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Little spikemoss. Image by Dave Powell, USDA Forest Service,



SPECIES: Selaginella densa
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Crane, M. F. 1990. Selaginella densa. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: []. Revisions: On 5 April 2018, the common name of this species was changed in FEIS from: little spikemoss to: lesser spikemoss. Images were also added. ABBREVIATION : SELDEN SYNONYMS : Selaginella rubestris var. densa Selaginella scopulorum Selaginella engelmannii Selaginella engelmannii var. scopulorum Selaginella engelmannii var. standleyi Selaginella standleyi NRCS PLANT CODE : SEDE2 SEDED SEDES SEDES2 COMMON NAMES : lesser spikemoss little clubmoss little spikemoss prairie spikemoss Rocky Mountain selaginella spikemoss TAXONOMY : The scientific name of lesser spikemoss is Selaginella densa Rydb. (Selaginellaceae). There are three varieties of lesser spikemoss [31]: Selaginella densa var. densa, lesser spikemoss Selaginella densa var. scopulorum (Maxon) Tryon, Rocky Mountain spikemoss Selaginella densa var. standleyi (Maxon) Tryon, Standley's spikemoss LIFE FORM : Fern Ally FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY


SPECIES: Selaginella densa
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : The range of lesser spikemoss extends south from the Alaska panhandle to northwest California and east into Manitoba and the Dakotas. It is common on the Great Plains and in the Rocky Mountains it grows as far south as eastern Utah and Arizona, New Mexico and Trans-Pecos Texas [13,27].
Distribution of lesser spikemoss. Map courtesy of USDA, NRCS. 2018. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC [56] [2018, April 4].
The distributions of the varieties of lesser spikemoss are as
follows [13,26,27,42]:

Selaginella densa. var. densa is the characteristic variety found on the 
northern Great Plains.  It may occasionally extend into western Montana, southwest
Alberta and southeast British Columbia.  Further south it is found in
the mountains of Colorado and the LaSal Mountains of Utah.

Selaginella densa var. scopulorum is the common  variety in the mountains of the
Northern Rocky Mountain Region through the LaSal and Uinta mountains of
eastern Utah to west Texas.  It is also found from British Columbia to
northern California.  It is less common in the mountains of Colorado.

Selaginella densa var. standleyi is uncommon and found only above timberline in the
northern Rocky Mountains.

   FRES10  White - red - jack pine
   FRES20  Douglas-fir
   FRES21  Ponderosa pine
   FRES23  Fir - spruce
   FRES26  Lodgepole pine
   FRES29  Sagebrush
   FRES30  Desert shrub
   FRES34  Chaparral - mountain shrub
   FRES35  Pinyon - juniper
   FRES36  Mountain grasslands
   FRES38  Plains grasslands
   FRES39  Prairie
   FRES40  Desert grasslands
   FRES44  Alpine

     AZ  CA  CO  KS  MT  NE  NM  ND  OK  OR
     SD  UT  WA  WY  AB  BC  MB  SK

    1  Northern Pacific Border
    2  Cascade Mountains
    4  Sierra Mountains
    5  Columbia Plateau
    8  Northern Rocky Mountains
    9  Middle Rocky Mountains
   10  Wyoming Basin
   11  Southern Rocky Mountains
   12  Colorado Plateau
   13  Rocky Mountain Piedmont
   14  Great Plains
   15  Black Hills Uplift
   16  Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands

