.9 13.3 10.7 In the subalpine fir/queencup beadlily habitat type in northwestern Montana, common cowparsnip occurs in a variety of disturbed and undisturbed communities. Relative frequency and average canopy cover of common cowparsnip were as follows [87]: relative frequency % cover wildfire (35-70 years prior to study) 6 15 clearcut (15-35 years old), slash dozer-piled 4 3 clearcut (15-35 years old), slash not dozer-piled 8 15 old-growth (two types of plots) 3,20 0.5,7.8 Snowchutes are "topographic climax" or disclimax communities that produce an abundance of grizzly bear foods. In subalpine fir/menziesia, subalpine fir/queencup beadlily, and subalpine fir/smooth woodrush habitat types, relative frequency/average precent canopy cover of common cow parsnip in snowchutes was 50/19, 65/13, and 75/6.2, respectively [87]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT: Common cowparsnip flowering dates are as follows: Arizona July-Aug [42] California Apr-July [59] Colorado May-Aug [15] Georgia May-Aug [63,83] Kentucky May-Aug [63,83] North Carolina May-Aug [63,83] North Dakota Jun-Aug [15] Tennessee May-Aug [63,83] Utah Jun-Aug [15] Virginia May-Aug [63,83] West Virginia May-Aug [63,83] Wyoming Jun-July [15] Great Plains May-July [26]

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Heracleum maximum
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS: Common cowparsnip can occur throughout succession in moist or wet subalpine fir-Engelmann spruce habitat types in Idaho and Wyoming. These habitat types have estimated average fire-free intervals of about 330 years. Stands are susceptible to severe burns when drought occurs [91]. Common cowparsnip also occurs throughout succession in communities characterized by more frequent fire, including quaking aspen [93]. FIRE REGIMES: Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find Fire Regimes". POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY: Ground residual colonizer (on-site, initial community)

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Heracleum maximum
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT: Common cowparsnip is probably killed or top-killed by fire. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT: NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE: Common cowparsnip may benefit from both canopy removal and increased water availability after tree cover is removed by fire. Common cowparsnip had greater percent cover following both wildfire and clearcutting without scarification (some stands broadcast burned) than after clearcutting with scarification [87]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE: NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS: NO-ENTRY

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Heracleum maximum
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[11680] 4. Bartos, D. L.; Mueggler, W. F. 1982. Early succession following clearcutting of aspen communities in northern Utah. Journal of Range Management. 35(6): 764-768. [3279] 5. Berenbaum, M. R.; Zangerl, A. R. 1991. Acquisition of a native hostplant by an introduced oligophagous herbivore. Oikos. 62: 153-159. [24216] 6. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434] 7. Boggs, Keith; Hansen, Paul; Pfister, Robert; Joy, John. 1990. Classification and management of riparian and wetland sites in northwestern Montana. Missoula, MT: University of Montana, School of Forestry, Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station, Montana Riparian Association. 217 p. Draft Version 1. [8447] 8. Carleton, T. J.; Maycock, P. F. 1981. Understorey - canopy affinities in boreal forest vegetation. Canadian Journal of Botany. 59: 1709-1716. [14576] 9. Cole, David N.; Trull, Susan J. 1992. Quantifying vegetation response to recreational disturbance in the North Cascades, Washington. American Midland Naturalist. 66(4): 229-236. [19965] 10. Strausbaugh, P. D.; Core, Earl L. 1977. Flora of West Virginia. 2nd ed. Morgantown, WV: Seneca Books, Inc. 1079 p. [23213] 11. Cragg, J. B.; Carter, Alan; Leischner, Clara; [and others]. 1977. Litter fall and chemical cycling in an aspen (Populus tremuloides) woodland ecosystem in the Canadian Rockies. Pedobiologia. 17: 428-443. [8654] 12. Crouch, Glenn L. 1985. Effects of clearcutting a subalpine forest in central Colorado on wildlife habitat. Res. Pap. RM-258. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 12 p. [8225] 13. Daubenmire, R. 1970. Steppe vegetation of Washington. Technical Bulletin 62. 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Vascular plants of Wyoming. Cheyenne, WY: Mountain West Publishing. 340 p. [6129] 19. Douglas, David C.; Ratti, John T. 1984. Avian habitat associations in riparian zones of the Centennial Mountains and surrounding areas, Idaho. Pullman, WA: Washington State University, Department of Zoology, Wildlife Biology. 125 p. [14928] 20. Douglas, George Wayne. 1970. A vegetation study in the subalpine zone of the western North Cascades, Washington. Seattle, WA: University of Washington. 293 p. Thesis. [8560] 21. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 22. Fernald, Merritt Lyndon. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. [Corrections supplied by R. C. Rollins]. Portland, OR: Dioscorides Press. 1632 p. (Dudley, Theodore R., gen. ed.; Biosystematics, Floristic & Phylogeny Series; vol. 2). [14935] 23. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 24. Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New York Botanical Garden. 910 p. [20329] 25. Graham, Dean Chalmus. 1978. Grizzly bear distribution, use of habitats, food habits and habitat characterization in Pelican & Hayden Valleys, Yellowstone National Park. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 124 p. M.S. thesis. [5165] 26. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603] 27. Gregory, Shari. 1983. Subalpine forb community types of the Bridger-Teton National Forest, Wyoming. Final Report. U.S. Forest Service Cooperative Education Agreement: Contract OM 40-8555-3-115. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Region. 100 p. [1040] 28. Hamer, David; Herrero, Stephen; Brady, Keith. 1991. Food and habitat used by grizzly bears, Ursus arctos, along the Continental Divide in Waterton Lakes National Park, Alberta. Canadian Field-Naturalist. 105(3): 325-329. [18672] 29. Hansen, Paul; Boggs, Keith; Pfister, Robert; Joy, John. 1990. Classification and management of riparian and wetland sites in central and eastern Montana. Missoula, MT: University of Montana, School of Forestry, Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station, Montana Riparian Association. 279 p. [12477] 30. Harrington, H. D. 1964. Manual of the plants of Colorado. 2d ed. Chicago: The Swallow Press Inc. 666 p. [6851] 31. Hawk, G. M.; Zobel, D. B. 1974. Forest succession on alluvial landforms of the McKenzie River Valley, Oregon. Northwest Science. 48(4): 245-265. [9686] 32. Hemstrom, Miles A.; Logan, Sheila E.; Pavlat, Warren. 1987. 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