Index of Species Information
WILDLIFE SPECIES: Procyon lotor
WILDLIFE SPECIES: Procyon lotor
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION :
Tesky, Julie L. 1995. Procyon lotor. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station,
Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available:
COMMON NAMES :
The currently accepted scientific name for the northern raccoon is Procyon lotor
(Linnaeus) . It is a member of the Family Procyonidae [16,30].
North America subspecies of northern raccoon are listed below:
P. l. auspicatus Nelson (Key Vaca raccoon)
P. l. crassidens Hollister
P. l. dickeyi Nelson and Goldman
P. l. elucus Bangs
P. l. fuscipes Mearns
P. l. grinnelli Nelson and Goldman
P. l. hernandezii Wagler
P. l. hirtus Nelson and Goldman
P. l. inesperatus Nelson
P. l. incautus Nelson (Key West raccoon)
P. l. litoreus Nelson and Goldman
P. l. lotor (Linneus)
P. l. marinus Nelson
P. l. maynardi Bangs
P. l. megalodous Lowery
P. l. mexicanus Baird
P. l. pacificus Merriam
P. l. pallidus Merriam
P. l. psora Gray
P. l. pumilus Miller
P. l. shufeldti Nelson and Goldman
P. l. simus Gidley
P. l. solutus Nelson and Goldman
P. l. vancouverensis Nelson and Goldman
P. l. varius Nelson and Goldman
FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS :
OTHER STATUS :
Information on state- and province-level protection status of animals in the
United States and Canada is available at NatureServe, although recent changes
in status may not be included.
WILDLIFE DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE
WILDLIFE SPECIES: Procyon lotor
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION :
Northern raccoons occur across Canada from Nova Scotia to British Columbia,
throughout the conterminous United States except for portions of the
northern Rocky Mountains and Great Basin, and south throughout Mexico
and Central America. Prior to 1950 northern raccoons apparently were absent from
western Wyoming and western Montana. In recent years they have become
common in parts of western Montana but have been seen only rarely in
western Wyoming [6,26,30]. The current distribution of subspecies was
not described in the literature.
FRES10 White-red-jack pine
FRES12 Longleaf-slash pine
FRES13 Loblolly-shortleaf pine
FRES21 Ponderosa pine
FRES22 Western white pine
FRES24 Hemlock-Sitka spruce
FRES26 Lodgepole pine
FRES28 Western hardwoods
FRES30 Desert shrub
FRES32 Texas savanna
FRES33 Southwestern shrubsteppe
FRES34 Chaparral-mountain shrub
FRES36 Mountain grasslands
FRES37 Mountain meadows
FRES38 Plains grasslands
FRES40 Desert grasslands
FRES41 Wet grasslands
FRES42 Annual grasslands
BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS :
1 Northern Pacific Border
2 Cascade Mountains
3 Southern Pacific Border
4 Sierra Mountains
5 Columbia Plateau
6 Upper Basin and Range
7 Lower Basin and Range
8 Northern Rocky Mountains
9 Middle Rocky Mountains
10 Wyoming Basin
11 Southern Rocky Mountains
12 Colorado Plateau
13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont
14 Great Plains
15 Black Hills Uplift
16 Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands
KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS :
Northern raccoons probably occur in most Kuchler plant associations.
SAF COVER TYPES :
Northern raccoons probably occur in most SAF cover types.
SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES :
Northern raccoons probably occur in most SRM (rangeland) cover types.
PLANT COMMUNITIES :
Throughout their range northern raccoons are found in almost any plant community
where water is available. They are most abundant in hardwood swamps,
mangroves (Rhizophora mangle), floodplain forests, and fresh- and
saltwater marshes. They are also common in mesic hardwood stands, in
cultivated and abandoned farmlands, and in suburban residential areas
[6,26,30]. In the prairie provinces of Canada, northern raccoons are commonly
found in quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) parklands . They are
relatively scarce in dry upland woodlands, especially where pines are
mixed with hardwoods, and few are found in southern pine forests .