   K007  Red fir forest
   K008  Lodgepole pine - subalpine forest
   K011  Western ponderosa forest
   K012  Douglas-fir forest
   K015  Western spruce - fir forest
   K016  Eastern ponderosa forest
   K017  Black Hills pine forest
   K018  Pine - Douglas-fir forest
   K019  Arizona pine forest
   K020  Spruce - fir - Douglas-fir forest
   K021  Southwestern spruce - fir forest
   K023  Juniper - pinyon woodland
   K037  Mountain mahogany - oak scrub
   K038  Great Basin sagebrush
   K039  Blackbrush
   K040  Saltbush - greasewood
   K051  Wheatgrass - bluegrass
   K052  Alpine meadows and barren
   K055  Sagebrush steppe
   K056  Wheatgrass - needlegrass shrubsteppe
   K057  Galleta - three-awn shrubsteppe
   K063  Foothills prairie
   K064  Grama - needlegrass - wheatgrass
   K065  Grama - buffalograss
   K066  Wheatgrass - needlegrass
   K067  Wheatgrass - bluestem - needlegrass
   K070  Sandsage - bluestem prairie
   K095  Great Lakes pine forest

     1  Jack pine
   205  Mountain hemlock
   206  Engelmann spruce - subalpine fir
   207  Red fir
   208  Whitebark pine
   209  Bristlecone pine
   210  Interior Douglas-fir
   218  Lodgepole pine
   219  Limber pine
   220  Rocky Mountain juniper
   237  Interior ponderosa pine
   238  Western juniper
   239  Pinyon - juniper


In the Great Plains grasslands of southern Canada and the northern
United States, lesser spikemoss can be a dominant in three of the five
major grass associations: the short-grass prairie, mixed prairie and
fescue (Festuca scabrella) prairie [7,9].  At higher elevations in
Glacier Park, it codominates with Idaho fescue (F. idahoensis) in a
climax grassland association [48].  In the Custer National Forest of
Montana, North and South Dakota and the Theodore Roosevelt National Park
of North Dakota, lesser spikemoss is rare outside of the needle-and-thread grass 
(Hesperostipa comata)/threadleaf sedge (Carex filifolia) habitat
type where it is an important species [24,25].  Published classification
schemes listing lesser spikemoss as an indicator species or a dominant
part of vegetation in plant associations (pas) are presented below:

