|FEIS Home Page|
Photo courtesy of Corel Corp.photo
18 July 2013: DeGraaf, Richard M.; Rudis, Deborah D. 2001 citation corrected to DeGraaf, Richard M.; Yamasaki, Mariko. 2001.
Lynx canadensis canadensis Kerr
Lynx canadensis subsolanus Bangs
Lynx canadensis canadensis occurs in all of the areas listed above except Newfoundland [47,48,106,114], and Lynx canadensis subsolanus occurs in Newfoundland only [47,48,106].
The following lists are speculative and are based on the habitat characteristics and species composition of communities Canada lynxes are known to occupy. There is not conclusive evidence that Canada lynxes occur in all the habitat types listed, and some community types, especially those used rarely, may have been omitted. See Preferred Habitat for more detail.ECOSYSTEMS :
Reproductive success of Canada lynxes fluctuates in an approximate 10-year cyclical manner corresponding with the snowshoe hare cycle. During periods of snowshoe hare abundance, Canada lynx birth rates typically range from 73% to 93% for adults and 33% to 100% for yearlings [80,97]. One to two years following a snowshoe hare decline, the birth rate declines . Adult females may continue to conceive but live births are few or none [80,97]. Of 3,130 adult female Canada lynx carcasses examined in the Yukon, Tanana, and Copper basins of Alaska, the number of Canada lynx placental scars/female decreased from 3.7 to 1.4 scars during a snowshoe hare decline phase .
Gestation period and litter size: Gestation is 60 to 65 days [59,73,91]. Typically, 1 or 2 kittens are born from May to July [58,73,91,96,116]. Yearling and adult lynxes may produce litters 6 weeks earlier than average during periods of snowshoe hare abundance . In western Montana, litter size ranged from 1 to 5 kittens, with an average of 2.75 (n=20) . During periods of snowshoe hare abundance, yearling Canada lynxes may experience increased reproductive rates, and all age classes of females produce larger litters [73,80] that average 4 to 5 kittens .
Development: Canada lynx kittens remain with their mother for 9 to 10 months following birth to nurse and learn how to hunt [23,58,80,97].
Social organization: Canada lynxes are generally solitary [11,28]; however, they may travel in groups consisting of a female with her kittens, 2 adult females with their kittens, or an adult female with an adult male during the breeding season [23,80]. An adult female may remain in contact with her offspring for the female's lifetime .
Habits: Canada lynxes are most active between dusk and dawn [28,91], and hide during the day . They are active year-round .
Dispersal: Dispersal of Canada lynxes is characterized as juveniles dispersing from their natal area or as a response to snowshoe hare declines . Kittens remain with their mother through their first winter, and natal dispersal occurs from late April to early May . Maximum natal dispersal distance for females is 6.0 miles (9.7 km) . Canada lynxes are capable of long-range exploratory movements of up to 600 miles (1,000 km) .
Mortality: Mortality of Canada lynxes is influenced primarily by the relative abundance of snowshoe hares and the amount of trapping by humans. During periods of snowshoe hare scarcity, starvation is the most significant cause of natural mortality for lynxes . One year following a snowshoe hare decline near Whitehorse, Yukon, 90% (n=161) of the Canada lynx population was reduced due to starvation, dispersal, and a collapse in recruitment . Female Canada lynxes may lose their litters shortly after parturition during food shortages . The mean mortality rate of 8 Canada lynx kittens over 2 years in north-central Washington during a period of snowshoe hare scarcity was 88% . Mortality for kittens may increase to 100% one to two years following a snowshoe hare decline [80,97]. During periods of snowshoe hare abundance, natural mortality of juvenile and adult Canada lynxes is low. Juvenile mortality may range from 17% to 50% .
Trapping may be a significant cause of mortality [23,97]. Mortality rates may range from 50% to 90% in areas where trapping of Canada lynxes is allowed [23,80] and 0% to 27% where Canada lynxes are protected . Because yearling Canada lynxes are dependent on their mothers for survival, mortality may increase if their mothers are trapped  (see Trapping).PREFERRED HABITAT:
Canada lynxes are negatively associated with topographic complexity [24,59], and typically occur where low topographic relief creates continuous forests of various ages [58,120]. In Washington, Idaho, and Montana, Canada lynxes occur at elevations above 4,000 feet (1,200 m); in Wyoming, occurrence is above 6,500 feet (1,900 m); and in Colorado and Utah, Canada lynxes are typically found above 8,000 feet (2,400 m) . In a study conducted in Alaska, Canada lynxes preferred hilly terrain 984 feet to 3,527 feet (300-1,075 m) in elevation .
Stand- and landscape-level habitat: Habitat selection by Canada lynxes may be based on the abundance of snowshoe hares . Snowshoe hares are associated with disturbed and subclimax communities adjacent to dense cover [43,58,86,120]. These areas are created mainly on clearcuts and burns . Optimum habitat for snowshoe hares is 15- to 40-year old, second-growth stands containing a dense, brushy understory and a high density of saplings [58,59,120]. See Preferred Habitat for more information about snowshoe hare habitats. Successional changes that favor snowshoe hares may favor Canada lynxes . Canada lynxes prefer 20- to 30-year-old second-growth forests [36,36,58,60,61,80,105,122] for hunting snowshoe hare and dense climax forests for denning and traveling [60,72]. The optimal age of forests used for denning and traveling was not available in the literature as of 2007.
Twenty-seven adult Canada lynxes (12 females and 15 males) preferred dense coniferous/mixedwood and deciduous forests for habitat on the Mackenzie Bison Sanctuary in the Northwest Territories. Dense coniferous forest was characterized as 50% to 100% canopy cover of black spruce or white spruce, jack pine, and tamarack (Larix laricina) or mixed coniferous/deciduous forest. Dense deciduous forest was characterized as dense- to closed-canopy deciduous forest (usually quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides)) or mixed deciduous forest and tall >7 feet (2 m) willow (Salix spp.) .
Vegetation structure and season may influence habitat preference for Canada lynxes. Canada lynxes preferred regenerating habitat (about 30 years following a wildfire) over mature white spruce and alpine-subalpine habitats in Whitehorse, Yukon. Regenerating lodgepole pine stands were preferred over white spruce-willow (Salix spp.) stands of the same age. During winter, Canada lynxes preferred riparian willow (Salix spp.) stands over mature white spruce and alpine areas, probably due to high snowshoe hare numbers. Eighty-six percent (n=103) of radio-collared Canada lynxes were located in regenerating habitat where snowshoe hares were most abundant. For more details about habitat preference based on season, age, and sex of Canada lynxes, see Mowat and Slough .
Foraging habitat: The Canada lynx, a specialist carnivore, prefers foraging in habitats frequented by the snowshoe hare [40,58,59,61]. These habitats include 20- to 30-year-old forests [36,58,60,61,80,105,122] that regenerated after logging, fire, or silvicultural disease [58,60]. Canada lynxes require cover for stalking prey and for security. They may cross forest openings ≤328 feet (100 m) in width, but do not hunt in these areas [58,60].