BIOLOGICAL DATA AND HABITAT REQUIREMENTS
WILDLIFE SPECIES: Procyon lotor
TIMING OF MAJOR LIFE HISTORY EVENTS :
Breeding season - Northern raccoons are polygamous. Throughout most of their
range northern raccoons mate from January to March, with a peak in February. In
the extreme southeastern United States mating typically occurs later
than it does farther north and continues later into the summer. In
South Carolina, Georgia, and Louisiana most northern raccoons mate in March. In
Alabama mating occurs from March to June or later, with the peak in
April. Adult females that fail to become pregnant during their first
estrus in the spring may breed again 2 to 4 months later . Northern raccoons
may breed in their first year or not until their second year .
Yearling females that fail to conceive during their first cycle probably
do not breed until the next year .
Gestation and litter size - Gestation usually lasts from 63 to 65 days,
with reported extremes of 54 and 70 days. Litters of one to eight have
been reported, with mean litter sizes ranging from two to five.
Generally only one litter is produced per year [6,26,30].
Development of young - Northern raccoons begin walking 4 to 6 weeks after birth,
and can generally walk, run, and climb when they are 7 weeks old.
Weaning begins when the young leave the den and begin to forage for
themselves. Most are weaned by the time they are 16 weeks old, but some
may continue to nurse occasionally for several months more. Dispersal
of young from their natal den generally occurs in the year following
their birth; however, some litters may disperse the fall of their first
Social organization - Except for females and young, which tend to move
as a family group, northern raccoons are usually solitary. Several northern raccoons
often den together during extremely cold weather; however, and
individuals may feed together at a concentrated food source. Northern raccoons
pair only during the breeding season .
Activity - Northern raccoons are typically nocturnal. The peak of feeding
activity generally occurs before midnight. Activity rarely begins more
than 1 hour before sunset, but return to the daytime resting site is
occasionally delayed for several hours after sunrise. Where
sub-freezing temperatures and permanent snow cover prevail during the
winter in northern latitudes, northern raccoons typically sleep for several
months during the winter. Snow cover is more important than low
temperatures in initiating dormancy. Later in the winter, however, 1 to
3 days of temperatures above freezing may bring northern raccoons out to forage
even in deep snow. In the southern states northern raccoons are generally active
throughout the winter .
Life span - Most northern raccoons in the wild live less than 5 years. Mean life
spans of 3.1 and 1.8 years have been reported . Northern raccoons in
captivity have lived as long as 13 years .
PREFERRED HABITAT :
Northern raccoons are most abundant near water, especially in bottomland forests
along streams, hardwood swamps, flooded areas around reservoirs,
marshes, and mangrove swamps. Populations are low in southern pine
forests, deserts, and mountains above 6,560 feet (2,000 m). Northern raccoons
tend to avoid large open fields; where they have moved onto the prairies
of the northern United States and southern Canada they favor buildings,
woodlots, and wetlands . A mosaic of small open areas and forested
areas with numerous den trees along streams usually sustains the highest
population densities of northern raccoons .
Home range - There is great variation in the home range sizes reported
for northern raccoons. Most of the home range diameters fall between 0.6 and 1.9
miles (1-3 km); the maximum reported was 4 miles (6.4 km) [4,6,35].
Adult males generally have larger home ranges than adult females, and
may temporarily expand their ranges to visit several females during the
mating period. Females greatly restrict their movements during the
first few weeks after their litters are born, and juveniles occupy their
mother's home range for at least the first few months after leaving the
den. Home ranges of males and females as well as ranges of northern raccoons of
the same sex tend to overlap broadly .
COVER REQUIREMENTS :
Winter dens - The most commonly used winter dens are in hollow trees.
Tree dens may be in any hollow limb or trunk of sufficient size. Den
cavities examined by Stuewer  averaged 11 by 14 inches (29 by 36
cm), and were mostly from 10 to 39 feet (3-12 m) above the ground.
Well-insulated winter den sites may be especially important to northern raccoon
survival in the northern part of their range .
Ground burrows dug by common gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), red
fox (Vulpes vulpes), woodchuck (Marmota monax), striped skunk (Mephitis
mephitis), and American badger (Taxidea taxus) are also used, especially
in areas where hollow trees are scarce. Other winter den sites are in
rock crevices and caves, abandoned buildings, brush piles, and on the
ground in swamps under clumps of cedar (Thuja spp.). Common muskrat
(Ondatra zibethicus) houses are used occasionally in marshes where
hollow trees are scarce [6,26,30].
Natal dens - A pregnant female chooses a new den in which to have her
litter. In many areas, hollow trees are the most popular choice.