Area                    Classification        Authority

Region 2: CO,NE,KS,     general veg. pas      Johnston 1987


SPECIES: Selaginella densa
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Lesser spikemoss is a minor part of elk diets but is not a valuable elk browse [36]. During a Montana study domestic animals were never observed grazing on lesser spikemoss [57]. Bighorn sheep may eat some spikemoss (Selaginella spp.) in New Mexico [40]. PALATABILITY : The degree of use shown by livestock and wildlife species for lesser spikemoss (var. densa) in several western states is rated as follows [16]: UT WY MT ND Cattle poor poor poor poor Sheep poor poor poor poor Horses poor poor poor poor Elk fair poor poor ---- Mule deer fair poor poor fair White-tailed deer ---- poor ---- fair Antelope fair poor poor fair Upland game birds fair fair ---- poor Waterfowl fair ---- ---- ---- Small nongame birds fair ---- ---- ---- Small Mammals fair fair ---- ---- NUTRITIONAL VALUE : The energy and protein value of lesser spikemoss forage is poor [16]. Aboveground parts of lesser spikemoss have a high ash content (19.7%). Most of this is silica which comprises about 16.5 percent of plant dry weight. Other results of this analysis are given below [59]: Percent of dry weight of aboveground portions of plant Calcium 0.20 Potassium 0.30 Iron 0.038 Zinc 0.023 Sodium 0.29 Phosphorus 0.11 Protein 8.50 COVER VALUE : Lesser spikemoss provides poor cover for small animals [16]. VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : Lesser spikemoss has poor short-term or long-term revegetation potential [16]. It does grow well on gentle and moderate slopes and it has low to moderate erosion control potential. However, its potential biomass production is low and establishment requirements may be exacting [16]. OTHER USES AND VALUES : While lesser spikemoss does not provide forage, it does protect the soil from erosion by wind or water and reduces the effects of tramping [7]. With care, lesser spikemoss can be transplanted into gardens where it is an attractive ground cover that grows on rocks and in other dry situations [34]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : The role of lesser spikemoss in mixed prairie is not well understood, although its influence on other vegetation and the habitat has been thought to be slight because its requirements for water and nutrients are low [9,10,60]. During light showers, its dense mats and extensive, shallow roots may intercept and soak up all the available water [55,57]. During high intensity storms, the mats of lesser spikemoss act to increase infiltration and decrease runoff and surface erosion [57]. Its shallow root system also limits spikemoss growth to periods of the year when moisture is available at shallow depths [59]. Grazing effects: The effect of grazing on lesser spikemoss seems to be confounded by drought. In Canadian and Montana mixed prairie, lesser spikemoss is able to increase during periods of drought [10,18,58]. Also, lesser spikemoss increases when protected from grazing and decreases with grazing due to trampling of grazing animals [10]. Lesser spikemoss is relatively weakly rooted and easily damaged by trampling [37]. Decreases in response to grazing may also be explained by the exposure and drying of the surface soil when cover is removed by grazing [18]. In the short-grass prairie of southeastern Alberta and southwestern Saskatchewan, grasses can easily establish in areas with high cover of lesser spikemoss during years with above normal precipitation, but they are rarely able to establish during dry years [7]. A 4-year Montana study done during a period of normal rainfall compared ungrazed mixed prairie with mixed prairie moderately grazed by sheep. Cover of lesser spikemoss decreased from 21 to 17.6 percent on the ungrazed site but it decreased from 15.1 to 7.1 percent on the grazed area [58]. The strong decrease on grazed prairie was attributed to trampling, competition, and manure [57]. A 7-year study of three levels of grazing intensity on the short-grass prairie in southeastern Alberta and southwestern Saskatchewan was done during dry and drought years [9]. Lesser spikemoss increased under all levels of grazing, with the greatest increase in the most lightly grazed area. On ungrazed land lesser spikemoss increased in basal area from 11 percent to 16 percent. Results of a second 10-year study showed the basal area of lesser spikemoss increased by 37 percent on ungrazed and 27 percent on grazed land, while grass cover generally decreased. Looking at total vegetation cover the authors concluded that "climate rather than moderate grazing use was the principal factor affecting plant cover" between 1928 and 1939. During a third 5-year study, lesser spikemoss increased more under a medium level of grazing than under severe grazing intensity [9]. Lesser spikemoss increases more under rotational grazing than under continuous grazing [9,65]. A 3-year North Dakota mixed prairie study compared exclosures established 38 to 41 years previously with cattle-grazed range. Lesser spikemoss cover did not vary significantly despite major differences in species composition of grasses and silver sagebrush (Artemisia cana) [5,6]. Site differences were more important than grazing pressure [6]. Ross and Hunter [50] list spikemoss as increasing under grazing pressure in Montana. However, lesser spikemoss increases very slowly when taller, competing vegetation is partly or wholly removed [52]. Treatment with fertilizer: The primary effect of manure or fertilizer applications is to increase the competitiveness of taller grasses, thus decreasing lesser spikemoss [18]. However, in the northern plains response depends upon precipitation [54]. There is no evidence that nitrogen application alone kills lesser spikemoss [52]. When fertilizers containing nitrogen and phosphorus were added to grassland plots in each of 2 successive years, the cover of live lesser spikemoss decreased significantly. It was not determined whether this was due to the nutrients themselves or because of increased competition from other vegetation [57]. Manuring alone increased all plant cover the first season of a Montana study, but lesser spikemoss was subordinated to the more vigorous native grasses and decreased the second season [18]. After more than 30 years with normal weather, lesser spikemoss was still reduced in plots treated by annual applications of manure for 1 to 11 years [19]. Mulching, with or without added fertilizer, can nearly eliminate lesser spikemoss [66]. Mechanical treatment: Mechanical treatments reduced lesser spikemoss cover between 25 and 70 percent in northern Montana mixed prairie [52]. The effects of various combinations of manure treatment, disking, and harrowing over a 10-year period along with seeding of crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum) and yellow sweetclover (Melilotus officinalis) have been studied [18,19]. Most treatments resulted in long-term decreases in lesser spikemoss, and combination treatments seemed most successful. When the treated area was resurveyed over 30 years later, lesser spikemoss cover was still so decreased that researchers concluded that lesser spikemoss does not easily reestablish on northern mixed prairie following mechanical treatment [19]. Lesser spikemoss cover and the cover of either other vegetation or litter were significantly and negatively correlated [19]. Chemical control: The most effective chemicals for control of lesser spikemoss while increasing the yield of desirable grasses are AMS (ammate) and atrazine [59]. Spring treatment is most effective. Monuron, paraquat, and bromacil control lesser spikemoss but also reduce the yield of or kill other vegetation [59]. Further range tests indicate that ammate, atrazine, and monuron are the best treatments. Their effectiveness is increased with the use of a surfactant [52].