Canada lynxes and snowshoe hares were most abundant in 20-year-old lodgepole pine stands compared to 43- to 80-year-old and >100-year-old lodgepole pine stands in the Okanogan National Forest, Washington [58,60]. In boreal mixedwood forests of Ontario, preferred habitat for Canada lynxes and snowshoe hares was approximately 20-year-old boreal mixedwood forests containing black spruce, balsam fir, quaking aspen, and paper birch. Canada lynx tracks were rarely found in <20-year-old postharvest stands or mature stands . Canada lynxes and snowshoe hares preferred regenerating mixed conifer habitats dominated by balsam fir, white spruce, black spruce, and paper birch approximately 20 years following logging in Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. The short-term impact (<20 years) of clearcutting on Canada lynxes in the study was uncertain .
Canada lynx distribution is influenced more by prey abundance than by forest structure. Immediately following timber harvest and fire in the North American boreal forest, snowshoe hare and Canada lynx populations are typically very low due to the lack of forage. Populations of both species increase rapidly during the "establishment stage" (see table below for definition) due to ample cover and forage, and decrease over time as shrub density decreases with succession :
Response of Canada lynxes following timber harvest and fire in the North American boreal forest
|Successional stage||Canada lynx's response|
|Initiation stage: 0 to 10 years; trees and canopy cover absent; downed woody material abundant in burns and variable in clearcuts||limited data; Canada lynxes may use both burned and logged stands|
|Establishment stage: 11 to 25 years; shrubby and herbaceous vegetation increase; grasses decrease||variable; abundant Canada lynxes due to abundant snowshoe hares|
|Aggradation stage: 26 to 75 years; tree density and canopy cover increase; shrubby and herbaceous vegetation decrease||differing data; abundant Canada lynxes due to abundant snowshoe hares|
|Old-growth stage: 76 to 125+ years; heterogeneous canopy and stand structure; downed woody material; large trees and snags; developed understory||minimal data; Canada lynxes not abundant|
Denning habitat: Preferred denning habitat for female Canada lynxes is late-seral forests containing woody debris such as logs or upturned stumps for security and thermal cover [18,20,29,42,58,60,119]. In the Pend Oreille and Salmo-Priest areas of northeastern Washington, log density was the most important component in predicting den density for Canada lynxes . On the Okanogan National Forest in Washington, female Canada lynxes utilized 250-year-old subalpine fir-Engelmann spruce or lodgepole pine forests to raise kittens. Den sites typically were 1 to 5 acres (0.4-2.0 ha) in area, within 3.5 miles (5.6 km) of prey habitat, and contained 40 downed logs/150 feet², suspended 1 to 4 feet (0.3-1.2 m) above the ground [58,60]. To predict potential Canada lynx denning microsite availability, Gilbert and Pierce  suggest a simple line intercept method of assessing downed log density.
There is no evidence that climax forests are required for denning and raising kittens in the northeastern United States. Northeastern forests are generally younger, more mesic, diverse, and structurally complex than other geographic regions that Canada lynxes inhabit .
Travel cover: Canada lynxes tend to avoid open areas when traveling [58,60,77,78]. During winter in north-central Washington, Canada lynxes preferred crossing meadows <328 feet (100 m) [58,60]. Favored travel routes for the Canada lynx include ridges and saddles, and cover should be maintained in these areas . Koehler  recommends a tree density of >180 stems/acre and a tree height >6.0 feet (1.8 m), especially where snow depth is >2.0 to 3.0 feet (0.6-0.9 m). Midsuccessional stages may provide travel cover and connectivity within a forested landscape for Canada lynxes when traveling . In western portions of Canada lynx habitat, maintaining travel corridors between populations may help ensure long-term viability of isolated populations [58,60].
Home range and density: Canada lynxes are highly mobile and occupy large home ranges within a variety of habitats . Home range size may vary between 15.5 km² to 221 km² [15,17,23,58,61,80,91] and depends on the sex, age, population density, prey density, and survey method used . Home ranges for males are generally larger than for females [59,97]. Home ranges may overlap, mainly between Canada lynxes of different sexes and ages . Adult Canada lynxes of the same sex are usually hostile to each other and keep exclusive home ranges . The same home range is sometimes maintained over several years . Kittens may remain on their mother's home range for an unknown period of time .
The mean home range size for 5 male Canada lynxes in north-central Washington was 69 km² (SD 28 km²) for males and 39 km² (SD 2 km²) for females. The same home ranges were used during all seasons, and for ≥2 years male home ranges completely overlapped female ranges. The mean annual density of adults and kittens over a 2-year period was 2.6 Canada lynxes/100 km² .
Female and male Canada lynxes in western Montana maintained large home ranges, perhaps due to low snowshoe hare populations :
|Annual and summer home range sizes for female and male Canada lynxes|
|Summer (km²)||Annual (km²)|
|Females (n=3)||18.3 (range, 1.0-32.3)||43.1 (range, 16.1-62.3)|
|Males (n=6)||44.3 (range, 13.0-78.7)||122.0 (range, 47.3-246.1)|
Mean home range size for Canada lynxes in Riding Mountain National Park, Manitoba, was 156 km² for 2 females and 221 km² for 1 male. These were the largest home range sizes reported in the literature as of 2007. The home ranges of the 2 female Canada lynxes overlapped spatially and temporally, whereas the home range of the male did not overlap with that of any other Canada lynxes .
Summer home ranges of female and male Canada lynxes on Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, increased 108% and 73%, respectively, compared to winter home ranges :
|Seasonal home ranges of Canada lynxes on Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, 1978 to 1979|
|Collared Canada lynx||Season||
Home range (km²)
|Maximum diameter (km)|
|Core area||Total area|
|Adult female (n=1)||Winter||6.6||18.6||5.9|
|Adult male (n=1)||Winter||5.3||12.3||5.4|
Densities of Canada lynx in boreal forests are primarily determined by the abundance of snowshoe hares [73,74,75]. The density of Canada lynxes in Alberta increased from 2.1 to 7.5 Canada lynxes/100 km² as snowshoe hare numbers increased . Peak density of Canada lynxes near Whitehorse, Yukon, was 44.9 Canada lynxes/100 km². This may have been due to good Canada lynx habitat (the area burned at unknown severity approximately 40 years prior to the study), low trapping intensity, and a delayed response to decreasing snowshoe hare densities. The lowest density in the study was 2.0 Canada lynxes/100 km², during low snowshoe hare densities . During the low-density phase of the snowshoe hare cycle, Canada lynx density in northern areas of Canada lynx's range is typically 2 to 3 Canada lynxes/100 km² .
On Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, the density of Canada lynxes was approximately 20 Canada lynxes/100 km² .
