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AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION:
Ulev, Elena D. 2006. Perisoreus canadensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/animals/bird/peca/all.html [ ].
On 26 November 2018, the common name of this species was changed in FEIS
from: gray jay
to: Canada jay.
Perisoreus canadensis (Linnaeus) is the scientific name for the Canada jay, a member of the Corvidae family. Listed below are 11 recognized subspecies [4,60,104]:
Perisoreus canadensis albescens Peters
Perisoreus canadensis arcus Miller
Perisoreus canadensis barbouri Brooks
Perisoreus canadensis bicolor Miller
Perisoreus canadensis canadensis Linnaeus
Perisoreus canadensis capitalis Ridgway
Perisoreus canadensis griseus Ridgway
Perisoreus canadensis nigricapillus Ridgway
Perisoreus canadensis obscurus Ridgway
Perisoreus canadensis pacificus Gmelin
Perisoreus canadensis sanfordi Oberholser
FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS:
No special status
Information on state-level protected status of animals in the United States is available at NatureServe, although recent changes in status may not be included.
Perisoreus canadensis albescens is a resident from northeastern British Columbia and northwestern Alberta southeastward, east of the Rocky Mountains to South Dakota (Black Hills). It< is casual in northwestern Nebraska .
Perisoreus c. arcus is a resident in the Rainbow Mountains area, and headwaters of the Dean and Bella Coola Rivers of the central Coast Ranges, British Columbia .
Perisoreus c. barbouri is a resident on Anticosti Island, Quebec .
Perisoreus c. bicolor is a resident in southeastern British Columbia, southwestern Alberta, eastern Washington, northeastern Oregon, northern and central Idaho, and western Montana .
Perisoreus c. canadensis breeds from northern British Columbia east to Prince Edward Island, and south to northern Minnesota, northern Wisconsin, northern Michigan, northeastern New York, northern Vermont, northern New Hampshire, and Maine. It winters at lower altitudes within the breeding range and south to southern Ontario and Massachusetts, casually to central Minnesota, southeastern Wisconsin, northwestern Pennsylvania, and central New York. Perisoreus c. canadensis is accidental in northeastern Pennsylvania (Philadelphia) .
Perisoreus c. capitalis is a resident in the southern Rocky Mountains from eastern Idaho, central south-central Montana, and western and southern Wyoming south through eastern Utah, and western and central Colorado, to central eastern Arizona and north-central New Mexico .
Perisoreus c. griseus is a resident from southwestern British Columbia and Vancouver Island south through central Washington and central Oregon to the mountains of north-central and northeastern California .
Perisoreus c. nigracapillus is a resident in northern Quebec (Fort Chimo, Whale River, and George River), throughout Labrador, and in southeastern Quebec (Mingan and Blanc Sablon) .
Perisoreus c. obscurus is a resident in the coastal belt from Washington (Crescent Lake, Seattle, and Columbia River) through western Oregon to northwestern California (Humboldt County) .
Perisoreus c. pacificus is a resident in north-central Alaska (Kobuk River, Endicott Mountains, and Fort Yukon), northern Yukon (Arctic Circle at the International Boundary), and northwestern Mackenzie (Mackenzie Delta and lower Horton River) south in Alaska to latitude 60° N .
Perisoreus c. sanfordi is a resident in Newfoundland and Nova Scotia .ECOSYSTEMS :
|Chris Evans, University of Georgia, www.forestryimages.org.|
Canada jays cooperatively breed [112,114,129]. Strickland  studied cooperative breeding of Canada jays in Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario, and La Verendrye Provincial Park, Quebec. In early June, when broods were 55 to 65 days old, the young fought amongst themselves until dominant juveniles forced their siblings to leave the natal area. Dominant juveniles, known as "stayers", remained with their parents, and "leavers" left the natal territory to join an unrelated pair who failed to breed. Two-thirds of "stayers" were male .
During the nest-building phase of the subsequent breeding season, approximately 65% of Canada jay trios included "stayers" from the previous spring and their parents, and approximately 30% of trios included an unrelated "leaver". Occasionally, 2 nonbreeders accompany a pair of adults. "Stayers" may eventually inherit the natal territory and breed, and "leavers" may eventually fill a vacancy nearby or form a new breeding pair on previously unoccupied ground . The role of "stayers" is to retrieve caches and bring food to younger siblings [114,129]; however, this is only allowed by the parents during the postfledgling period [112,114,129]. Until then, parents are hostile toward the "stayer". This may reduce the frequency of predator-attracting visits to the nest when young are most vulnerable. The benefits of allofeeding may include "lightening the load" for the breeding pair, which may possibly increase longevity, reducing the probability of starvation of nestlings, and detecting and mobbing predators near the nest .