SPECIES: Selaginella densa
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Description: Lesser spikemoss is an evergreen, nonflowering herb that forms dense, cushionlike mats which are seldom more than 1 inch (2.5 cm) in height [10,57]. The short, leafy, compactly branched stems lie along the soil surface and may be 4 inches (1 dm) across [27]. The simple, awn-tipped leaves are very small, up to about 0.1 inch (2.5 mm) long and 0.02 inch (0.5 mm) wide, and arranged in a relatively dense spiral along the stem. There is usually a single, unbranched vein. The leaves underneath the stem are longer than leaves on top along the same part of the stem [42]. Lesser spikemoss has true roots which are very fine (0.008 inch or 0.2 mm in diameter) and minutely branched. They form a tangled mass and may comprise 86 percent of the plant dry matter [59]. Most roots occur within 0.78 to 2.0 inches (2-5 cm) of the soil surface [12]. Drought Resistance: Lesser spikemoss is very resistant to drought if the roots are not disturbed. In the laboratory, clumps allowed to desiccate for 6 and 33 months were then revived simply by watering and later planting [55,61]. The clump that was revived after 33 months developed reproductive cones within 3 months [61]. When all soil was removed from roots, no plants survived after 5 weeks of air drying [59]. Shoots that are dormant during drought have their leaves closely appressed to the stem and are a dull grayish-green instead of the ash-gray of dead shoots [61]. Young plants are equally drought resistant. On a site near Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Webster and Steeves [61] found over 50 locations where sporelings had survived periods of drought. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Chamaephyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : The spikemoss life cycle differs from that of flowering plants. At branch ends, four-angled "cones" or strobili are formed. Each has two types of spore-bearing structures, microsporangia and megasporangia, in the leaf axils, with megasporangia located below the microsporangia [61]. Microspores are released passively to fall through the strobili to the ground [32]. At maturity they will release microscopic, flagellated sperm cells. The sperm require water to swim to the egg cell which develops from cells of the megasporangia. Where fertilization occurs is not known [52]. Tissue surrounding the fertilized egg may carry on photosynthesis as well as provide stored food for the developing embryo. This entire structure may be shed or held in the leaf axils of the strobili while the embryo develops. The necessity of water for sexual reproduction restricts the habitat of spikemosses [15], and young plants are not often reported [18,52]. As lesser spikemoss clumps grow the centers die, leaving a ring of live material surrounding a dead core [59]. Under range conditions lateral growth was observed to be less than 0.4 inch (1 cm) a year, making vegetative spreading a slow process [18,59]. During another field study growth of less than 0.2 inch (5 mm) in 5 seasons was observed [52]. Fragmentation might be another means of vegetative reproduction and dispersal [18], although stems of lesser spikemoss do not have a natural tendency to fragment when dry [55]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Lesser spikemoss is most often found on dry shallow soils that are gravelly or rocky or have gravelly or stony subsoils [57]. It is most common in grasslands, alpine tundra, and high subalpine communities which occupy dry, snow-free ridges. Lesser spikemoss is an extremely stress-tolerant species and can survive in cold alpine regions with a short growing season, drought, and summer frosts [62]. Lesser spikemoss is not common in forests but can be found in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) with ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) or lodgepole pine (P. contorta), Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa), or aspen (Populus tremuloides) communities [33,44]. Lesser spikemoss also grows in pinyon (Pinus edulis)-juniper (Juniperus spp.), sagebrush (Artemisia spp.), and krummholz communities [63]. In Jackson Hole, Wyoming the big sagebrush (A. tridentata) community has abundant lesser spikemoss [47]. In northern Montana aspen grove and grassland communities, it is found primarily with Hood's phlox (Phlox hoodii) on stony moraine summits, outwash fans and coarse gravels [38]. The abundance of lesser spikemoss in the aspen grove and grassland community decreases to the north in Saskatchewan [11]. Grassland Sites: Lesser spikemoss is most abundant in short-grass prairie. Its basal area may be equal to that of all other herbs and shrubs [7,9]. In mixed prairie, lesser spikemoss is slightly less abundant, occurring with an overall frequency of 74 to 98 percent and cover up to 25 percent [10]. It has much less cover and is not evenly distributed in the fescue