Population trends: Canada lynxes and snowshoe hares exhibit an approximate 10-year cyclical population cycle in northern portions of their ranges [36,54,63,109]. In southern portions of their ranges, snowshoe hare and Canada lynx populations are not cyclical [58,120,122]. This may be due to greater habitat fragmentation, resulting in lower but more stable snowshoe hare populations, and the presence of predators and competitors that do not occur in northern areas [58,120].
The 10-year population cycle of Canada lynxes occurs in phases, coinciding with the snowshoe hare cycle. The "low population density phase" lasts 3 to 5 years. The "population increase phase" lasts approximately 3 years and is a result of high fecundity, high kitten survival, and low adult mortality. The "peak phase" lasts approximately 2 years, with little population growth. The "crash phase" occurs 1 to 2 years following the crash in the snowshoe hare population, and is due to high natural mortality, a collapse in recruitment, and increased dispersal rates [75,97].
Causes of the approximate10-year population cycle are debated, and may be a result of climate change , fire-return intervals , parasite-host, predator-prey, and/or snowshoe hare-vegetation oscillations . Fox  states that in Canada, the snowshoe hare-Canada lynx oscillation cycle may be caused by forest fires. After reviewing fire history and Canada lynx fur returns for 150 years in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, and Quebec, the approximate 10-year snowshoe hare-Canada lynx cycle exhibited similarity to the fire-return interval cycle, which occurred approximately every 10 years .
Monitoring population trends of Canada lynxes requires conducting winter tracking surveys . Koehler  suggests surveying areas 3 times each winter to minimize survey variability, conducting GIS inventories of potential Canada lynx habitats, and minimizing timber harvesting, forest pests, and road access.FOOD HABITS:
Diversity of Canada lynx prey items increases during the summer and during periods of snowshoe hare scarcity . Prey items may include red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) [52,58,73,100,110], ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus) [16,90,110], great gray owls (Strix nebulosa) , mice (Peromyscus spp.) , voles (Clethrionomys spp. and Microtus spp.) , fishers (Martes pennanti) , red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) [70,101], and moose (Alces alces) and woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) carcasses .
Canada lynxes may prey on ungulates such as woodland caribou calves, deer (Odocoileus spp.) calves, and Dall's sheep (Ovis dalli) lambs, but ungulate dietary importance is insignificant [58,91,95,101].PREDATORS:
There is high gene flow among Canada lynxes despite geographic separation of distances up to 1,926 miles (3,100 km), so management should focus on maintaining connectivity of habitat within the core of the Canada lynx's geographic range [74,92]. Slough and Mowat  recommend a minimum effective size of 500 km² of high-quality habitat for a Canada lynx refugium during years when home range sizes for males and females do not fluctuate widely. Coordinating management across multiple ownerships is needed to prevent fragmentation of Canada lynx habitat. For detailed information about providing appropriate habitat to maintain Canada lynx populations, see the website on Canada lynx conservation and assessment strategy.
Silviculture: In intensively managed forests, even-aged regenerating forest stands should be interspersed with mature forest to provide quality habitat for the Canada lynx [2,53,88]. To produce diverse habitat, stripcutting or blockcutting may benefit Canada lynxes in boreal forests . If maximizing the preharvest mammalian community is a management goal, the rate of successional convergence to mature forest may be increased by doing the following: 1) leave "moderate" amounts of downed woody matter in the harvested area; 2) leave snags and dead wood in close proximity to live trees to form clumps; and 3) leave >30% of mature trees as clumped residuals in harvested areas .
A short-term result of clearcutting is reducing snowshoe hare and Canada lynx densities [36,80]. In the long term, snowshoe hare abundance generally increases in clearcut areas due to an increase in browse plants and cover [36,58,60,61,80,105,122]. Clearcuts ≤15 years old probably have minimal value to Canada lynxes and snowshoe hares  and may not be optimal habitat for either species for 30 years . In Maine, snowshoe hares did not recolonize spruce-fir habitat until 6 to 7 years following clearcutting, and populations peaked 20 to 25 years following clearcutting . Large clearcuts may potentially act as barriers to Canada lynx movement . Parker and others  recommend keeping clearcuts relatively small and maintaining a mosaic of clearcuts with mature forest and uneven-aged forest stands.
Recent trends away from clearcutting to partial harvest in northern Maine may negatively affect densities of snowshoe hares and Canada lynxes due to their preference for even-aged forests that regenerate after clearcutting or fire. More research is needed to examine the effects of specific types of partial harvest on the Canada lynx .
In west-central Alberta, Canada lynxes would likely benefit from short-rotation harvesting of quaking aspen .
Precommercial thinning decreased snowshoe hare abundance in forests dominated by lodgepole pine, subalpine fir, Engelmann spruce, and western larch (Larix occidentalis) in western Montana. This silvicultural practice may lead to an ecologically significant loss of prey available to the Canada lynx. When managing forests for high snowshoe hare abundance, the authors suggest a precommercial thinning method in which 20% of the total stand is retained in uncut 0.62 acre (0.25 ha) patches .
Coarse woody debris: Logs and upturned stumps in mature forests are important denning sites for the Canada lynx [18,19,20,29,42,96,119] (see Preferred Habitat). A lack of suitable den sites may reduce Canada lynx recruitment . Forest thinning and salvage logging reduce the availability of coarse woody debris for denning Canada lynxes. They may also reduce the abundance of some prey species, which could be "detrimental" to Canada lynxes . Snowshoe hares also utilize coarse woody debris for denning .
Trapping: Trapping is a major cause of Canada lynx mortality in some parts of Canada. However, due to high fecundity, especially following periods of increasing snowshoe hare availability, populations of Canada lynxes may increase rapidly .
An important factor in the management of Canada lynx is the vulnerability of family groups to trapping (see Development) . If adult females accompanied by kittens are trapped, orphaned kittens may die of starvation . During periods of prey scarcity, in which kitten survival is low, Canada lynx populations may decrease substantially due to starvation and trapping [15,23,80]. Slough and Mowat  and Parker and others  suggest restricting trapping during early winter to avoid removing adult females from their kittens.Parker and others  suggest flexible harvest regulations. Controlled trapping should be limited to years of high population recruitment to reduce overexploitation. This is crucial where habitat and immigration from unexploited populations is limited . A closed season should be considered during periods of low snowshoe hare densities .
SPECIES: Lynx canadensis
The Canada lynx requires a landscape containing early [31,51,58,60,86] and late-successional  habitats and may be positively or negatively affected by fire [56,86,88,121]. In general, wildlife species that are associated with early successional vegetation may benefit from fuel reduction treatments. Species associated with late-successional habitat with features such as a closed canopy, a dense understory, and/or coarse woody debris may be negatively affected by fuel reduction treatments. The Canada lynx requires both, so the effects of fuel reduction on Canada lynxes may vary with the management history of an area, current habitat condition, landscape setting, and prescribed fire attributes such as size, type, frequency, and season. Canada lynxes may not be affected by fuel reduction on the stand level due to their large home ranges .