Underground burrows are also used. Litters may also be raised in rock
crevices, caves and abandoned mine shafts, brush and slash piles,
sawdust piles, common muskrat lodges, wood duck (Aix sponsa) boxes, and
magpie (Pica spp.) nests .
All dens are generally located 220 to 460 feet (67-140 m) from water .
Daytime rest sites - In marshes, swamps, and open fields the most common
resting site is on the ground in herbaceous vegetation. Usually no nest
is prepared, but in saltmarshes northern raccoons build flat platforms of
cordgrass (Spartina spp.) and rush (Juncus spp.) as much as 1 mile (1.6
km) from dry land. Northern raccoons also rest during the day on bare tree
limbs, mashed-down eastern gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) nests,
and in clumps of Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides) [6,21]. Northern raccoons
may change daytime rest sites daily .
FOOD HABITS :
Northern raccoons are omnivorous. They eat carrion, garbage, birds, mammals,
insects, crayfish (Cambarus spp., Astacus spp.), mussels, other
invertebrates, a wide variety of grains and other fruits, and other
plant materials. They are selective when food is abundant but eat
whatever is available when food is scarce [6,26,30].
Wild cherries (Prunus spp.), apples (Malus spp.), persimmons (Diospyros
spp.), and grapes (Vitis spp.) and other berries of all kinds are eaten
whenever they are available. Cultivated fruits such as peaches (P.
persica), plums (P. augustifolia), figs (Ficus carica), citrus fruits
(Citrus spp.), and watermelons (Citrullus vulgaris) are taken on
occasion. Nuts, especially acorns, are important seasonal foods.
American beech (Fagus grandifolia), hickory (Carya spp.), and pecan
(Carya illinoensis) nuts, and walnut (Juglans spp.) fruits are also
eaten. Corn is the most important item in the diet in some areas
The most important animal food is crayfish. Insects, especially
grasshoppers, beetles, caterpillars, and true bugs, are also commonly
eaten. Among mammals, rodents are the most commonly eaten, including
gophers (Geomyidae), ground squirrels (Spermophilus spp.), and tree
squirrels (Sciuridae). Young common muskrat are sometimes eaten in the
spring, while adults may be taken from traps or as carrion. Cottontails
(Sylvilagus spp.) and other rabbits (Leporidae), shrews (Soricidae), and
moles (Talpidae) are also commonly eaten. Even jackrabbits (Lepus
spp.), small northern raccoons, and mink (Mustela vison) are occasionally eaten.
Garbage is a common element of the diet of northern raccoons around farms and
Northern raccoons sometimes eat passerine birds (Passeriformes), woodpeckers
(Picidae), ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), and northern
bobwhite (Colinus virginianus). Occasionally they also take ducks
(Antidae) and American coots (Fulica americana). Waterfowl are most
often taken as cripples or carrion during the hunting season. Northern raccoons
also eat bird eggs, including those of ring-necked pheasant, northern
bobwhite, wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), ducks, and shorebirds
Turtles and especially their eggs are eaten in some areas. Fishes are
often taken in small numbers, and may temporarily become important food
items when they are easily caught in drying pools .
Despite the great variety of foods eaten, northern raccoons tend to follow a
general pattern of seasonal diet changes. Only in the spring do most
northern raccoons eat more animal than plant food. Crayfish are the most
important food at this time, followed by insects and small vertebrates.
Acorns are also an important food early in the spring before other foods
are available .
During the summer northern raccoons in most habitats primarily eat fruits. The
most important animal foods are crayfish, followed by insects and small
vertebrates [6,33]. In the fall plants, especially fruits, continue to
be more important than animals in the northern raccoon diet. Acorns become the
most important food in the winter .
Northern raccoon predators include mountain lions (Felis concolor), bobcats (Lynx
rufus), gray wolves (Canis lupus), red foxes, coyotes (C. latrans),
fishers (Martes pennanti), and owls (Strigiformes) . Humans hunt
and trap northern raccoons .
MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS :
Habitat management - To enhance and maintain habitat quality for
northern raccoons, managers should protect small woodlands in agricultural areas
from severe fire, harvest, and grazing. Wild fruits should be
encouraged, and mast producing trees (especially oaks and American
beech) should be preserved. Streams, swamps, marshes, and beaver
(Castor canadensis) colonies should be protected from destruction and
pollution, and ponds and marshes should be constructed near woodlands.