Nesting: Nesting typically occurs in March and April [97,113]. Male Canada jays choose a nest site in a mature coniferous tree [53,76] and take the lead in construction . Canada jay nests were found in black spruce (Picea mariana), white spruce (Picea glauca), and balsam fir (Abies balsamea) trees in Ontario and Quebec, with black spruce predominating [97,113]. Cup-shaped nests [53,64,76,98] were constructed with brittle dead twigs pulled off of trees, as well as bark strips and lichens. Cocoons of the forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma dysstria) filled the interstitial spaces of the nest . Nests are usually built on the southwestern side of a tree for solar warming and are usually <1 nest diameter from the trunk . Nest height is typically 8 to 30 feet (2.4-9.1 m) above the ground [72,97]. The average height of 264 nests surveyed in Algonquin Provincial Park was 16 feet ± 9.2 (4.9 m ± 2.8) above ground .
Clutch size is 2 to 5 eggs. The mean clutch sizes of Canada jays in Algonquin Provincial Park and La Verendrye Provincial Park were 3.03 and 3.18 eggs, respectively. Incubation is performed only by the female [97,113] and lasts an average of 18.5 days .
Fledging: Canada jay young are altricial.
Nestling growth is most rapid from the 4th through the 10th day following hatching. Young are fed food carried in the throats of both parents [97,113]. They are fed by the accompanying nonbreeding 3rd bird ("stayer") only during the postfledgling period (see Mating) [114,129]. Food is a dark brown, viscous paste containing primarily arthropods [97,113]. Young Canada jays leave the nest between 22 and 24 days after hatching . Juveniles reach full adult measurements within 5 months .
Natal dispersal distance for the Canada jay is a median of 0.0 mile (0.0 km) for males, 1.7 miles (2.8 km) for females, and a maximum distance of 7.0 miles (11.3 km) for males and females .
Survival: In studies conducted in Ontario and Quebec, the mortality rate for nonbreeding dominant juveniles ("stayers") was 52%, and mortality was 85% for nonbreeding "leavers" between fledging in June to approximately mid-October. From fall to the following breeding season in March, further nonbreeder mortality was 50%. Territory-holding adult Canada jays experienced low mortality rates (15.1% and 18.2% for males and females, respectively) . The oldest known female Canada jay was 16 years old, and one male was at least 14 years old . Food-storing birds such as the Canada jay may live longer than other species due to the increased probability of food availability .PREFERRED HABITAT:
Pure hardwood stands are used for foraging but are not part of the defended territory .
Theberge  examined the density of Canada jays in various vegetation communities in Kluane National Park, Yukon. Canada jays were most abundant in the mature white spruce community but were present in 7 distinctly different vegetation communities, indicating a lack of habitat specialization :
|Vegetation community||Upland willow (Salix spp.) shrub||Lowland willow shrub||White spruce-balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera ssp. balsamifera)||Mature white spruce||Riparian balsam poplar||Balsam poplar parkland||Subalpine|
|Density of males per 40 ha||10.0||6.7||6.0||16.8||10.0||12.5||1.7|
Stand age: Although Canada jays prefer mature coniferous forests [56,73,87,97,106,113,120], they can be found occupying all forest age classes [121,124].
Mature forest: During winter months, Canada jays preferred late-seral (325 to >500 years old) Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) stands in the southern Gifford Pinchot National Forest, Washington .
Canada jays surveyed in young (40-70 years old), mature (100-196 years), and old-growth (204-450 years) Douglas-fir/hardwood stands in northwestern California and southwestern Oregon reached peak abundance in the old-growth stands .
Canada jays were most abundant in mature stands and least abundant in young stands of a quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) mixed-wood forest in Alberta. The 3 age classes studied were: young (20-30 years old); mature (50-65 years old); and old stands (120+ years old) .