Snowshoe hares often abandon fresh burns if cover is sparse and nutritious browse is available elsewhere . Snowshoe hares attain peak populations 5 to 30 years following fire, especially in habitat dominated by quaking aspen and birch (Betula spp.) . In northern latitudes, stands approximately 40 years old may provide optimal conditions for snowshoe hares. In southern latitudes where succession occurs at a quicker rate, 15- to 30-year-old stands may provide the best habitat for snowshoe hares . Little data exist on the use of recent burns by Canada lynxes . Fifteen- to 30-year-old burned areas provide optimal foraging habitat for Canada lynxes in boreal forests [36,37,51,58,60,61,80,96,105,122], but 5- to 50-year-old burned areas may be used [79,86]. In the western United States, fire creates seral landscapes that are often dominated by lodgepole pine, which benefit snowshoe hares and Canada lynxes . Canada lynxes require mature forests for denning and raising kittens; however, no information is currently available about the optimal age forest age for denning habitat. On the Okanogan National Forest in Washington, female Canada lynxes utilized 250-year-old subalpine fir-Engelmann spruce or lodgepole pine forests to raise kittens [58,60] (see Preferred Habitat).
Thirty-five of 39 Canada lynx dens were located in 29- to 36-year-old burned areas near Whitehorse, Yukon. Seventy-two percent of the 301 km² study area had been burned or partially burned prior the study. Details about the severity of the fire were not included. Regenerating trees and shrubs were predominantly lodgepole pine, white spruce, quaking aspen, subalpine fir, and willow (Salix spp.). Of the 35 Canada lynx dens found in burned areas, 33 were located under the deadfall of fire-killed coniferous trees. Four dens were located in unburned areas: 1 was beneath a mature subalpine fir, 2 were beneath willow thickets, and 1 was beneath a mature white spruce blowdown .
In northwestern Montana, Canada lynxes and snowshoe hares were found most often in forest stands on an 80-year-old burn. Twenty-three of 29 radio-telemetry locations for 1 adult male and 1 adult female Canada lynx were in densely stocked stands of young (<80 years old), 100% lodgepole pine stands; 3 locations were in mature (>100-year-old) subalpine fir-Engelmann spruce stands, and 3 locations were in young (<80 years old) Douglas-fir-western larch stringers along stream bottoms .
On the Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, Canada lynxes and snowshoe hares preferred a 25- to 28-year-old burned area to a 6- to 9-year-old burn or a 100- to 115-year-old mature forest. The forest in the 3 study areas consisted of predominantly black spruce with scattered white spruce or tamarack. Most of the 25- to 28-year-old burn (197 km²) was in the midsuccessional stage, but severely burned lowlands were in the shrub-sapling stage. Paper birch and quaking aspen dominated the overstory, and conifer saplings <16 feet (5 m) tall began to shade the understory in areas of dense regeneration. Maximum shrub height was 13.5 feet (4.1 m). Median percent canopy cover was 35%, and most debris piles had collapsed but not yet decayed .
The 6- to 9-year old burn (133 km²) was in the early successional tall shrub-sapling stage. The overstory was dominated by paper birch and quaking aspen saplings 16 feet (5 m) tall. Black spruce and tamarack seedlings were <3 feet (1 m) tall and grew among dwarf birch (Betula glandulosa) and beauverd spirea (Spiraea stevenii). Severely burned areas were in the moss-herb stage. Unburned areas comprised 5.9% of the area. Maximum shrub height was 9.2 feet (2.8 m). Median percent canopy cover was 5%, and leaning and fallen trees created debris piles ≤ 4.9 feet (1.5 m) tall .
Mature, 100- to 150-year-old coniferous forest was dominated by black spruce and tamarack 2 to 8 inches (5-20 cm) DBH. Maximum shrub height was 5.9 feet (1.8 m), and median percent canopy cover was 30%. Despite Canada lynx's preference for midsuccessional, postfire forest, mature forest stands may be important for denning and finding alternative prey items during snowshoe hare scarcity .
Coarse woody debris: Following fire, it is important to leave fire-killed trees to stabilize the soil and contribute to wildlife habitat for the Canada lynx and its prey. If salvage logging is implemented, the following are recommended: 1) strictly limit the removal of dead trees to roaded areas within the urban-wildlife interface; 2) use low-impact logging techniques such as high lead cables to minimize soil damage ; 3) maintain sufficient densities and diameter classes of woody debris for wildlife use; and 4) avoid sensitive sites such as severely burned areas, roadless and riparian areas, and sites with erosive or fragile soil [21,104].
Canada lynxes require coarse woody debris for denning and raising kittens [18,20,29,42,58,60,119] (see Preferred Habitat). Eliminating slash by broadcast burning following timber harvest may have a negative impact on the Canada lynx. Leaving piles of slash in an area may compensate for decreased structural diversity in even-aged monocultures and clearcut areas by providing cover. Slash piles may be most valuable when they are located within or near forested cover .
The following table provides fire-return intervals for plant communities and ecosystems where Canada lynx is important. Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find Fire Regimes".
Fire-return intervals for plant communities with Canada lynx
|Community or Ecosystem||Dominant Species||Fire Return Interval Range (years)|
|grand fir||Abies grandis||35-200 |
|maple-beech||Acer-Fagus spp.||684-1,385 [25,113]|
|sugar maple||Acer saccharum||>1,000 |
|birch||Betula spp.||80-230 |
|tundra ecosystems||Deschampsia caespitosa, Carex bigelowii, Carex macrochaeta, Chamerion latifolium, Festuca altaica, Potentilla nana, Sibbaldia procumbens, Saxifraga spp., Trifolium dasphyllum, Vaccinium vitis-idaea||>100 to 500 [32,112,115]|
|beech-sugar maple||Fagus spp.-Acer saccharum||>1,000 |
|tamarack||Larix laricina||35-200 |
|western larch||Larix occidentalis||25-350 [5,13,27]|
|Great Lakes spruce-fir||Picea-Abies spp.||35 to >200|
|northeastern spruce-fir||Picea-Abies spp.||35-200 |
|Engelmann spruce-subalpine fir||Picea engelmannii-Abies lasiocarpa||35 to >200 |
|black spruce||Picea mariana||35-200|
|conifer bog*||Picea mariana-Larix laricina||35-200|
|red spruce*||Picea rubens||35-200 |
|whitebark pine*||Pinus albicaulis||50-200 [1,3]|
|jack pine||Pinus banksiana||<35 to 200 [25,32]|
|Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine*||Pinus contorta var. latifolia||25-340 [12,13,103]|
|Pacific ponderosa pine*||Pinus ponderosa var. ponderosa||1-47 |
|interior ponderosa pine*||Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum||2-30 [4,9,64]|
|red pine (Great Lakes region)||Pinus resinosa||3-18 (x=3-10) |
|red-white pine* (Great Lakes region)||Pinus resinosa-P. strobus||3-200 [25,49,66]|
|eastern white pine-eastern hemlock||Pinus strobus-Tsuga canadensis||35-200|
|eastern white pine-northern red oak-red maple||Pinus strobus-Quercus rubra-Acer rubrum||35-200 |
|aspen-birch||Populus tremuloides-Betula papyrifera||35-200 [32,113]|
|quaking aspen (west of the Great Plains)||Populus tremuloides||7-120 [4,46,68]|
|Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir*||Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca||25-100 [4,6,7]|
|coast Douglas-fir*||Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii||40-240 [4,69,89]|
|northern red oak||Quercus rubra||10 to <35 |
|western redcedar-western hemlock||Thuja plicata-Tsuga heterophylla||>200 |
|eastern hemlock-yellow birch||Tsuga canadensis-Betula alleghaniensis||100-240 [102,113]|
|eastern hemlock-white pine||Tsuga canadensis-Pinus strobus||x=47 |
|western hemlock-Sitka spruce||Tsuga heterophylla-Picea sitchensis||>200|
|mountain hemlock*||Tsuga mertensiana||35 to >200 |
1. Agee, James K. 1994. Fire and weather disturbances in terrestrial ecosystems of the eastern Cascades. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-320. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 52 p. (Everett, Richard L., assessment team leader; Eastside forest ecosystem health assessment; Hessburg, Paul F., science team leader and tech. ed., Volume III: assessment). 
