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WILDLIFE SPECIES:  Callipepla squamata


AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Sullivan, Janet. 1994. Callipepla squamata. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: [].

ABBREVIATION : CASQ COMMON NAMES : scaled quail blue quail cottontop TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name for scaled quail is Callipepla squamata (Vigors). It is a member of the pheasant family (Phasianidae) (Sibley and Monroe classify this group as Odontiphoridae) [25]. Subspecies listed by Johnsgard [15] include the following: Callipepla squamata ssp. castanogastris Brewster (chestnut-bellied quail) C. s. ssp. hargravei Rea C. s. ssp. pallida Brewster C. s. ssp. squamata (Vigors). Scaled quail hybridize with Gambel's quail (C. gambelii) [1], and with northern bobwhites (Collinus virginiana) where their ranges overlap [29]. Hybrids of scaled quail and elegant quail (C. douglasii) are sterile [15]. ORDER : Galliformes CLASS : Bird FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY


WILDLIFE SPECIES: Callipepla squamata
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Scaled quail occur from south-central Arizona, northern New Mexico, east-central Colorado, and southwestern Kansas south through western Oklahoma and western and central Texas into Mexico to northeastern Jalisco, Guanajuato, Queretaru, Hidalgo, and western Tamaulipas. It has been introduced to Hawaii, central Washington, eastern Nevada, and Nebraska, but is only considered established in central Washington and eastern Nevada [1,25]. Distribution of subspecies is as follows: Callipepla squamata ssp. castanogastris occurs from southern Texas south through Tamaulipas, Nuevo Leon, and eastern Coahuila, Mexico. C. s. hargravei is found in western Oklahoma, southwestern Kansas, southeastern Colorado, northern New Mexico, and northwestern Texas. C. s. pallida occurs from southern Arizona, southern New Mexico, and western Texas south to northern Sonora and Chihuahua, Mexico. C. s. squamata occurs in Mexico from northern Sonora and Tamaulipas south to the Valley of Mexico [15]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES30 Desert shrub FRES32 Texas savanna FRES33 Southwestern shrubsteppe FRES35 Pinyon-juniper FRES40 Desert grasslands STATES :

BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 7 Lower Basin and Range 11 Southern Rocky Mountains 13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont 14 Great Plains KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K024 Juniper steppe woodland K027 Mesquite bosque K040 Saltbush - greasewood K041 Creosotebush K053 Grama - galleta steppe K054 Grama - tobosa prairie K057 Galleta - three-awn shrubsteppe K058 Grama - tobosa shrubsteppe K060 Mesquite savanna K061 Mesquite - acacia savanna K071 Shinnery K087 Mesquite - oak savanna SAF COVER TYPES : 66 Ashe juniper - redberry (Pinchot) juniper 68 Mesquite 239 Pinyon - juniper SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY PLANT COMMUNITIES : According to Ligon [20], the distribution of scaled quail is largely coextensive with mesquite (Prosopis spp.), condalia (Condalia spp.), and cholla (Opuntia spp.). In Oklahoma, scaled quail occur in sand sagebrush (Artemisia filifolia)-grassland, pinyon-juniper (Pinus spp.-Juniperus spp.), and shortgrass High Plains [1,6,24]. Sand sagebrush-grasslands include sand sagebrush, soapweed yucca (Yucca glauca), skunkbush sumac (Rhus trilobata), and sand plum (Prunus watsonii) [24]. Scaled quail in Oklahoma inhabit rough or rolling land, especially where sagebrush (Artemisia spp.), mesquite, cactus (Opuntia spp. and others), yucca (Yucca spp.), juniper, sand shinnery oak (Quercus havardii), and rocks furnish cover [29]. In Colorado, scaled quail occupy sand sagebrush and/or yucca stands on sandy soils [26]. The cover types used by scaled quail in Colorado are, in descending order, sand sagebrush-grassland, pinyon-juniper, dense cholla-grassland, dryland farmland, irrigated farmland, and greasewood (Sarcobatus spp.)-saltbush (Atriplex spp.) washes. Scaled quail made little or no use of sparse cholla-grassland, riparian areas, reseeded grasslands, or shortgrass prairie disclimax [14].