Of 5 seral stages studied in a forest dominated by Douglas-fir, western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla), and red alder (Alnus rubra) in the Oregon Coast Ranges, Canada jays were significantly (P<0.05) positively associated with late-seral forest structure and were most abundant in large saw timber plots (>20% cover, >21 inch (>53.2 cm) mean DBH) .
All age classes: Habitat generalists including the Canada jay were common in all 3 age classes (40-59 years, 60-79 years, and 80+ years) of mature balsam fir forest in Newfoundland .
In ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) habitat in the Black Hills, South Dakota, Canada jays utilized the sapling-pole, mature, and old-growth stages, but their habitat preference changed between the summer breeding season and winter [75,96]. During summer, optimal habitat included mature and old-growth ponderosa pine . During winter, Canada jays preferred mature and sapling-pole ponderosa pine stands .
As habitat generalists, Canada jays may not be susceptible to changes in forest age distribution in jack pine (Pinus banksiana) forests near the White River in north-central Ontario. Jack pine stands were even-aged and ranged from 3 to 100 years old. Canada jays were most abundant on 18- to 20- year-old stands, but were not confined to that age class .
During the winter Canada jay populations were greatest in the youngest stands (14 years old) compared to 30-year-old and 60-year-old stands in a mixed-age quaking aspen forest at Medicine Lake, Alberta .
Stand composition/structure: Most of the research on Canada jays has compared various silvicultural strategies or analyzed succession after harvesting. Canada jays exhibit a range of responses to habitat fragmentation. They can be positively [51,62] or negatively affected [36,37] and, in most cases, show mixed or no response [10,25,44,46,84].
Positively affected by fragmentation: The mean number of bird species was measured in old-growth, fragmented old-growth and selectively harvested western redcedar (Thuja plicata)-western hemlock forests on the Priest Lake Ranger District of the Idaho Panhandle National Forest. Canada jay populations were greatest in the fragmented old-growth forest, characterized as an older-aged forest with 1- to 8-year-old clearcuts embedded :
|Mean number (s x ) of Canada jays along 24 counting points in each area|
|Old growth||Fragmented old growth||Selectively harvested||P|
|0.06 (0.03)||0.14 (0.09)||0.03 (0.02)||0.04|
The mean abundance of Canada jay was greater on clearcut stands than unfragmented stands in a forest dominated by Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) in the Medicine Bow National Forest, Wyoming, but the differences were not statistically significant .
Negatively affected by fragmentation: Birds such as the Canada jay, which forage in the foliage of trees, may decline following logging due to the reduction of total biomass foliage rather than decreased foliage height diversity or loss of tree volume. A decline in insect prey may also occur following logging [36,37].
Mixed responses to habitat fragmentation: During the winter in Oregon, Canada jay abundance did not differ between commercially thinned and unthinned Douglas-fir stands in the Tillamook State Forest and the central Coast Ranges. Four thinned and four unthinned stands that were 40 to 55 years old and 161 to 1,260 acres (65-510 ha) in size were chosen in each of 2 locations. During the summer Canada jays were more abundant (P<0.01) in unthinned versus thinned stands in the Tillamook State Forest; however, they were more abundant (P=0.10) in thinned versus unthinned stands in the central Oregon Coast Ranges. The abundance of Canada jays varied positively with red alder cover and negatively with pole layer height.
Bird populations were compared in 6 lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) communities in the Uinta Mountains of Utah. The 6 communities were mature forest; stagnated forest composed of dense lodgepole pine stands; a 1940 clearcut that left no residual trees; a stagnated stand that was bulldozed and then broadcast burned; wet meadows along streams; and dry meadows with a dense mixture of grasses and forbs under widely scattered lodgepole pine. Canada jays were present in most of the communities and appeared to be uninfluenced by logging :
|Density of Canada jays (individuals/100 acres (40 ha))|
|Mature forest||Stagnated forest||1940 clearcut forest||Bulldozed & burned forest||Wet meadow||Dry meadow|
Breeding bird responses to 3 silvicultural alternatives were examined in a Douglas-fir forest on the McDonald-Dunn Forest, Oregon. The 3 treatments were: (1) small-patch group selection, in which ⅓rd of the wood volume was removed, representing low-severity disturbance; (2) 2-story treatment, in which ¾ths of the wood volume was removed, representing a moderate to high-severity disturbance; (3) modified clearcut treatment, in which 1.2 green trees/ha were retained, representing a high-severity disturbance; and (4) unharvested control for each treatment. One replicate was harvested each year for 3 years. The mean abundance of Canada jays was highest in small-patch group selection cuts for each of the 3 years :
|Mean abundance of Canada jays (no. of observations/5 ha (s x))|
|Year 1||Year 2||Year 3|
|Control||0.3 (0.3)||1.3 (1.3)||1.0 (0.6)|
|Small-patch||1.8 (0.5)||1.6 (0.6)||1.1 (0.4)|
|2-story||1.7 (1.2)||0.5 (0.3)||0.2 (0.2)|
|Modified clearcut||1.5 (0.6)||0.0 (0.0)||0.2 (0.2)|
Harrison and others  studied the effects of partial cutting on songbirds in mixed-wood forests near Peace River in northwestern Alberta. Dominant trees included quaking aspen, balsam poplar, and lodgepole pine. The mean abundance change for Canada jay was not statistically significant.
