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SPECIES:  Castilleja sessiliflora
Downy paintedcup. Photo used with permission of


SPECIES: Castilleja sessiliflora
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Walsh, Roberta A. 1993. Castilleja sessiliflora. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: [].
ABBREVIATION : CASSES SYNONYMS : NO-ENTRY SCS PLANT CODE : CASE5 COMMON NAMES : downy paintedcup downy paintbrush Indian paintbrush downy painted-cup downy yellow painted cup yellow Indian paintbrush largeflower Indianpaintbrush TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name of downy paintedcup is Castilleja sessiliflora Pursh [1,11,14]. It is a member of the figwort family (Scrophulariaceae). There are no recognized subspecies, varieties, or forms. LIFE FORM : Forb FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : See OTHER STATUS OTHER STATUS : Downy paintedcup is listed as extirpated in Missouri [25].


SPECIES: Castilleja sessiliflora
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Downy paintedcup occurs in the Great Plains from southern Canada south to western Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and northern Mexico [1,14,17]. It also occurs on the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains from Montana south to Colorado. There are disjunct populations in northern Illinois, northwestern Missouri, and northwestern Montana [3,4,5,6,11,15,24]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES31 Shinnery FRES32 Texas savanna FRES33 Southwestern shrubsteppe FRES38 Plains grasslands FRES39 Prairie STATES : AZ CO IL KS MO MT NE NM ND OK SD TX WI WY MB SK MEXICO BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 7 Lower Basin and Range 8 Northern Rocky Mountains 10 Wyoming Basin 13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont 14 Great Plains 15 Black Hills Uplift 16 Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K058 Grama - tobosa shrubsteppe K059 Trans-Pecos shrub savanna K060 Mesquite savanna K064 Grama - needlegrass - wheatgrass K065 Grama - buffalograss K066 Wheatgrass - needlegrass K067 Wheatgrass - bluestem - needlegrass K068 Wheatgrass - grama - buffalograss K069 Bluestem - grama prairie K071 Shinnery K074 Bluestem prairie K075 Nebraska Sandhills prairie K082 Mosaic of K074 and K100 SAF COVER TYPES : 67 Mohrs ("shin") oak 68 Mesquite SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : NO-ENTRY


SPECIES: Castilleja sessiliflora
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : There is no information available regarding animal use of downy paintedcup. Castilleja spp. are generally poor forage, but in South Dakota they provide substantial amounts of feed for sheep, deer, and elk [17]. In Utah, Castilleja species were classed as desirable based on use by livestock [26]. They are a minor part of the diet of Rocky Mountain elk [20]. Castilleja species were rated lowest in forage preference for grizzly bear in the northern Rocky Mountains [22]. In Idaho sage grouse chicks eat the flowers and fruits of Castilleja angustifolia [13]. PALATABILITY : NO-ENTRY NUTRITIONAL VALUE : NO-ENTRY COVER VALUE : NO-ENTRY VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : Downy paintedcup seeds were planted in a prairie restoration project in Wisconsin, but did not establish [30]. OTHER USES AND VALUES : NO-ENTRY OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : NO-ENTRY


SPECIES: Castilleja sessiliflora
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Downy paintedcup is a native, hemiparasitic, perennial forb [1,14]. It has one to several leafy, simple stems from 3.5 to 14 inches (9-35 cm) tall. It is decumbent at the base, and has a woody root crown [14]. The fruit is a capsule [1,14]. Castilleja species have an average root depth of 11 inches (28 cm), with a range of 10 to 12 inches (25-30 cm) [8]. In Wisconsin, downy paintedcup is obligately hemiparastic on eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) and oldfield juniper (J. communis var. depressa) [33]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Hemicryptophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Downy paintedcup regenerates vegetatively by sprouting each year from the root crown. It also regenerates sexually. In Wisconsin, pollination was accomplished exclusively by bumblebee queens of one species (Bombus fervidus). Morphology of the flowers excluded all other insects [33]. Greens and Curtis [15] reported a seed germination rate increase from 0 percent to 3 percent with 2 months of cold stratification in a greenhouse. Seeds were not scarified or otherwise treated. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Downy paintedcup grows throughout its range on dry plains and hills [11,14,17]. Its elevational range is as follows [3,23,29,33]: State Elevation (feet) Elevation (m) Arizona 3,960-5,610 1,200-1,700 North Dakota 1,740 527 South Dakota 3,620-5,030 1,097-1,524 Wisconsin 900 273 In Missouri and Nebraska downy paintedcup occurs on dry, wind-deposited, fine sandy-loam soils [16,18]. In North Dakota, South Dakota, and Nebraska, downy paintedcup occurs in a dry-continental climate with hot summers. More than half the annual precipitation occurs during summer months, but uneven annual amount and distribution, as well as drought, are common [3,12,18,29]. In Arizona, more than half the scant precipitation occurs from July to October [23]. In Arizona, Nebraska, and Wisconsin, downy paintedcup occurs on soils with limestone substrate [18,23,33]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : NO-ENTRY SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : In central North Dakota temperature appears to be more important than precipitation in influencing the phenology of downy paintedcup. Over a 6-year period, the earliest yearly first bloom varied from May 18 to June 13. The median date of full flowering was June 9 [3]. In southwestern North Dakota the average date of earliest bloom was May 18. Growth started from the root crown in April, and 8 percent of final height was achieved in that month. By the end of May 98 percent of final height was achieved, with growth ending in June [12,14]. In southern Wisconsin flowering occurs from early May through mid-June [33].