Den trees and potential den trees should be given special protection.
Stuewer  recommended leaving at least one, preferably two den trees
per 15 to 20 acres (6-8 ha) and within 0.25 mile (0.4 km) of a permanent
water supply. Where natural dens are scarce, artificial den boxes
should be set up in woodlands near water . Information regarding
artificial dens for northern raccoons is available in Stuewer .
Wilson  discussed the following recommendations for improving
woodland areas for northern raccoons in North Carolina: (1) cut no hollow trees
during logging; (2) install artificial dens if den trees are lacking;
(3) manage woodlands for oaks, persimmons, and grapes (including
planting fencerows and field borders with persimmons and grapes); and
(4) keep livestock out of the woods.
Northern raccoons have been used as indicator species for monitoring of
environmental zoonosis (a disease communicable from lower animals to
humans under natural conditions) and pollutants. In Florida northern raccoon
serum is routinely examined for evidence of St. Louis encephalitis,
Venezuelan equine encephalitis, and eastern equine encephalomyelitis
The literature on northern raccoon parasites and diseases is voluminous. The
only diseases likely to have a significant impact on northern raccoon populations
are canine distemper and rabies . Distemper is widespread in
northern raccoon populations. Although rabies is common in northern raccoon populations,
it does not appear to spread readily from northern raccoons to other species.
Rabid northern raccoons are often passive and unaggressive. Northern raccoons carry at
least 13 pathogens known to cause disease in humans . Extensive
bibliographies on parasites and diseases of northern raccoons are available in
Halloran  and Sanderson and others .
Northern raccoons are one of the most frequent nuisance animals reported by
wildlife agencies in urban and suburban areas of the United States .
Northern raccoons sometimes cause agricultural damage in orchards, vineyards,
melon patches, corn fields, peanut fields, and chicken yards. They are
sometimes regarded as serious threats to nesting waterfowl. In many
cases, however, northern raccoon damage to crops and game species is
inconsequential, temporary, or very local and often caused by only one
or a few individuals .
Human activities - Hunting, trapping, and automobile road kills are
believed to be the main cause of mortality in many parts of the
northern raccoon's range .
FIRE EFFECTS AND USE
WILDLIFE SPECIES: Procyon lotor
DIRECT FIRE EFFECTS ON ANIMALS :
Northern raccoons are very mobile and probably escape most fires. There are no
reports of direct northern raccoon mortality due to fire [24,28]. Dead insects
and small mammals on fresh burns may be attractive to northern raccoons .
Sunguist  reported on the reactions of northern raccoons to a controlled fire
on the Cedar Creek Natural History Area in east-central Minnesota, which
burned 24 acres (10 ha) of savanna habitat. The burn area was not
heavily utilized by northern raccoons before the fire and even less utilization
occurred after. During the 4 days prior to the fire three of four
northern raccoons visited or traveled through the area to be burned seven times
and spent approximately 2 hours and 15 minutes (total time) in the area.
The northern raccoons did not enter the burn area on the day of the fire although
they rested at different locations within 0.25 to 0.5 mile (0.4-0.8 km)
of it. During the 4 days after the fire all four northern raccoons visited or
traveled through the burned area six times and spent approximately 2
hours and 30 minutes (total time) in it.
HABITAT RELATED FIRE EFFECTS :
Fire that creates a mosaic of burned and unburned areas is probably the
most beneficial to northern raccoons. Lynch  reported that in Gulf Coast
marshes, northern raccoons were favored by "spotty cover burns" (burning the area
when there is from 3 to 5 inches [8-13 cm] of standing water present).
The unburned marsh vegetation provided cover for northern raccoons. Longhurst's
 observations at the Hopland Field Station in California showed that
populations of northern raccoons increased in young to intermediate chaparral and
grassland-chaparral interspersion. Populations showed a downward trend
in both mature chaparral and extensive grasslands.
Periodic fire may also help to maintain northern raccoon food. Insects and the
fruit of various plants are important in the diet of northern raccoons.
Populations of insects may increase or decrease as a result of fire
depending on fire severity, habitat, and number of years after fire.
Effects of late winter controlled burning in broom sedge (Carex
scoparia) habitat on arthropod density and biomass were studied by Hurst
. Results of summer sampling revealed that burning increased both
density and biomass of most insect orders. The apparent cause of the
increases was an increased insect food supply in the form of succulent
plant growth following burning in 4- to 5 -year-old broom sedge habitat.