prairie [7,11]. In the northern Red River Valley, it dominates with needle-and-thread grass [45]. On sites with standing surface water, lesser spikemoss will be unimportant [64]. However, in Montana, areas where it grows are closer to permanent water than areas where it does not grow [57]. In North Dakota, lesser spikemoss is common on a variety of grassland habitat types except those with extra moisture [64]. Alpine and subalpine sites: In the Washington and British Columbia Cascades, lesser spikemoss is common in herb field, the Bellard alpinesedge (Kobresia myosuroides), and purple reedgrass (Calamagrostis purpurascens) communities on sites that are essentially snow-free during the winter. On such sites it is exposed to high wind, low temperatures, and frequent frosts all winter [20]. On alpine sites in Montana, lesser spikemoss does well where Hooker mountainavens (Dryas octopetala) is dominant [2]. In alpine areas in Utah, it grows in cushion plant communities with alpine avens (Geum rossii) and on dry meadows and alpine turf [37]. On the Colorado Front Range, lesser spikemoss is part of several forest communities, but its greatest abundance is at higher elevations in Bellard alpinesedge meadows or under limber pine (Pinus flexilis) on exposed rocky sites [33,44]. It is well adapted to these and other alpine cushion-plant communities [62]. In contrast, near Schoolroom Glacier in the Teton Range of Wyoming, it is found in a meadow community with kentrophyta milkvetch (Astragalus kentrophyta) [53]. In Alberta it grows under limber pine on the rocky, dry slopes and summits of exposed ridges [41]. In northern California lesser spikemoss (var. scopulorum) grows on open rocky sites in red fir (Abies magnifica) and lodgepole pine forests of Siskiyou County [42]. Parent material: Lesser spikemoss grows in the drier interior of British Columbia except for a disjunct population on dry, well-aerated and warm limestone soils on the Queen Charlotte Islands [49]. In Montana, lesser spikemoss does well on sites with thin, rocky, and unstable soils derived from calcareous parent material [2]. In the Bighorn Mountains of Wyoming, it is present on granitic soils but almost absent on soils derived from sedimentary rock [57]. Soil texture: Lesser spikemoss is common on medium texture soils and sandy loams. It is less common on sandy soils and rare on clay [10,52,57]. In grasslands dominated by bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata) lesser spikemoss is found in areas with shallower, rockier, and less sandy soils than areas without lesser spikemoss [57]. Optimum soil depth for lesser spikemoss (var. densa) is between 10 and 20 inches (25.4-50.8 cm) [16]. Growth of lesser spikemoss (var. densa) on various soils in several western states is ranked as follows [16]: UT WY MT ND Soil texture Gravel good fair fair fair Sand good poor fair fair Sandy loam good good fair fair Loam good good good good Clay loam good good good good clay fair fair fair good dense clay poor poor poor poor Organic soils fair poor poor ---- Acidic soils fair poor poor ---- Saline soils fair poor poor poor Sodic soils ---- poor poor fair Sodic-saline soils poor poor poor poor Elevation: Elevational ranges in some western regions are [16,26,30,42,63]: Minimum Maximum feet meters feet meters Arizona 11,470 3,496 11,470 3,496 California var. scopulorum 5,000 1,524 7,000 2,134 Colorado var. densa 4,000 1,219 12,000 3,658 var. scopulorum 8,000 2,438 12,500 3,810 var. standleyi 9,500 2,896 13,000 3,962 Montana var. scopulorum 6,300 1,920 6,300 1,920 Utah 8,858 2,700 14,107 4,300 Wyoming var. densa 6,000 1,829 10,800 3,292 var. scopulorum 5,600 1,707 10,800 3,292 var. standleyi 5,600 1,707 10,800 3,292 SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : In general, spikemosses (Selaginella spp.) are unable to compete with other plants in relatively moist habitats [55]. They also are not important pioneers. Instead spikemosses are found on open, xeric sites supporting particular plant communities but shift locally within those communities. On such open sites their ability to withstand desiccation allows them to survive and grow well [55]. On alpine sites of Montana's Beartooth Plateau, lesser spikemoss pioneers on the gravel mulch left by rodent disturbance in grassy meadows [29]. Lesser spikemoss (var. scopulorum) is found in alpine areas on unstable soils disturbed by frost and abraded by wind [29]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : In North Dakota spore production begins in June and finishes in July [16]. In Canadian mixed prairie, vegetative growth begins in early April, strobili first appear late in April, and spores mature late in May [10]. In the Colorado alpine, leaves of lesser spikemoss remain green all winter when protected from wind but turn brown and erode where exposed [3]. The cones (strobili) change from green to brown in late May or early June when they are released from snow [3].