WILDLIFE SPECIES: Callipepla squamata
TIMING OF MAJOR LIFE HISTORY EVENTS : Breeding: In Arizona, pairing and maximum dispersal is complete by mid-June. Nesting probably does not begin until early July [11]. In Oklahoma, egg laying usually starts in late April. Completed clutches have been found as early as May 8 [29]. Egg laying occurs from March to June in Texas and Mexico, and from April to September in New Mexico [30]. Nests with eggs were reported as early as April 15 in New Mexico [24]. Clutch Size: Scaled quail lay from 9 to 16 eggs; most clutches are 12 to 14 eggs [13]. Incubation: Eggs are incubated by the female for 21 to 23 days. Double-brooding (the production of two consecutive broods in one season) is common [13]. In west Texas, Wallmo [32] observed the male rearing the first brood while the female began a second clutch. Sutton [29] stated, however, that scaled quail in Oklahoma are probably single-brooded, but have hatched broods as late as September 6. Ehrlich and others [7] also list scaled quail as single-brooded. Development of Young: The precocial young leave the nest shortly after hatching. They are accompanied by at least one, usually both, parents, who show them how to find food [7]. The young fledge rapidly (age at fledging not reported in the literature), and are adult size in 11 to 15 weeks [7,15]. Seasonal Movements: Scaled quail are fairly sedentary. The winter home ranges of scaled quail coveys varied from 24 to 84 acres (9.6-33.6 ha). The home ranges of separate coveys overlap only slightly or not at all [15,24]. From September to November scaled quail coveys maintain stable territories [11,24]. In Arizona, 75 to 90 percent of a population apparently moved off of a breeding area by mid-November, moving to nearby mountain foothills. The mountain habitat was consistent with that found on the breeding area. In March the population on the breeding area increased again, with most birds in groups of four to eight [11]. Nonbreeding Behavior: The average winter covey size for scaled quail is around 30 birds, although coveys of up to 150 birds have been reported [7]. PREFERRED HABITAT : Scaled quail inhabit dry, open valleys, plains, foothills, rocky slopes, draws, gullies, and canyons that have a mixture of bare ground, low herbaceous growth, and scattered brushy cover [6,7]. Good scaled quail habitat is characterized by low-growing grasses with forbs and shrubs. Overall ground cover is between 10 and 50 percent. Trees and shrubs should be less than 6.6 feet (2 m) tall. Scaled quail avoid the dense growth associated with streamsides. Transmitter-fitted scaled quail had individual home range sizes of 52 and 60 acres (21 and 24 ha) [11]. An absolute requirement by scaled quail for a source of open water has not been established; there is some debate in the literature whether there is such a requirement [15,24]. Scaled quail have been reported as inhabiting an area 7 or 8 miles (11.2-12.8 km) from the nearest water in Arizona. In New Mexico, it was not unusual to find scaled quail 10 to 15 miles (16-24 km) from water [24]. Wallmo [32] observed winter coveys 3 and 7 miles (1.8 and 11.2 km) from water in Big Bend National Park in southwestern Texas. In Arizona, scaled quail summer habitat is seldom within 660 feet (200 m) of water. Scaled quail were observed drinking at stock tanks from April to June (which was a dry period during the course of the study) every 2 to 3 days [11]. In Oklahoma, scaled quail often migrate to farms and ranches in winter and are thus closer to a source of water in winter than in summer [24]. DeGraaf and others [6] reported that in winter, scaled quail are usually found within 1.25 miles (2 km) of a source of water. COVER REQUIREMENTS : Feeding Cover: Scaled quail use grass clumps and shrubs for cover while feeding. In one study they were frequently seen crossing 82 to 165 feet (25-50 m) of bare ground. When disturbed, scaled quail hid in snakeweed (Gutierrezia spp.) or in grass clumps [11]. In June and July foraging occurs on open grasslands which are not used at other times [24]. Loafing Cover: Scaled quail coveys occupy loafing or resting cover after early morning feeding periods. Scaled quail occupy desert grassland or desert scrub with a minimum of one loafing covert per approximately 70 acres (28 ha) [4,6,13]. In northwestern Texas, loafing coverts were characterized by: (1) overhead woody cover, (2) lateral screening cover, (3) a central area with bare soil, and (4) one or more paths through the lateral cover. Covert heights ranged from 1.6 to 5.9 feet (0.5-1.8 m) and 2.6 to 6.9 feet (0.8-2.1 m) in diameter. Cholla formed all or part of the overhead cover of 85 percent of coverts, even though they were dominant at only 12 percent of the study locations. In areas where scaled quail occur without cholla, woody species such as wolfberry (Lycium spp.) and mesquite are important for overhead cover [27]. In Oklahoma pinyon-juniper habitats, scaled quail use the shade of tree cholla (Opuntia imbricata) and human-made structures [24]. In Arizona, scaled quail occupied