Six seral stages within a sub-boreal spruce forest dominated by quaking aspen in valley bottoms and lowlands were surveyed to examine diversity of bird communities near Smithers, British Columbia. The seral stages were clearcut; shrub/herb; pole/sapling (<15 years); young quaking aspen (15- 49 years); mature quaking aspen (50+ years); and mature quaking aspen mixed with Engelmann spruce and lodgepole pine. Canada jays were present in the mixed quaking aspen stage and seen foraging in clearcuts, but were probably not nesting in the clearcut due to lack of suitable habitat .
Canada jays are omnivorous [76,97,98,113]. Foods eaten include arthropods , small mammals , nestling birds [21,22,116,123] (see Predation), carrion [97,113], fungi , fruits such as chokecherry (Prunus virginiana) , and seeds . Two Canada jays were seen eating slime mold (Fuligo septica) near Kennedy Hot Springs in the Glacier Peak Wilderness, Washington. This was the 1st report of any bird consuming slime mold in the field .
Occasionally, Canada jays eat live prey. Lescher and Lescher  witnessed a Canada jay kill an unidentified, live small rodent in Wisconsin. Barnard  was the 1st to witness an in-flight Canada jay capture of a magnolia warbler (Dendroica magnolia) for consumption.
Canada jays have been seen landing on moose (Alces alces) to remove and eat engorged winter deer ticks (Dermacentor albipictus) during April and May in Algonquin Provincial Park. Researchers also found a Canada jay nest containing a brooding female, 3 hatchlings, and 3 warm, engorged winter deer ticks. Because the winter deer ticks were too large for the hatchlings to eat, it was hypothesized that the ticks may have served as "hot water bottles", keeping hatchlings warm when parents were away from the nest .
Canada jays are suspected but not proven to prey on nests of the threatened marbled murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) in coastal areas of the Pacific Northwest .
Foraging behavior: Canada jays do not hammer food with their bill as do other jays, but wrench, twist, and tug food apart. Canada jays commonly carry large food items to nearby trees to eat or process for storage, possibly as defense against large scavengers . They are "scatterhoarders", caching food items among scattered sites for later consumption [69,71,128].
Any food intended for storage is manipulated in the mouth and formed into a bolus (rounded mass) that is coated with sticky saliva, adhering to anything it touches. The bolus is stored in bark crevices, under tufts of lichen, or among conifer needles .
Risk and energy expenditure are factors in food selection for Canada jays. Canada jays select food on the basis of profitability to maximize caloric intake. Increased handling, searching, or recognition times for a preferred food item lowers its profitability .
The Canada jay takes advantage of man-made sources of food, hence the names "camp robber" and "whiskey Jack". According to Maccarone and Montevecchi , human observers do not inhibit Canada jay's feeding behavior; however, Rutter  claims that "once having identified man with food it does not forget". He found that after a nesting female was accustomed to being fed by humans she could be enticed to leave the nest during incubation and brooding .
Predation: Canada jays commonly prey on nestling birds [22,29,88,123]. Nests are located visually by moving from perch to perch and scanning surroundings . Canada jay predation on nestling birds is temporally homogenous throughout the passerine breeding season . Avian nest predation by Canada jays is not necessarily higher in fragmented versus unfragmented forest [21,29,116,123].