SPECIES: Castilleja sessiliflora
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Information regarding downy paintedcup fire ecology is sparse. Downy paintedcup grows each year from a woody root crown, which may allow for regeneration after fire [14]. FIRE REGIMES : Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find Fire Regimes". POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Caudex, growing points in soil Secondary colonizer - off-site seed


SPECIES: Castilleja sessiliflora
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Castilleja species were moderately damaged by prescribed fire in Utah [26]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Seedlings of an undetermined Castilleja species were secondary colonizers following natural fire in Arizona. It was not known if the seeds were on the site before the fire or were imported afterward [28]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : NO-ENTRY

References for species: Castilleja sessiliflora

1. Bare, Janet E. 1979. Wildflowers and weeds of Kansas. Lawrence, KS: The Regents Press of Kansas. 509 p. [3801]
2. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434]
3. Callow, J. Michael; Kantrud, Harold A.; Higgins, Kenneth F. 1992. First flowering dates and flowering periods of prairie plants at Woodworth, North Dakota. Prairie Naturalist. 24(2): 57-64. [20450]
4. Dorn, Robert D. 1977. Flora of the Black Hills. [Place of publication unknown]: Robert D. Dorn and Jane L. Dorn. 377 p. [820]
5. Dorn, Robert D. 1984. Vascular plants of Montana. Cheyenne, WY: Mountain West Publishing. 276 p. [819]
6. Dorn, Robert D. 1988. Vascular plants of Wyoming. Cheyenne, WY: Mountain West Publishing. 340 p. [6129]
7. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905]
8. Foxx, Teralene S.; Tierney, Gail D. 1987. Rooting patterns in the pinyon-juniper woodland. In: Everett, Richard L., compiler. Proceedings--pinyon-juniper conference; 1986 January 13-16; Reno, NV. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-215. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 69-79. [4790]
9. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998]
10. Gartner, F. Robert. 1975. Final Report: Wind Cave National Park grassland ecology. Unpublished paper on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station Intermountain Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT: 29 p. [3869]
11. Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New York Botanical Garden. 910 p. [20329]
12. Goetz, Harold. 1963. Growth and development of native range plants in the mixed grass prairie of western North Dakota. Fargo, ND: North Dakota State University. 141 p. Thesis. [5661]
13. Gray, Gene Mack. 1967. An ecological study of sage grouse broods with reference to nesting, movements, food habits, and sagebrush strip spraying in the Medicine Lodge drainage, Clark County, Idaho. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho. 200 p. Thesis. [5894]
14. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
15. Greene, H. C.; Curtis, J. T. 1950. Germination studies of Wisconsin prairie plants. The American Midland Naturalist. 43(1): 186-194. [4086]
16. Iffrig, Greg F. 1983. Distribution and ecology of loess hill prairies in Atchison and Holt Counties in northwest Missouri. In: Kucera, Clair L., ed. Proceedings, 7th North American prairie conference; 1980 August 4-6; Springfield, MO. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri: 129-133. [3214]
17. Johnson, James R.; Nichols, James T. 1970. Plants of South Dakota grasslands: A photographic study. Bull. 566. Brookings, SD: South Dakota State University, Agricultural Experiment Station. 163 p. [18500]
18. Kaul, Robert P.; Keeler, Kathleen H. 1980. Effects of grazing and juniper-canopy closure on the prairie flora in Nebraska high-plains canyons. In: Kucera, Clair L., ed. Proceedings, 7th North American prairie conference; 1980 August 4-6; Springfield, MO. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri: 95-105. [2923]
19. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384]
20. Kufeld, Roland C. 1973. Foods eaten by the Rocky Mountain elk. Journal of Range Management. 26(2): 106-113. [1385]
21. Lockwood, Mark. 1992. Seed coat morphology of Castilleja from Texas. Texas Journal of Science. 44(2): 223-232. [20245]
22. Mace, Richard D.; Bissell, Gael N. 1986. Grizzly bear food resources in the flood plains and avalanche chutes of the Bob Marshall Wilderness, Montana. In: Contreras, Glen P.; Evans, Keith E., compilers. Proceedings--grizzly bear habitat symposium; 1985 April 30 - May 2; Missoula, MT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-207. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 78-91. [10812]
23. McLaughlin, Steven P.; Bowers, Janice E. 1990. A floristic analysis and checklist for the northern Santa Rita Mountains, Pima Co., Arizona. The Southwestern Naturalist. 35(1): 61-75. [11113]
24. Mohlenbrock, Robert H. 1986. (Revised edition). Guide to the vascular flora of Illinois. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. 507 p. [17383]
25. Missouri Department of Conservation. 1998. Missouri species of conservation concern checklist: June 1998. St. Louis, MO: Missouri Department of Conservation. 29 p. [29424]
26. Ralphs, Michael H.; Schen, David C.; Busby, Fee. 1975. Prescribed burning--effective control of sagebrush and open juniper. Utah Science. 36(3): 94-98. [1931]
27. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843]
28. Thomas, Renee L.; Anderson, Roger C. 1993. Influence of topography on stand composition in a midwestern ravine forest. The American Midland Naturalist. 130(1): 1-12. [1742]
29. Schripsema, Janet R. 1978. Ecological changes on pine-grassland burned in spring, late spring and winter. Rapid City, SD: South Dakota State University. 99 p. Thesis. [2092]
30. Sperry, Theodore M. 1983. Analysis of the University of Wisconsin-Madison prairie restoration project. In: Brewer, Richard, ed. Proceedings, 8th North American prairie conference; 1982 August 1-4; Kalamazoo, MI. Kalamazoo, MI: Western Michigan University, Department of Biology: 140-147. [3130]
31. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 10 p. [20090]
32. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. [11573]
33. Crosswhite, Frank S.; Crosswhite, Carol D. 1970. Pollination of Castilleja sessiliflora in southern Wisconsin. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 97(2): 100-105. [21294]

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