2. Allen, Arthur W. 1987. The relationship between habitat and furbearers. In: Novak, Milan; Baker, James A.; Obbard, Martyn E.; Malloch, Bruce, eds. Wild furbearer management and conservation in North America. North Bay, ON: Ontario Trappers Association: 164-179. 
3. Arno, Stephen F. 1976. The historical role of fire on the Bitterroot National Forest. Res. Pap. INT-187. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 29 p. 
4. Arno, Stephen F. 2000. Fire in western forest ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 97-120. 
5. Arno, Stephen F.; Fischer, William C. 1995. Larix occidentalis--fire ecology and fire management. In: Schmidt, Wyman C.; McDonald, Kathy J., comps. Ecology and management of Larix forests: a look ahead: Proceedings of an international symposium; 1992 October 5-9; Whitefish, MT. Gen. Tech. Rep. GTR-INT-319. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 130-135. 
6. Arno, Stephen F.; Gruell, George E. 1983. Fire history at the forest-grassland ecotone in southwestern Montana. Journal of Range Management. 36(3): 332-336. 
7. Arno, Stephen F.; Scott, Joe H.; Hartwell, Michael G. 1995. Age-class structure of old growth ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir stands and its relationship to fire history. Res. Pap. INT-RP-481. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 25 p. 
8. Aubry, Keith B.; Hayes, John P.; Biswell, Brian L.; Marcot, Bruce G. 2003. The ecological role of tree-dwelling mammals in western coniferous forests. In: Zabel, C. J.; Anthony, R. G., eds. Mammal community dynamics: management and conservation in the coniferous forests of western North America. New York: Cambridge University Press: 405-443. 
9. Baisan, Christopher H.; Swetnam, Thomas W. 1990. Fire history on a desert mountain range: Rincon Mountain Wilderness, Arizona, U.S.A. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 20: 1559-1569. 
10. Baker, Robert J.; Bradley, Lisa C.; Bradley, Robert D.; Dragoo, Jerry W.; Engstrom, Mark D.; Hoffmann, Robert S.; Jones, Cheri A.; Reid, Fiona; Rice, Dale W.; Jones, Clyde. 2003. Revised checklist of North American mammals north of Mexico, 2003. Occasional Papers No. 229. Lubbock, TX: Museum of Texas Tech University. 23 p. 
11. Banfield, A. W. F. 1974. The mammals of Canada. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press. 438 p. 
12. Barrett, Stephen W. 1993. Fire regimes on the Clearwater and Nez Perce National Forests north-central Idaho. Final Report: Order No. 43-0276-3-0112. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory. Unpublished report on file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 21 p. 
13. Barrett, Stephen W.; Arno, Stephen F.; Key, Carl H. 1991. Fire regimes of western larch - lodgepole pine forests in Glacier National Park, Montana. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 21: 1711-1720. 
14. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. 
15. Berrie, Peter M. 1973. Ecology and status of the lynx in interior Alaska. In: Eaton, Randall L., ed. The world's cats: Vol. 1--Ecology and conservation. Winston, OR: World Wildlife Safari: 4-41. 
16. Boag, D. A.; Sumanik, K. M. 1969. Characteristics of drumming sites selected by ruffed grouse in Alberta. Journal of Wildlife Management. 33(3): 621-628. 
17. Brainerd, Scott M. 1985. Reproductive ecology of bobcat and lynx in western Montana. Missoula, MT: University of Montana. 85 p. Thesis. 
18. Brown, Timothy K. 2002. Creating and maintaining wildlife, insect, and fish habitat structures in dead wood. In: Laudenslayer, William F., Jr.; Shea, Patrick J.; Valentine, Bradley E.; Weatherspoon, C. Phillip; Lisle, Thomas E., tech. coords. Proceedings of the symposium on the ecology and management of dead wood in western forests; 1999 November 2-4; Reno, NV. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-181. Albany, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station: 883-892. 
19. Bull, Evelyn L. 2002. The value of coarse woody debris to vertebrates in the Pacific Northwest. In: Laudenslayer, William F., Jr.; Shea, Patrick J.; Valentine, Bradley E.; Weatherspoon, C. Phillip; Lisle, Thomas E., tech. coords. Proceedings of the symposium on the ecology and management of dead wood in western forests; 1999 November 2-4; Reno, NV. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-181. Albany, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station: 171-178. 
20. Bull, Evelyn L.; Aubry, Keith B.; Wales, Barbara C. 2001. Effects of disturbance on forest carnivores of conservation concern in eastern Oregon and Washington. Northwest Science. 75: 180-184. 
21. Bull, Evelyn L.; Holthausen, Richard S. 1993. Habitat use and management of pileated woodpeckers in northeastern Oregon. Journal of Wildlife Management. 57(2): 335-345. 
22. Bunnell, Fred L.; Houde, Isabelle; Johnston, Barb; Wind, Elke. 2002. How dead trees sustain live organisms in western forests. In: Laudenslayer, William F., Jr.; Shea, Patrick J.; Valentine, Bradley E.; Weatherspoon, C. Phillip; Lisle, Thomas E., tech. coords. Proceedings of the symposium on the ecology and management of dead wood in western forests; 1999 November 2-4; Reno, NV. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-181. Albany, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station: 291-318. 
23. Carbyn, L. N.; Patriquin, D. 1983. Observations on home range sizes, movements and social organization of lynx, Lynx canadensis, in Riding Mountain National Park, Manitoba. The Canadian Field-Naturalist. 97(3): 262-267. 
24. Carroll, Carlos; Noss, Reed F.; Paquet, Paul C. 2001. Carnivores as focal species for conservation planning in the Rocky Mountain region. Ecological Applications. 11(4): 961-980. 