Boulet and others  examined bird nest predation in a commercially fragmented boreal black spruce forest intermixed with jack pine, balsam fir, quaking aspen, and paper birch near Lake Saint-Jean, Quebec. Canada jays directed their attacks on artificial arboreal nests more often than artificial ground nests. Depredation of nests was positively related to the presence of the lake and jack pine. Canada jays may have preferred preying on avian nests in jack pine versus black spruce habitat because jack pine forests were more open, and trees did not conceal nests as well. Canada jays may have favored foraging along lakeshores and moist patches due to the high density of insects. No relationship was found between the fragmented forest and predation .
The potential for egg predation by Canada jays was greater in riparian forest strips than in clearcuts in a second-growth boreal balsam fir forest in Montmorency Forest, Quebec .
Stuart-Smith and Hayes  examined the influence of residual tree density on predation of artificial and natural songbird nests. The study took place in the White River and Lussier River Watershed, southeastern British Columbia, in a forest dominated by Douglas-fir, white spruce, and western larch. Twenty-four plots of similar age were chosen (16 logged, 8 burned by wildfire); they varied in residual tree density between 0 and 180 trees/ha. Residual trees apparently did not increase predation on nesting songbirds by the Canada jay. However, a moderate increase in nest predation occurred in logged plots adjacent to or surrounded by mature conifer forest, which is the preferred habitat for Canada jays [56,87,97,106,113,120]. Retaining residual trees would outweigh the possible increased risk of nest predation, except in areas where nesting birds are at very low numbers and potential risk by Canada jays is high .
When predation rates on bird nests by the Canada jay were compared in clearcut, green-tree retention stands, and mature western hemlock stands in the west-central Oregon Cascade Ranges, predation rates were highest in green-tree retention stands. This may have been due to increased availability of perch sites for avian predators such as the Canada jay .
Caching: Canada jays cache thousands of food items every day during the summer for use the following winter [112,126,127,129]. Caching behavior is thought to have evolved for several reasons. It allows for permanent residence in boreal and subalpine forests , ensures a food source in areas with high elevations and cyclic availability of food resources, and favors the retention of young and a kin-selected social organization . In southern portions of the Canada jay's range, food is not cached during summer because of the chance of spoilage and the reduced need for winter stores . Cached items can be anything from carrion to bread crumbs and are formed into a bolus before being cached . Cached food is sometimes used to feed nestlings and fledglings .
Caching is inhibited by the presence of Steller's jays  and Canada jays from adjacent territories [126,127], which follow resident Canada jays to steal cached food . Canada jays carry large food items to distant cache sites for storage more often than small food items. To prevent theft, they also tend to carry valuable food items further from the source when caching in the company of 1 or more Canada jays . Scatterhoarding discourages pilferage by competitors. Cache thievery increases with increased cache density .
When exploiting distant food sources found in clearings, Canada jays temporarily concentrated their caches in an arboreal site along the edge of a black spruce forest in interior Alaska. This allowed a high rate of caching in the short term and reduced the jay's risk of predation. A subsequent recaching stage occurred, and food items were transferred to widely scattered sites to reduce theft .PREDATORS:
Canada jays are consumed by several bird species including great Canada owls (Strix nebulosa) , northern hawk-owls (Surnia ulula) , and Mexican spotted owls (Strix occidentalis lucida) [122,131].
Canada jay remains were found in the nest sites of fisher (Martes pennanti)  and American marten (Martes americana) . Red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) eat Canada jay eggs .MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS:
The Nicolet National Forest Bird Survey in northeastern Wisconsin showed Canada jay populations decreased from 1989 to 2002; however, the Breeding Bird Survey conducted in the same forest found Canada jay populations increased during this time. This may be because Breeding Bird Survey routes were established randomly along roadsides , whereas the Nicolet National Forest Bird Survey routes were established within Canada jay habitat .
Members of a guild are more likely to respond similarly when they are grouped according to their association with habitat zones instead of by the "guild approach", which groups bird species into guilds based on their foraging and nesting behavior. According to Skinner , the "guild approach" may be problematic for 2 reasons: a lack of consistency in how investigators assign bird species to guilds and a false assumption that the response of 1 species in a guild is representative of all species in that guild .