wolfberry and mesquite 1.7 to 5 feet (0.5-1.5 m) tall for loafing cover. This overhead cover provides midday shade, but is open at the base to allow easy escape from predators [11]. In Oklahoma, winter home ranges always contained skunkbush sumac, tree cholla, or human-made structures providing overhead cover [24]. Night-roosting Cover: Scaled quail roosts were observed in yucca (Yucca angustifolia), tree cholla, and true mountain-mahogany (Cercocarpus montanus)-yucca-fragrant sumac (Rhus aromatica) vegetation types. The height of vegetation used for night roosts was less than 1.6 feet (0.5 m) [28]. Nesting Cover: In March or April winter coveys spread out into areas with less cover. This use of areas with less cover coincides with a seasonal decrease in the number of raptors in the same area [24]. Scaled quail nests are constructed under tufts of grasses, and are sheltered by sagebrush (Artemisia spp.), creosotebush (Larrea tridentata), mesquite, catclaw acacia (Acacia greggii), cactus, or yucca [13]; under dead Russian-thistle (Salsola kali), mixed forbs, or soapweed yucca; or sheltered in old machinery or other human-made debris [29]. In Oklahoma, 66 percent of nests were in one of four situations: (1) dead Russian-thistle, (2) machinery and junk, (3) mixed forbs, and (4) soapweed yucca [24]. In New Mexico, ordination of breeding birds and vegetative microhabitats indicated that scaled quail were associated with increased levels of patchiness and increased cover of mesquite and cactus [22]. FOOD HABITS : Scaled quail are opportunistic eaters [15]. Seeds are consumed year-round. Large seeds (such as those of mesquite and snakeweed) are important in scaled quail diets [5]. Other seeds include those of elbowbush (Adelia angustifolia), catclaw acacia , mesquite, hackberry (Celtis spp.), Russian-thistle, rough pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus), and sunflowers, ragweeds (Ambrosia spp.), and other Asteraceous plants [6,30]. Scaled quail consume more grass seeds than do other quail species [6]. Other dietary components include leaves, fruits, and insects. Summer diets are high in green vegetation and insects, which are also important sources of moisture [11,19]. In Oklahoma, small groups of scaled quail feed among soapweed yucca and in soapweed yucca-sand sagebrush ranges, weed patches, and grain stubble. Also in Oklahoma, early winter foods apparently eaten when other foods are not available included snow-on-the-mountain (Euphorbia marginata), sand paspalum (Paspalum stramineum), field sandbur (Cenchrus pauciflorus), purslane (Portulacca spp.), skunkbush sumac, Fendler spurge (Euphorbia fendleri), and leaf bugs. Jimsonweed (Datura stramonium) and juniper berries were always avoided [24]. Winter foods of the scaled quail in Oklahoma include Russian-thistle and sunflower (Helianthus spp.) seeds [29]. In northwestern Texas, selection of foods by scaled quail was dependent on foraging techniques, availability, and seed size. Small seeds were selected when they were still on the plant and could be easily stripped, but were not eaten once thay had fallen, presumably because they were too small and/or too hard to find. Broom snakeweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae) was a staple in winter diets; it was not highly selected but was consumed in proportion to its availability (and lack of availability of choice items) [2]. Generally, in Texas grass seeds (mainly tall dropseed [Sporobolus asper] and rough tridens [Tridens muticus]) were major constituents of scaled quail diets. This was attributed to a precipitation pattern that resulted in a relatively higher amount of grass seed available, and a lower amount of available forbs. In the same study green vegetation formed a higher proportion of the diet than reported for other areas [17]. In southwestern Texas, chestnut-bellied scaled quail consumed woody plant seeds and green vegetation. The seeds of brush species comprised 68 percent of the contents of 32 scaled quail crops. Green food, chiefly wild carrot (Daucus carota) and clover (Trifolium spp.) made up 7.17 percent. Elbowbush was the single most important source, followed by Roemer acacia (Acacia roemeriana), desert-yaupon (Schaefferia cuneifolia), and spiny hackberry (Celtis pallida) [16]. In southeastern New Mexico, staples (comprising at least 5% of scaled quail diet in both summer and winter) were mesquite and croton (Croton spp.) seeds, green vegetation, and snout beetles. Nonpreferred foods eaten in winter and available but not consumed in summer included broom snakeweed (the main winter food), crown-beard (Verbesina encelioides), cycloloma (Cycloloma atriplicifolium), and lace bugs. Mesquite seeds and broom snakeweed seeds together made up 75 percent of the winter diet [5]. Grasshoppers were a summer staple. Insect galls, cicadas, scarab beetles, spurge (Euphorbia spp.), plains bristlegrass (Setaria macrostachya) seeds, and white ratany (Krameria grayi) were consumed in a less pronounced seasonal pattern [5]. Another study reported substantial amounts of prairie