25. Cleland, David T.; Crow, Thomas R.; Saunders, Sari C.; Dickmann, Donald I.; Maclean, Ann L.; Jordan, James K.; Watson, Richard L.; Sloan, Alyssa M.; Brosofske, Kimberley D. 2004. Characterizing historical and modern fire regimes in Michigan (USA): a landscape ecosystem approach. Landscape Ecology. 19: 311-325. 
26. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. 2007. Canadian species at risk, [Online]. COSEWIC: Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (Producer). Available: http://www.cosewic.gc.ca/eng/sct0/rpt/dsp_booklet_e.htm [2007, May 14]. 
27. Davis, Kathleen M. 1980. Fire history of a western larch/Douglas-fir forest type in northwestern Montana. In: Stokes, Marvin A.; Dieterich, John H., tech. coords. Proceedings of the fire history workshop; 1980 October 20-24; Tucson, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-81. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 69-74. 
28. DeGraaf, Richard M.; Yamasaki, Mariko. 2001. New England wildlife: habitat, natural history, and distribution. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England. 467 p. 
29. DeGraaf, Richard M; Shigo, Alex L. 1985. Managing cavity trees for wildlife in the Northeast. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-101. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 21 p. 
30. DellaSala, Dominick A.; Olson, David M.; Barth, Sara E.; Crane, Saundra L.; Primm, Steve A. 1995. Forest health: moving beyond rhetoric to restore healthy landscapes in the inland Northwest. Wildlife Society Bulletin. 23(3): 346-356. 
31. DeVos, Antoon; Matel, S. Eugene. 1952. The status of lynx in Canada, 1920-1952. Journal of Forestry. 50: 742-745. 
32. Duchesne, Luc C.; Hawkes, Brad C. 2000. Fire in northern ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 35-51. 
33. Duncan, James R. 1987. Movement strategies, mortality, and behavior of radio-marked great gray owls in southeastern Manitoba and northern Minnesota. In: Nero, Robert W.; Clark, Richard J.; Knapton, Richard J.; Hamre, R. H., eds. Biology and conservation of northern forest owls: Symposium proceedings; 1987 February 3-7; Winnipeg, MB. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-142. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 101-107. 
34. Dwyer, Patricia M.; Mallory, Frank F.; Pitblado, J. R. 1989. Preliminary assessment of lynx habitat and distribution during cyclic population lows in northern Ontario. Musk-Ox. 37: 129-136. 
35. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. 
36. Fisher, Jason T.; Wilkinson, Lisa. 2005. The response of mammals to forest fire and timber harvest in the North American boreal forest. Mammal Review. 35(1): 51-81. 
37. Foote, M. Joan. 1983. Classification, description, and dynamics of plant communities after fire in the taiga of interior Alaska. Res. Pap. PNW-307. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 108 p. 
38. Fox, John F. 1978. Forest fires and the snowshoe hare--Canada lynx cycle. Oecologia. 31: 349-374. 
39. Frissell, Sidney S., Jr. 1968. A fire chronology for Itasca State Park, Minnesota. Minnesota Forestry Research Notes No. 196. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota. 2 p. 
40. Fuller, Todd K.; DeStefano, Stephen. 2003. Relative importance of early-successional forests and shrubland habitats to mammals in the northeastern United States. Forest Ecology and Management. 185(1-2): 75-79. 
41. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; Lewis, Mont E.; Smith, Dixie R. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. 
42. Gilbert, Brian A.; Pierce, Wade. 2005. Predicting the availability of understory structural features important for Canadian lynx denning habitat on managed lands in northeastern Washington lynx ranges. Western Journal of Applied Forestry. 20(4): 224-227. 
43. Giusti, Gregory A.; Schmidt, Robert H.; Timm, Robert M.; Borrecco, John E.; Sullivan, Thomas P. 1992. The lagomorphs: rabbits, hares, and pika. In: Silvicultural approaches to animal damage management in Pacific Northwest forests. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-287. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station: 289-307. 
44. Grange, Wallace. 1965. Fire and tree growth relationships to snowshoe rabbits. In: Proceedings, 4th Tall Timbers fire ecology conference; 1965 March 18-19; Tallahassee, FL. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 111-123. 
45. Griffin, Paul C.; Mills, L. Scott. 2007. Precommercial thinning reduces snowshoe hare abundance in the short term. The Journal of Wildlife Management. 71(2): 559-564. 
46. Gruell, G. E.; Loope, L. L. 1974. Relationships among aspen, fire, and ungulate browsing in Jackson Hole, Wyoming. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 33 p. In cooperation with: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Rocky Mountain Region. 
47. Hall, E. Raymond. 1981. Lynx canadensis: Lynx. In: The mammals of North America. 2nd ed. Vol. 2. New York: John Wiley & Sons: 1050-1051. 
48. Hall, E. Raymond. 1981. The mammals of North America. 2nd ed. Vol. 2. New York: John Wiley and Sons. 1271 p. 
49. Heinselman, Miron L. 1970. The natural role of fire in northern conifer forests. In: The role of fire in the Intermountain West: Symposium proceedings; 1970 October 27-29; Missoula, MT. Missoula, MT: Intermountain Fire Research Council: 30-41. In cooperation with: University of Montana, School of Forestry. 
50. Heinselman, Miron L. 1970. The natural role of fire in northern coniferous forests. The Naturalist. 21(4): 15-23. 
51. Heinselman, Miron L. 1973. Fire in the virgin forests of the Boundary Waters Canoe Area, Minnesota. Quaternary Research. 3: 329-382. 
52. Hoving, Christoper L.; Harrison, Daniel J.; Krohn, William B.; Joseph, Ronald A.; O'Brien, Mike. 2005. Broad-scale predictors of Canada lynx occurrence in eastern North America. Journal of Wildlife Management. 69(2): 739-751. 
53. Hoving, Christopher L.; Harrison, Daniel J.; Krohn, William B.; Jakubas, Walter J.; McCollough, Mark A. 2004. Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) habitat and forest succession in northern Maine, USA. Wildlife Biology. 10(4): 285-294. 
54. Keith, Lloyd B. 1974. Some features of population dynamics in mammals. In: Proceedings, International Union of Game Biologists. 11: 17-58. 
55. Keith, Lloyd B.; Surrendi, Dennis C. 1971. Effects of fire on a snowshoe hare population. Journal of Wildlife Management. 35(1): 16-26. 
56. Kelleyhouse, David G. 1979. Fire/wildlife relationships in Alaska. In: Hoefs, M.; Russell, D., eds. Wildlife and wildfire: Proceedings of workshop; 1979 November 27-28; Whitehorse, YT. Whitehorse, YT: Yukon Wildlife Branch: 1-36. 
57. Koch, Peter. 1996. Lodgepole pine commercial forests: an essay comparing the natural cycle of insect kill and subsequent wildfire with management for utilization and wildlife. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-GTR-342. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 24 p. 