Silviculture: Because Canada jays prefer mature forests [56,75,87,97,102,106,113,120], management activities such as harvesting mature and old-growth ponderosa pine stands , clearcutting, conversion of hardwood or mixed stands to pure conifer stands, and a maximum rotation period of 100 years may reduce the quantity or quality of preferred habitat for the Canada jay . Nevertheless, maintaining as much landscape diversity as possible is beneficial to the Canada jay . For more information on silvicultural treatments and the Canada jay, (see Stand composition/structure).
The amount and orientation of residual live and dead trees is an important component of stand structure following disturbance . Wakkinen and Reese  and Hobson and Schieck  suggest managing for both dead and partially dead snags of different sizes in a variety of stand types to provide nesting, feeding, and perching sites for birds.
Dwarf mistletoe: Canada jays are one of the most common vectors in the long-distance dispersal of dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium spp.) seeds [16,47,79]. Seeds are inadvertently picked up on Canada jay feathers when birds forage or nest in infected trees [55,79,86]. Bennetts and others  suggest control of dwarf mistletoe "may not be justified, practical, or even desirable" in areas where management goals are not focused on timber production. Pineland dwarf mistletoe (A. vaginatum) in central Colorado may have positive effects on avian habitat, creating a mosaic of habitat patches for nesting and cover .
Some timber management practices may reduce the quantity or quality of preferred habitat for the Canada jay. A 150- year-old, even-aged western hemlock forest on the Siuslaw National Forest, Oregon, was inventoried for wildlife management needs. The Canada jay, which may require western hemlock forests older than 100 years, may be adversely affected by timber management activities that include clearcutting, conversion of hardwood or mixed stands to pure conifer stands, and rotation periods of less than 100 years .
Other: The impact of repeated human intrusions on Canada jays was studied in a subalpine forest in the Snowy Mountains of Wyoming. The average number of Canada jays was higher on intruded sites than on control sites, as was the probability of intrusion reoccurring. The potential for Canada jay predation may be higher in human-intruded areas, but more studies are needed .The Canada jay has a high potential for damage from exposure to aerial insecticide treatments due to open-cup nests .
A meta-analysis of studies of bird responses to fire showed that Canada jays and other bird species that share the same nest type, nest layer, and foraging guild do not show a distinct positive or negative response to fire. The analysis is shown below; the table does not distinguish between fire types (wildland, prescribed, stand-replacing, understory, various severities), vegetation types, or time since fire :
|Response to fire (% of studies)|
|Nest type: Open-cup nest||544||29||23||39||9|
|Nest layer: Canopy nest||423||31||18||42||9|
|Foraging guild: Omnivore||296||32||21||37||9|
Canada jays are usually present in postfire habitats after fires of varying severities but experience lower abundance in burned than unburned areas. Results of studies examining Canada jay responses to wildfire, prescribed burning, logging versus burning, and salvage logging follow.
Wildfire: Changes in bird abundance and species composition following mixed-severity wildfires were studied in low-elevation ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir habitat and mid-elevation mixed-conifer and lodgepole pine habitats in the Bitterroot National Forest in west-central Montana. In July and August 2000, dry lightning storms ignited fires of 99 to 135,900 acres (40-55,000 ha) in size; the fires ranged from low-severity to severe. Transects had been established in 1994 and 1995 before the wildfires occurred, and 1 year following the fires, burned and unburned transects of differing fire severities were compared. The mean relative abundance (number of Canada jays detected within 100 m/point × 100 ± standard error) for Canada jays was lowest following fire [109,110]:
Mean relative abundance ± s x
|Unburned points (n=120)||9.8 ± 2.2||8.1 ± 2.1|
|Burned points (n=122)||12.4 ± 2.7||4.2 ± 1.5|
Canada jays were ubiquitous in various successional portions of lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce-subalpine fir forests following wildfires in Grand Teton and Yellowstone National Parks, Wyoming; however, they were most abundant in severely burned areas 43 and 44 years following fire, which is typically when the canopy closes following severe wildfire. Ten areas were sampled in both Parks ranging from 1 to 304 years after fire and 40 to several hundred acres in size. In Grand Teton National Park, unburned, moderately burned, and severely burned areas were examined. In moderately burned areas, 40% or more of the tree understory was alive 1 year following the fire, and part of the grass-forb-shrub understory was unburned. In severely burned areas, all aboveground vegetation was killed by a severe crown fire. In Yellowstone National Park, all sampling areas were severely burned in 1667 and 1956 .