sunflower seeds (Helianthus petiolaris) and pigweed (Amaranthus spp.) seeds in the diet of scaled quail [36]. Scaled quail feed in alfalfa (Medicago spp.) fields [29]. PREDATORS : In Arizona, potential scaled quail predators include mammals, birds, and reptiles. Most scaled quail kills are made by avian predators including northern harrier (Circus cyaneus), red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), American kestrel (Falco sparverius), prairie falcon (Falco mexicanus), and great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) [11]. In New Mexico, predators on scaled quail include hawks, owls, coyote (Canis latrans), and snakes [4]. In Colorado, potential predators of scaled quail include coyote, gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), red fox (Vulpes vulpes), kit fox (V. velox), bobcat (Lynx rufus), northern harrier, rough-legged hawk (Buteo lagopus), prairie falcon, peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), American kestrel, golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), and bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) [26]. Scaled quail are popular gamebirds [4]. MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Scaled quail are more tolerant of grazing than other upland birds; however, heavy livestock use in northwestern Texas reduced lateral cover around loafing coverts. Such lateral cover is often composed of Russian-thistle and grasses [27]. Much scaled quail range has been overgrazed by livestock. Desirable cover plants for scaled quail include saltbushes (Atriplex spp.), which are consumed by livestock. Reduction of saltbush cover reduces the scaled quail carrying capacity of the range [19]. Short-duration grazing has been hypothesized to result in more uniform grazing pressure than other grazing rotations. Uniform grazing pressure could degrade habitat quality for scaled quail by reducing patchy ground cover [27]. In well-watered localities in New Mexico, moderate grazing may have a beneficial effect on quail range by encouraging forbs and weeds that provide a large portion of the scaled quail diet [4,19]. Saiwana [23] reported that ranges on upland sandy areas in fair to good condition provided optimum habitat for scaled quail in south-central New Mexico. These ranges experienced moderate grazing by cattle (30 to 40% use of grasses). This level of use maintains shrub-grass habitat which is beneficial to scaled quail. Grasslands (without shrub cover) are much less suitable for scaled quail [23]. McCormick [21] reported lower numbers of scaled quail on ranges cleared of mesquite than on undisturbed mesquite range. Germano [10] reported no differences in scaled quail numbers among range cleared of mesquite, range with small, irregular clearings within mesquite, and undisturbed mesquite. He did report significantly more scaled quail calls in undisturbed mesquite than in mesquite-free range. This study was done on a relatively small scale; the author speculated that the small sizes of the clearings and of the mesquite-free range contributed to a more uniform distribution of scaled quail than would be observed with larger clearings [10]. Davis and others [5] reported that mesquite and broom snakeweed reduction projects may have an adverse effect on winter food availability for scaled quail. They suggested that the grasses which would increase in abundance following reduction of mesquite, including plains bristlegrass, panic grasses (Panicum spp.), knotgrass (Paspalum distichum), and barnyardgrass (Echinocloa crusgalli), are acceptable substitutes for mesquite and broom snakeweed in scaled quail diets. However, these grasses are usually replaced by climax grasses which are not beneficial for scaled quail. The authors therefore recommended leaving areas of mesquite and broom snakeweed for scaled quail cover and food supply [5]. Scaled quail populations fluctuate widely and are adversely affected by drought and by heavy rains [30]. In Colorado, the migration of winter coveys to farmlands (which renders them inaccessible to hunting) was reduced by the development of good winter habitat. This development included brush piles for overhead cover, guzzlers (artificial sources of water, used by scaled quail for both water and cover), and cover plantings around blow-outs [26]. Establishing natural cover is preferable to construction of artificial cover. Brush, post, and board piles, however, are inexpensive and readily used by scaled quail [24,26]. Recommended scaled quail habitat consists of successional stages with annual and perennial forbs and some food-producing shrubs. A patchwork of short grasses, tall grasses and forbs, and woody cover is ideal [2]. Recommendations for cover improvement in Oklahoma include maintaining natural cover by fencing off four-wing saltbush and skunkbrush to protect them from trampling and grazing by cattle, and establishing artificial cover [24]. Any area to be managed for scaled quail should include at least one loafing covert per 52 to 70 acres (20-28 ha), or the average size of a covey home range [27].