58. Koehler, Gary M. 1990. Population and habitat characteristics of lynx and snowshoe hares in north central Washington. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 68: 845-851. 
59. Koehler, Gary M.; Aubry, Keith B. 1994. Lynx. In: Ruggiero, Leonard F.; Aubry, Keith B.; Buskirk, Steven W.; Lyon, L. Jack; Zielinski, William J., tech. eds. The scientific basis for conserving carnivores: American marten, fisher, lynx, and wolverine in the western United States. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-254. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 74-98. 
60. Koehler, Gary M.; Brittell, J. David. 1990. Managing spruce-fir habitat for lynx and snowshoe hares. Journal of Forestry. 88(10): 10-14. 
61. Koehler, Gary M.; Hornocker, Maurice G.; Hash, Howard S. 1979. Lynx movements and habitat use in Montana. The Canadian Field-Naturalist. 93(4): 441-442. 
62. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. United States [Potential natural vegetation of the conterminous United States]. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 1:3,168,000; colored. 
63. Larsen, James A. 1980. The trophic pyramid: animal populations. In: Larsen, James A., ed. The boreal ecosystem. New York: Academic Press: 381-411. 
64. Laven, R. D.; Omi, P. N.; Wyant, J. G.; Pinkerton, A. S. 1980. Interpretation of fire scar data from a ponderosa pine ecosystem in the central Rocky Mountains, Colorado. In: Stokes, Marvin A.; Dieterich, John H., tech. coords. Proceedings of the fire history workshop; 1980 October 20-24; Tucson, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-81. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 46-49. 
65. Litvaitis, John A.; Sherburne, James A.; Bissonette, John A. 1985. Influence of understory characteristics on snowshoe hare habitat use and density. Journal of Wildlife Management. 49(4): 866-873. 
66. Loope, Walter L. 1991. Interrelationships of fire history, land use history, and landscape pattern within Pictured Rocks National Seashore, Michigan. The Canadian Field-Naturalist. 105(1): 18-28. 
67. McCord, Chet M.; Cardoza, James E. 1982. Bobcat and lynx: Felis rufus and F. lynx. In: Chapman, Joseph A.; Feldhamer, George A., eds. Wild mammals of North America: Biology, management, and economics. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press: 728-768. 
68. Meinecke, E. P. 1929. Quaking aspen: A study in applied forest pathology. Tech. Bull. No. 155. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 34 p. 
69. Morrison, Peter H.; Swanson, Frederick J. 1990. Fire history and pattern in a Cascade Range landscape. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-254. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 77 p. 
70. Mowat, Garth; Slough, Brian G. 1998. Some observations on the natural history and behaviour of the Canada lynx, Lynx canadensis. The Canadian Field-Naturalist. 112(1): 32-36. 
71. Mowat, Garth; Slough, Brian. 2003. Habitat preference of Canada lynx through a cycle in snowshoe hare abundance. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 81(10): 1736-1745. 
72. Murray, Dennis L.; Boutin, Stan; O'Donoghue, Mark. 1994. Winter habitat selection by lynx and coyotes in relation to snowshoe hare abundance. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 72(8): 1444-1451. 
73. Nellis, Carl H.; Wetmore, Stephen P., Keith, Lloyd B. 1972. Lynx-prey interactions in central Alberta. Journal of Wildlife Management. 36(2): 320-328. 
74. O'Connor, Robin Mary. 1984. Population trends, age structure, and reproductive characteristics of female lynx in Alaska, 1961 through 1973. Fairbanks, AK: University of Alaska. 111 p. Thesis. 
75. O'Donoghue, Mark; Boutin, Stan; Krebs, Charles J.; Hofer, Elizabeth J. 1997. Numerical responses of coyotes and lynx to the snowshoe hare cycle. Oikos. 80(1): 150-162. 
76. O'Farrell, Thomas P. 1965. Home range and ecology of snowshoe hares in interior Alaska. Journal of Mammalogy. 46(3): 406-418. 
77. Oliver, Chadwick D.; Ferguson, Dennis E.; Harvey, Alan E.; Malany, Herbert S.; Mandzak, John M.; Mutch, Robert W. 1994. Managing ecosystems for forest health: an approach and the effects on uses and values. Journal of Sustainable Forestry. 2(1/2): 113-133. 
78. Oliver, Chadwick D.; Osawa, Akira; Camp, Ann. 1998. Forest dynamics and resulting animal and plant population changes at the stand and landscape levels. Journal of Sustainable Forestry. 6(3-4): 281-312. 
79. Paragi, Thomas F.; Johnson, W. N.; Katnik, Donald D.; Magoun, Audrey J. 1997. Selection of post-fire seres by lynx and snowshoe hares in the Alaskan taiga. Northwestern Naturalist. 78(3): 77-86. 
80. Parker, G. R.; Maxwell, J. W.; Morton, L. D.; Smith, G. E. J. 1983. The ecology of the lynx (Lynx canadensis) on Cape Breton Island. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 61: 770-786. 
81. Paysen, Timothy E.; Ansley, R. James; Brown, James K.; Gottfried, Gerald J.; Haase, Sally M.; Harrington, Michael G.; Narog, Marcia G.; Sackett, Stephen S.; Wilson, Ruth C. 2000. Fire in western shrubland, woodland, and grassland ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 121-159. 
82. Pearson, Dean E. 1999. Small mammals of the Bitterroot National Forest: a literature review and annotated bibliography. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-25. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 63 p. 
83. Peterson, E. B.; Peterson, N. M. 1992. Ecology, management, and use of aspen and balsam poplar in the prairie provinces, Canada. Special Report 1. Edmonton, AB: Forestry Canada, Northwest Region, Northern Forestry Centre. 252 p. 
84. Pilliod, David S.; Bull, Evelyn L.; Hayes, Jane L.; Wales, Barbara C. 2006. Wildlife and invertebrate response to fuel reduction treatments in dry coniferous forests of the western United States: a synthesis. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-173. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 34 p. 
85. Poole, Kim G. 2003. A review of the Canada lynx, Lynx canadensis, in Canada. The Canadian Field-Naturalist. 117(3): 360-376. 
86. Poole, Kim G.; Wakelyn, Leslie A.; Nicklen, Paul N. 1996. Habitat selection by lynx in the Northwest Territories. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 74(5): 845-850. 
87. Powell, Roger A.; Zielinski, William J. 1994. Fisher. In: Ruggiero, Leonard F.; Aubry, Keith B.; Buskirk, Steven W.; Lyon, L. Jack; Zielinski, William J., tech. eds. The scientific basis for conserving carnivores: American marten, fisher, lynx, and wolverine in the western United States. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-254. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 38-73. 
88. Quinn, Norman W. S.; Parker, Gerry. 1987. Lynx. In: Novak, Milan; Baker, James A.; Obbard, Martyn E.; Malloch, Bruce, eds. Wild furbearer management and conservation in North America. North Bay, ON: Ontario Trappers Association: 683-694. 