Canada jay densities were highest in unburned versus burned lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce-subalpine fir forests in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. In 1974, the Trail Creek Wildfire burned 581 acres (235 ha) of 250-year-old lodgepole pine forest with an understory of Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir. In 1976, the Divide Wildfire burned 1,601 acres (648 ha) of 350+ year-old Engelmann spruce-subalpine fir forest. Fire severities were not documented. Avian communities were surveyed in 1978 and 1979 .
Canada jays preferred the ecotone and unburned areas of subalpine lodgepole pine forest 8 years following a high-severity wildfire on the Roosevelt National Forest, Colorado. The fire burned approximately 470 acres (190 ha), killing or top-killing virtually all aboveground vegetation. The total number of Canada jays recorded on 6-point counts on three 49 acre (20 ha) plots is shown below :
Total number of Canada jays (and no. of territories)/ plot
|0||10 (2)||5 (1)|
A literature review reported that Canada jays were more abundant on unburned sites than on 23 severely burned conifer forests in the western United States .
Canopy cover did not predict distribution of canopy foragers such as the Canada jay between burned and unburned lodgepole pine forests in Grand Teton National Park. Two-year postfire and six-year postfire sites were compared with unburned sites. Details about the size and severity of the fires were not given. Canada jays utilized the 2-year burns, 6-year burns, and unburned sites most during the postbreeding season. The mean frequency of observations during the breeding and postbreeding season of the Canada jay is shown below :
Mean frequency of observations × 100 (frequency of observations)
Postfire year 2
|Postfire year 6||unburned|
|Breeding season||4 (3)||5 (3)||2 (1)|
|Postbreeding season||36 (17)||13 (5)||28 (8)|
Prescribed burning: Bock and Bock  studied the effects of prescribed fire on birds in ponderosa pine forests in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota. One area was burned in October 1979, covering 156 acres (63 ha). Another study area was burned in April and May 1980, burning 806 acres (326 ha). Both burns were low-severity in local isolated spots. Point counts were conducted in June 1980 and June 1981 on burned and unburned plots. Canada jay abundance was greatest on unburned plots for both years :
|Mean no. of breeding birds|
Logging versus wildfire: Clearcutting and stand-replacing fire both lead to early-successional forest; however, they do not provide the same habitat conditions . Clearcuts and wildfires are distinct from each other for several reasons: 1) logging causes greater site disturbance due to road construction and logging equipment; 2) logging removes stems from a site; 3) wildfire leaves live residual stands, burned trees, and downed woody debris; 4) wildfire size, frequency, and distribution are different from cutblocks; and 5) wildfire is not predictable and does not target the most valuable trees . Nevertheless, research comparing Canada jays on logged and burned sites does not show any clear pattern of preferences.
Bird communities were compared between burned and harvested sites in a quaking aspen-dominated boreal mixed-wood forest in north-central Alberta. Three replicate stands were chosen from each class (1,14, and 28 postdisturbance years) and treatment (wildfire vs. harvest). More than 95% of the canopy trees were dead on burned sites. An average of 6% of preharvest trees remained on the harvested sites. Canada jay density was greater within 14-year-old postfire stands than in postharvest stands. Canada jays may have been responding to differences in the herb and shrub strata between postfire and postharvest stands :
|Density of Canada jays (mean number of individuals (± s x)/25acres)|
|Postfire||0.7 ± 0.7||4.3 ± 2.0||1.3 ± 0.3|
|Postharvest||1.7 ± 0.9||0.0 ± 0.0||0.0 ± 0.0|
Avian response to forest management practices was examined in mature ponderosa pine forests mixed with Douglas-fir or grand fir (Abies grandis) in Montana. Three site categories were chosen: 1) control sites containing either ladder fuels or encroachment by small- or medium- diameter trees; 2) treated sites that had been logged, underburned, or a combination of the 2 to reduce fuels and create open structural conditions; and 3) sites with a natural underburn in 2000. Canada jays were present in all 3 sites but most abundant in the control .
In northwestern Lac Saint Jean, Quebec, Canada jays showed no significant (P>0.05) difference in abundance in postfire and postlogging stages in stands formerly dominated by black spruce .
Avian abundance was compared in wildfire and clearcut areas in a former black spruce forest near Goose Bay, Newfoundland after 5,14, and 27 years of succession. Details about the size and severity of the burn were not documented. Canada jay was not a common species in the study area but may have slightly preferred clearcut plots over burned plots .