WILDLIFE SPECIES: Callipepla squamata
DIRECT FIRE EFFECTS ON ANIMALS : No information concerning the direct effect of fire on scaled quail was available in the literature. Adult birds could easily escape fire, although their habit of running rather than flying when disturbed may render them slightly more vulnerable than other gallinaceous birds. Nests are probably vulnerable to fire, but since scaled quail nest during the summer rains there is a low probability of wildfire during nesting. Gallinaceous birds are attracted to fires and fresh burns where dead insects and seeds are abundant [33]. HABITAT RELATED FIRE EFFECTS : Wright and Bailey [33] stated that fire, by favoring low growing shrubs and grasses over dense brush, would probably be beneficial to scaled quail. In a study to assess the effects of fire (used to control Pinchot juniper [Juniperus pinchotii]) on scaled quail habitat, populations of scaled quail on 3- and 7-year-old burns were compared with populations on unburned pastures. Scaled quail on the 3-year-old burn had diets of materials which were coarser and less digestible than those on the 7-year-old burn or on unburned areas. Scaled quail on the 3-year-old burn had lower amounts of stored fat than those on the 7-year-old burn or on unburned areas. The lower lipid reserves were attributed to the lower quality diet and reduced roosting areas associated with the more recent burn [17,18]. Common broomweed (Amphyiachyrus dracunculoides) comprised 40 percent of scaled quail diets on 4-year-old burns [17]. FIRE USE : Brush control in rangelands often includes the use of fire. Any prescribed burning for brush control in scaled quail habitat should be conducted so as not to eliminate the type of cholla cover used as loafing coverts [27]. Cactus species vary in their response to fire. Fire effects on cacti also depend on the size of individual plants [35]. Tree cholla (valuable for cover) experienced 73 percent mortality of short plants and 27 percent mortality of tall plants as measured 3 years after a prescribed fire [35]. Scaled quail will use dead cholla for cover; however, fire-caused necrosis of lower limbs could prevent the formation of adequate lateral cover, particularly where cattle are present. High-crowned shrubs without lateral cover were not used by scaled quail for resting coverts from January to early May [27]. Prescribed burning of pastures to control prickly pear (Opuntia spp.) should be conducted so that 1-acre (0.4 ha) plots of prickly pear, with clumps 100 yards (90 m) apart, are left for quail cover [16]. An extensive body of research has been published on fire effects on animals in semidesert grassland, oak savanna, and Madrean oak woodlands of southeastern Arizona, including the response of scaled quail to fire. See the Research Project Summary of this work for more information on scaled quail and more than 100 additional species of birds, small mammals, grasshoppers, and herbaceous and woody plant species. FIRE REGIMES : Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find Fire Regimes".