89. Ripple, William J. 1994. Historic spatial patterns of old forests in western Oregon. Journal of Forestry. 92(11): 45-49. 
90. Rusch, Donald H.; Keith, Lloyd B. 1971. Ruffed grouse - vegetation relationships in central Alberta. The Journal of Wildlife Management. 35(3): 417-429. 
91. Saunders, Jack K. 1963. Food habits of the lynx in Newfoundland. Journal of Wildlife Management. 27(3): 384-390. 
92. Schwartz, Michael K.; Mills, L. Scott; McKelvey, Kevin S.; Ruggiero, Leonard F.; Allendorf, Fred W. 2002. DNA reveals high dispersal synchronizing the population dynamics of Canada lynx. Nature. 415(6871): 520-522. 
93. Scott, P. A.; Craine, Ian T. M. 1993. The lynx cycle: a climatic perspective. Climate Research. 2: 235-240. 
94. Shiflet, Thomas N., ed. 1994. Rangeland cover types of the United States. Denver, CO: Society for Range Management. 152 p. 
95. Skoog, Ronald Oliver. 1968. Ecology of the caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) in Alaska. Berkeley, CA: University of California, Berkeley. 699 p. Dissertation. 
96. Slough, Brian G. 1999. Characteristics of Canada lynx, Lynx canadensis, maternal dens and denning habitat. The Canadian Field-Naturalist. 113(4): 605-608. 
97. Slough, Brian G.; Mowat, Garth. 1996. Lynx population dynamics in an untrapped refugium. Journal of Wildlife Management. 60(4): 946-961. 
98. Spowart, Richard A.; Samson, Fred B. 1986. Carnivores. In: Cooperrider, Allan Y.; Boyd, Raymond J.; Stuart, Hanson R., eds. Inventory and monitoring of wildlife habitat. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Service Center: 475-496. 
99. Squires, John R.; Oakleaf, Robert. 2005. Movements of a male Canada lynx crossing the Greater Yellowstone area, including highways. Northwest Science. 79(2-3): 196-201. 
100. Squires, John R.; Ruggiero, Leonard F. 2007. Winter prey selection of Canada lynx in northwestern Montana. The Journal of Wildlife Management. 71(2): 310-315. 
101. Stephenson, Robert O.; Grangaard, Daniel V.; Burch, John. 1991. Lynx, Felis lynx, predation on red foxes, Vulpes vulpes, caribou, Rangifer tarandus, and Dall sheep, Ovis dalli, in Alaska. Canadian Field-Naturalist. 105(2): 255-262. 
102. Swain, Albert M. 1978. Environmental changes during the past 2000 years in north-central Wisconsin: analysis of pollen, charcoal, and seeds from varved lake sediments. Quaternary Research. 10: 55-68. 
103. Tande, Gerald F. 1979. Fire history and vegetation pattern of coniferous forests in Jasper National Park, Alberta. Canadian Journal of Botany. 57: 1912-1931. 
104. Thomas, Jack Ward, technical editor. 1979. Wildlife habitats in managed forests in the Blue Mountains of Oregon and Washington. Agricultural Handbook No. 553. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 512 p. 
105. Thompson, I. D.; Davidson, I. J.; O'Donnell, S.; Brazeau, F. 1989. Use of track transects to measure the relative occurrence of some boreal mammals in uncut forest and regeneration stands. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 67: 1816-1823. 
106. Tumlison, Renn. 1987. Felis lynx. Mammalian Species. 269: 1-8. 
107. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 2016. Endangered Species Program, [Online]. Available: http://www.fws.gov/endangered/. 
108. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 1994. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; animal candidate review for listing as endangered or threatened species; proposed rule. 50 CFR Part 17. Tuesday, November 15, 1994. Federal Register. 59(219): 58982-59028. 
109. Van Lear, D. H.; Harlow, R. F. 2002. Fire in the eastern United States: influence on wildlife habitat. In: Ford, W. Mark; Russell, Kevin R.; Moorman, Christopher E., eds. The role of fire in nongame wildlife management and community restoration: traditional uses and new directions: Proceedings of a special workshop; 2000 December 15; Nashville, TN. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-288. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station: 2-10. 
110. van Zyll de Jong, Constantinus Gerhard. 1963. The biology of the lynx, Felis (Lynx) canadensis (Kerr) in Alberta and the Mackenzie District, N.W.T. Edmonton, AB: University of Alberta. 76 p. Thesis. 
111. Vermont Department of Fish and Wildlife. 2005. Endangered and threatened animals of Vermont, [Online]. Vermont Nongame and Natural Heritage Program (Producer). Available: http://www.vtfishandwildlife.com/library/Reports_and_documents/nongame_and_Natural_Heritage/Rare_Threatened_and_Endangered_Species/Endangered_and_Threatened_Animals_of_Vermont-April_2005.pdf [2007, June 7]. 
112. Viereck, Leslie A.; Schandelmeier, Linda A. 1980. Effects of fire in Alaska and adjacent Canada--a literature review. BLM-Alaska Tech. Rep. 6; BLM/AK/TR-80/06. Anchorage, AK: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Alaska State Office. 124 p. 
113. Wade, Dale D.; Brock, Brent L.; Brose, Patrick H.; Grace, James B.; Hoch, Greg A.; Patterson, William A., III. 2000. Fire in eastern ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 53-96. 
114. Werdelin, Lars. 1981. The evolution of lynxes. Annales Zoologici Fennici. 18: 37-71. 
115. Whelan, Robert J. 1995. Fire - the phenomenon. In: Whelan, Robert J., ed. The ecology of fire. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press: 8-56. 
116. Whitaker, John O., Jr. 1980. National Audubon Society field guide to North American mammals. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. 745 p. 
117. Wilson, Don E.; Reeder, DeeAnn M., eds. 1993. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. 2nd ed. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. 1206 p. 
118. Wilson, Don E.; Reeder, DeeAnn M., eds. 2005. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. 3rd ed. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press. 2142 p. 
119. Wisdom, Michael J.; Holthausen, Richard S.; Wales, Barbara C.; Hargis, Christina D.; Saab, Victoria A.; Lee, Danny C.; Hann, Wendel J.; Rich, Terrell D.; Rowland, Mary M.; Murphy, Wally J.; Eames, Michelle R. 2000. Source habitats for terrestrial vertebrates of focus in the interior Columbia basin: broad-scale trends and management implications. Volume 2--group level results. In: Quigley, Thomas M., ed. Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project: scientific assessment. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-485. Vol. 2. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station: 157-434. 
120. Wolff, Jerry O. 1980. The role of habitat patchiness in the population dynamics of snowshoe hares. Ecological Monographs. 50(1): 111-130. 
121. Wright, H. E., Jr.; Heinselman, M. L. 1973. Ecological role of fire. Quaternary Research. 3(3): 319-328. 
122. Zebley, Dawn Marie. 1992. Lynx. Women in Natural Resources. 13(3): 24-25.