Schulte and Niemi  surveyed bird communities in early-successional forests following logging and fire near Tower, Minnesota. Logged sites had been clearcut and contained residual trees and residual patches of trees. Wildfire sites were dominated by quaking aspen, and 5,189 acres (2,100 ha) of forest had burned. Logged sites were chosen to match the time of disturbance, predisturbance type, and soils of the burned sites. According to the vegetation analysis, habitat heterogeneity was greater in burned areas. The Canada jay was 1 of 5 bird species highly associated with snags in this study; snags were probably utilized for foraging. Canada jay abundance did not differ significantly between logged and burned sites :
|Canada jay abundance (territorial males/ha)|
|s x||P value|
Salvage logging: Resident species such as the Canada jay were less likely to be detected in salvaged areas of a burned mixed-wood forest (dominant trees were white spruce and quaking aspen), a jack pine forest, and a quaking aspen forest near Meadow Lake, Saskatchewan than in logged areas. In 1995, a wildfire burned 98,840 acres (40,000 ha), killing a majority of the trees in the burned areas. Salvage logging took place in 1997. In 1998, surveys were conducted in unburned, burned, and salvaged forests. The indicator value of Canada jay for each treatment in the 3 habitat types is shown below :
|Habitat type||Indicator value (% )|
|Quaking aspen||0||17||not salvaged||0.468|
The following table provides fire return intervals for plant communities and ecosystems where the Canada jay is important. Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find Fire Regimes".
|Community or Ecosystem||Dominant Species||Fire Return Interval Range (years)|
|silver fir-Douglas-fir||Abies amabilis-Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii||>200|
|grand fir||Abies grandis||35-200 |
|tamarack||Larix laricina||35-200 |
|western larch||Larix occidentalis||25-350 [7,14,30]|
|Great Lakes spruce-fir||Picea-Abies spp.||35 to >200|
|northeastern spruce-fir||Picea-Abies spp.||35-200 |
|Engelmann spruce-subalpine fir||Picea engelmannii-Abies lasiocarpa||35 to >200 |
|black spruce||Picea mariana||35-200|
|conifer bog*||Picea mariana-Larix laricina||35-200 |
|pinyon-juniper||Pinus-Juniperus spp.||<35 |
|whitebark pine*||Pinus albicaulis||50-200 [2,5]|
|jack pine||Pinus banksiana||<35 to 200 [28,31]|
|Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine*||Pinus contorta var. latifolia||25-340 [13,14,118]|
|Colorado pinyon||Pinus edulis||10-400+ [35,40,61,81]|
|Sierra lodgepole pine*||Pinus contorta var. murrayana||35-200|
|Pacific ponderosa pine*||Pinus ponderosa var. ponderosa||1-47 |
|interior ponderosa pine*||Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum||2-30 [6,11,66]|
|red pine (Great Lakes region)||Pinus resinosa||3-18 (x=3-10) [27,38]|
|red-white pine* (Great Lakes region)||Pinus resinosa-P. strobus||3-200 [28,48,70]|
|eastern white pine||Pinus strobus||35-200|
|eastern white pine-eastern hemlock||Pinus strobus-Tsuga canadensis||35-200 |
|aspen-birch||Populus tremuloides-Betula papyrifera||35-200 [31,125]|
|quaking aspen (west of the Great Plains)||Populus tremuloides||7-120 [6,41,74]|
|Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir*||Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca||25-100 [6,8,9]|
|coastal Douglas-fir*||Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii||40-240 [6,77,90]|
|redwood||Sequoia sempervirens||5-200 [6,34,115]|
|western redcedar-western hemlock||Thuja plicata-Tsuga heterophylla||>200|
|western hemlock-Sitka spruce||Tsuga heterophylla-Picea sitchensis||>200 |
The amount and orientation of residual live and dead trees is an important component of stand structure following disturbance . Canada jays utilize snags for perch sites [53,113,116,123,130], so they may be negatively affected by salvage logging. Wakkinen and Reese  and Hobson and Schieck  suggest managing for both dead and partially dead snags of different sizes in a variety of stand types to provide nesting, feeding, and perching sites for birds such as the Canada jay.Smucker and others  suggest that managers prescribe and allow for a range of fire severities to meet the needs of all bird species.
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