SPECIES: Selaginella densa
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Lesser spikemoss would appear to have lesser defense against fire. However, it has been observed to survive on dry rocky hillsides where other vegetation and litter were sparse. On nearby moist areas where prefire vegetation was more dense, it was completely removed [51]. FIRE REGIMES : Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find Fire Regimes". POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : secondary colonizer; off-site spores carried to site after year two


SPECIES: Selaginella densa
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Lesser spikemoss is killed by fire except where it is protected by site conditions [51]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Generally, spikemosses are lacking following recent fire or other major disturbance [55]. In a study of paired stands in mixed grass prairie in Manitoba, lesser spikemoss cover was 14.9 percent in a control plot, 6.2 percent following a single fire and 2.3 percent following two fires [67]. In paired stands in western North Dakota, the frequency of lesser spikemoss was much less following fires that burned from 3 months to 4 years before sampling [17]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Prescribed fire can be used to reduce the cover of lesser spikemoss. Any method of reducing lesser spikemoss would be most successful if done during a cycle of wet years on the mixed prairie, as drought would severely set back the recovery of desirable vegetation [1].

Selaginella densa: References

1. Bailey, Arthur W. 1978. Effects of fire on the mixed prairie vegetation. In: Proceedings: Prairie prescribed burning symposium and workshop; 1978 April 25-28; Jamestown, ND. [Place of publication unknown]: [Publisher unknown]: [5 pages]. On file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. [3598]

2. Bamberg, Samuel A.; Major, Jack. 1968. Ecology of the vegetation and soils associated with calcareous parent materials in three alpine regions of Montana. Ecological Monographs. 38(2): 127-167. [12554]

3. Bell, Katherine L. 1974. Autumn, winter and spring phenology of some Colorado alpine plants. The American Midland Naturalist. 91(2): 460-464. [233]

4. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434]

5. Brand, M. D.; Goetz, H. 1978. Secondary succession of a mixed grass community in southwestern North Dakota. Annual Proceedings of the North Dakota Academy of Science. 32(2): 67-78. [7512]