Oaks, persimmons, plums, cherries, and grapes can be severely reduced by
fire in the short term. However, except for grapes, these woody species
require openings for establishment. Edges of burns along forested areas
may be common regeneration sites for many of these plants. Many
fruiting shrubs such as blackberries (Rubus spp.), blueberries
(Vaccinium spp.), and huckleberries (Vaccinium ssp., Gaylussacia spp.)
do not fruit the year of burning but produce the most fruit 2 to 4 years
after fire pruning [19,24].
FIRE USE :
Areas supporting fire-sensitive mast and fruit producing hardwood
species (e.g., large oaks and persimmon) should be protected from
burning until they have established [19,24].
FIRE REGIMES :
Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this
species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under
"Find Fire Regimes".
References for species: Procyon lotor
1. Allen, A. W. 1987. The relationship between habitat and furbearers. In: Novak, Milan; Baker, J. A.; Obbard, M. E.; Malloch, Bruce, eds. Wild furbearer management and conservation in North America. Ottawa, ON: Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources: 164-179. 
2. Banfield, A. W. F. 1974. The mammals of Canada. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press. 438 p. 
3. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. 
4. Butterfield, Robert T. 1944. Populations, hunting pressure, and movement of Ohio raccoons. Transactions, 9th North American Wildlife Conference. 9: 337-344. 
5. Cagle, Fed R. 1949. Notes on the raccoon, Procyon lotor megalodous Lowery. Journal of Mammalogy. 30(1): 45-47. 
6. Chapman, Joseph A.; Feldhamer, George A., eds. 1982. Wild mammals of North America. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press. 1147 p. 
7. Cushwa, Charles T.; Martin, Robert E. 1969. The status of prescribed burning for wildlife management in the Southeast. Proceedings, 34th North American Wildlife and Natural Resource Conference. 34: 419-428. 
8. De Almeida, M. H. 1987. Nuisance furbearer damage control in urban and suburban areas. In: Novak, Milan; Baker, James A.; Obbard, Martyn E.; Malloch, Bruce, eds. Wild furbearer management and conservation in North America. North Bay, ON: Ontario Trappers Association: [Pages unknown]. 
9. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. 
10. Fritzell, Erik K. 1978. Habitat use by prairie raccoons during the waterfowl breeding season. Journal of Wildlife Management. 42(1): 118-127. 
11. Fritzell, Erik K. 1989. Mammals in prairie wetlands. In: Vander Valk, Arnold, ed. Northern prairie wetlands. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press: 268-301. 
12. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. 
13. Goldman, E. A. 1950. Raccoons of North and Middle America. North America Fauna No. 60. 153 p. 
14. Gray, Marion H.; Arner, Dale H. 1977. The effects of channelization on furbearers and furbearer habitat. Proceedings, Annual Conference of Southeastern Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies. 31: 259-265. 
15. Greenwood, Raymond J. 1981. Foods of prairie raccoons durning the waterfowl nesting season. Journal of Wildlife Management. 45(3): 754-760. 
16. Hall, E. Raymond. 1981. The mammals of North America. 2nd ed. Vol. 2. New York: John Wiley and Sons. 1271 p. 
17. Halloran, P. O. 1955. A bibliography of references to diseases of wild animals and birds. American Veterinarian Research 16. Number 61: Part 2. 465 p. 
18. Hamilton, W. J., Jr. 1951. Warm weather foods of the raccoon in New York State. Journal of Mammalogy. 32(3): 341-344. 
19. Hon, Tip. 1981. Effects of prescribed fire on furbearers in the South. In: Wood, Gene W., ed. Prescribed fire and wildlife in southern forests: Proceedings of a symposium; 1981 April 6-8; Myrtle Beach, SC. Georgetown, SC: Clemson University, Belle W. Baruch Forest Science Institute: 121-128. 
20. Hurst, George A. 1971. The effects of controlled burning on arthropod density and biomass in relation to bobwhite quail brood habitat on a right-of-way. In: Tall Timbers conference on ecological animal control by habitat management: Proceedings. Number 2. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 173-183. 
21. Ivey, R. DeWitt. 1948. The raccoon in the salt marshes of northeastern Florida. Journal of Mammalogy. 29(3): 290-291. 
22. Johnson, A. S. 1970. Biology of the raccoon (Procyon lotor varius Nelson & Goldman) in Alabama. Bulletin 402. Auburn, AL: Auburn University, Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station. 148 p. 
23. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. 
24. Landers, J. Larry. 1987. Prescribed burning for managing wildlife in southeastern pine forests. In: Dickson, James G.; Maughan, O. Eugene, eds. Managing southern forests for wildlife and fish: a proceedings; [Date of conference unknown]; [Location of conference unknown]. Gen. Tech. Rep. SO-65. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station: 19-27. 
25. Longhurst, William M. 1978. Responses of bird and mammal populations to fire in chaparral. California Agriculture. 32(10): 9-12. 
26. Lotze, Joerg-Henner; Anderson, Sydney. 1970. Procyon lotor. Mammalian Species. 119: 1-8. 
27. Lynch, John J. 1941. The place of burning in management of the Gulf Coast wildlife refuges. Journal of Wildlife Management. 5(4): 454-457. 
28. Nichols, R.; Menke, J. 1984. Effects of chaparral shrubland fire on terrestrial wildlife. In: DeVries, Johannes J., ed. Shrublands in California: literature review and research needed for management. Contribution No. 191. Davis, CA: University of California, Water Resources Center: 74-97. 
29. Rivest, Pierre; Bergeron, Jean-Marie. 1981. Density, food habits, and economic importance of raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Quebec agrosystems. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 59: 1755-1762. 
30. Sanderson, G. C. 1987. Raccoon. In: Novak, Milan; Baker, James A.; Obbard, Martyn E.; Malloch, Bruce, eds. Wild furbearer management and conservation in North America. North Bay, ON: Ontario Trappers Association: [Pages unknown]. 
31. Sanderson, G. C.; Mech, L. D.; Schnell, J. H. 1967. A contribution to a bibliography of the raccoon (Procyon lotor). Contract AT (11-1)-1332 (Document COO-1332). [Washington, DC]: U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. 51 p. Mimeo. 
32. Schneider, Dean G.; Mech, L. David; Tester, John R. 1971. Movements of female raccoons and their young as determined by radio-tracking. Animal Behaviour Monograph. 4: 1-43. 
33. Schoonover, Lyle J.; Marshall, William H. 1951. Food habits of the raccoon (Procyon lotor hirtus) in north-central Minnesota. Journal of Mammalogy. 32(4): 422-428. 
34. Shiflet, Thomas N., ed. 1994. Rangeland cover types of the United States. Denver, CO: Society for Range Management. 152 p. 
35. Stuewer, Frederick W. 1943. Raccoons: their habits and management in Michigan. Ecological Monographs. 13(2): 203-257. 
36. Stuewer, Frederick W. 1948. Artificial dens for raccoons. Journal of Wildlife Management. 12(3): 296-301. 
37. Spowart, Richard A.; Samson, Fred B. 1986. Carnivores. In: Cooperrider, Allan Y.; Boyd, Raymond J.; Stuart, Hanson R., eds. Inventory and monitoring of wildlife habitat. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Service Center: 475-496. 
38. Sunquist, Melvin E. 1967. Effect of fire on raccoon behavior. Journal of Mammalogy. 48(4): 673-674. 
39. Van Gelden, Richard George. 1982. Mammals of the National Parks. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. 310 p. 
40. Verner, Jared; Boss, Allan S., tech. coords. 1980. California wildlife and their habitats: western Sierra Nevada. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-37. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 439 p. 
41. Wilson, K. A. 1955. Fur resource of North Carolina. Pittman-Robertson Project W-6-R. Raleigh, NC: North Carolina Wildlife Resource Commission. 59 p. 
42. Wright, Henry A.; Bailey, Arthur W. 1982. Fire ecology: United States and southern Canada. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 501 p. 
43. Yeager, Lee E. 1937. Naturally sustained yield in a farm fur crop in Mississippi. Journal of Wildlife Management. 1(1-2): 28-36. 
44. Benseler, Rolf Wilhelm. 1968. Studies in the reproductive biology of Aesculus californica (Spach) Nutt. Berkeley, CA: University of California. 155 p. Dissertation. 
45. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 2013. Endangered Species Program, [Online]. Available: http://www.fws.gov/endangered/. 
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