6. Brand, Michael D.; Goetz, Harold. 1986. Vegetation of exclosures in southwestern North Dakota. Journal of Range Management. 39(5): 434-437. [507]

7. Campbell, J. B.; Lodge, R. W.; Johnston, A.; Smoliak, S. 1962. Range management of grasslands and adjacent parklands in the prairie provinces. Publ. 1133. Ottawa, ON: Canada Department of Agriculture, Research Branch. 32 p. [595]

8. Carroll, S. B.; Bliss, L. C. 1982. Jack pine - lichen woodland on sandy soils in northern Saskatchewan and northeastern Alberta. Canadian Journal of Botany. 60: 2270-2282. [7283]

9. Clarke, S. E.; Tisdale, E. W.; Skoglund, N. A. 1943. The effects of climate and grazing practices on short-grass prairie vegetation in southern Alberta and southwestern Saskatchewan. Technical Bulletin No. 46. Ottawa, Canada: Canadian Dominion, Department of Agriculture. 53 p. [635]

10. Coupland, Robert T. 1950. Ecology of mixed prairie in Canada. Ecological Monographs. 20(4): 271-315. [700]

11. Coupland, Robert T.; Brayshaw, T. Christopher. 1953. The fescue grassland in Saskatchewan. Ecology. 34(2): 386-405. [701]

12. Coupland, Robert T.; Johnson, R. E. 1965. Rooting characteristics of native grassland species of Saskatchewan. Journal of Ecology. 53: 475-507. [702]

13. Cronquist, Arthur; Holmgren, Arthur H.; Holmgren, Noel H.; Reveal, James L. 1972. Intermountain flora: Vascular plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A. Vol. 1. New York: Hafner Publishing Company, Inc. 270 p. [717]

14. Daubenmire, Rexford. 1978. Plant geography--with special reference to North America. Physiological Ecology. New York: Academic Press. 338 p. [8949]

15. Bold, H. C.; Alexopoulos, C. J.; Delevoryas, T. 1980. Morphology of plants and fungi. New York: Harper and Row. 819 p. [21159]

16. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806]

17. Dix, Ralph L. 1960. The effects of burning on the mulch structure and species composition of grasslands in western North Dakota. Ecology. 41(1): 49-56. [808]

18. Dolan, John J.; Taylor, John E. 1972. Residual effects of range renovation on dense clubmoss and associated vegetation. Journal of Range Management. 25(1): 32-37. [12248]

19. Dolan, John Joseph. 1966. Long-term responses of dense clubmoss (Selaginella densa Rydb.) to range renovation practices in northern Montana. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 83 p. Thesis. [12330]

20. Douglas, George W.; Bliss, L. C. 1977. Alpine and high subalpine plant communities of the North Cascades Range, Washington and British Columbia. Ecological Monographs. 47: 113-150. [9487]

21. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905]

22. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998]

23. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]

24. Hansen, Paul L.; Hoffman, George R. 1988. The vegetation of the Grand River/Cedar River, Sioux, and Ashland Districts of the Custer National Forest: a habitat type classification. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-157. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 68 p. [771]

25. Hansen, Paul L.; Hoffman, George R.; Bjugstad, Ardell J. 1984. The vegetation of Theodore Roosevelt National Park, North Dakota: a habitat type classification. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-113. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 35 p. [1077]

26. Harrington, H. D. 1964. Manual of the plants of Colorado. 2d ed. Chicago: The Swallow Press Inc. 666 p. [6851]

27. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur; Ownbey, Marion. 1969. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest. Part 1: Vascular cryptograms, gymnosperms, and monocotyledons. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 914 p. [1169]

28. Johnston, Barry C. 1987. Plant associations of Region Two: Potential plant communities of Wyoming, South Dakota, Nebraska, Colorado, and Kansas. 4th ed. R2-ECOL-87-2. Lakewood, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region. 429 p. [3519]

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