WILDLIFE SPECIES: Callipepla squamata
REFERENCES : 1. American Ornithologists' Union. 1983. Checklist of North American birds. 6th ed. Lawrence, KS: Allen Press, Inc. 877 p. [21234] 2. Ault, Stacey C.; Stormer, Fred A. 1983. Seasonal food selection by scaled quail in northwest Texas. Journal of Wildlife Management. 47(1): 222-228. [12168] 3. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434] 4. Campbell, Howard; Martin, Donald K.; Ferkovich, Paul E.; Harris, Bruce K. 1973. Effects of hunting and some other environmental factors on scaled quail in New Mexico. Wildlife Monographs No. 34. Bethesda, MD: The Wildlife Society. 49 p. [23082] 5. Nowak, Cheryl L.; Nowak, Robert S.; Tausch, Robin J.; Wigand, Peter E. 1994. A 30,000 year record of vegetation dynamics at a semi-arid locale in the Great Basin. Journal of Vegetation Science. 5: 579-590. [23084] 6. DeGraaf, Richard M.; Scott, Virgil E.; Hamre, R. H.; [and others]. 1991. Forest and rangeland birds of the United States: Natural history and habitat use. Agric. Handb. 688. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 625 p. [15856] 7. Ehrlich, Paul R.; Dobkin, David S.; Wheye, Darryl. 1988. The birder's handbook: a field guide to the natural history of North American birds. New York: Simon & Schuster, Inc. 785 p. [21559] 8. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 9. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 10. Germano, David Joseph. 1978. Response of selected wildlife to mesquite removal in desert grassland. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona. 60 p. M.S. thesis. [10532] 11. Goodwin, John G., Jr.; Hungerford, C. Roger. 1977. Habitat use by native Gambel's and scaled quail and released masked bobwhite quail in southern Arizona. Res. Pap. RM-197. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 8 p. [14970] 12. Guthery, Fred S.; DeYoung, Charles A.; Bryant, Fred C.; Drawe, D. Lynn. 1990. Using short duration grazing to accomplish wildlife habitat objectives. In: Severson, Kieth E., tech. coord. Can livestock be used as a tool to enhance wildlife habitat?: Proceedings, 43rd annual meeting of the Society for Range Management; 1990 February 13; Reno, NV. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-194. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 41-55. [15998] 13. Harrison, H. H. 1979. A field guide to western birds' nests. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.. 279 p. [22997] 14. Hoffman, Donald M. 1965. The scaled quail in Colorado: Range--population status--harvest. Tech. Publ. No. 18. Denver, CO: Colorado Department of Game, Fish, and Parks. 47 p. [23086] 15. Johnsgard, Paul A. 1988. The quails, partridges, and francolins of the world. New York: Oxford University Press. 264 p. [16199] 16. Lehmann, Valgene W.; Ward, Herbert. 1941. Some plants valuable to quail in southwestern Texas. Journal of Wildlife Management. 5(2): 131-135. [12227] 17. Leif, Anthony P. 1987. Bobwhite and scaled quail responses to burning of redberry juniper- dominated rangelands. Lubbock, TX: Texas Tech University. 84 p. Thesis. [23080] 18. Leif, Anthony P.; Smith, Loren M.; Wright, Henry A. 1986. Effects of controlled burns on quail populations in juniper habitat. In: Smith, Loren M.; Britton, Carlton M., eds. Research highlights--1986 Noxious brush and weed control; range and wildlife management. Volume 17. Lubbock, TX: Texas Tech University: 36. [3669] 19. Leopold, A. Starker; Gutierrez, Ralph J.; Bronson, Michael T. 1981. North American game birds and mammals. New York: Charles Scribner & Sons. 198 p. [22815] 20. LIGON, J. S. 1961. New Mexico birds and where to find them. Alberquerque: University of New Mexico Press. 360 p. [22998] 21. McCormick, D. P. 1975. Effect of mesquite control on small game populations. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona. 66 p. Thesis. [23772] 22. Naranjo, Luis G.; Raitt, Ralph J. 1993. Breeding bird distribution in Chihuahuan Desert habitats. Southwestern Naturalist. 38(1): 43-51. [20943] 23. Saiwana, Lewis L. 1990. Range condition effects on scaled quail in southcentral New Mexico. Las Cruces, NM: New Mexico State University. 124 p. Dissertation. In: Dissertation Abstracts International. 51(4): 1590-B. [Abstract]. [23081] 24. Schemnitz, Sanford D. 1961. Ecology of the scaled quail in the Oklahoma Panhandle. Wildlife Monographs: No. 8. Bethesda, MD: The Wildlife Society: 5-47. [23079] 25. Sibley, Charles G.; Monroe, Burt L., Jr. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of the birds of the world. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. 1111 p. [22814] 26. Snyder, Warren D. 1967. Experimental habitat improvement for scaled quail. Game bird surveys. Colorado Division of Wildlife. Project number W-037-R-18/WK.PL.06/JOB 1. [22999] 27. Stormer, Fred A. 1981. Characteristics of scaled quail loafing coverts in northwest Texas. Res. Note RM-395. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 6 p. [23085] 28. Stormer, Fred A. 1984. Night-roosting habitat of scaled quail. Journal of Wildlife Management. 48(1): 191-197. [23083] 29. Sutton, Geroge Miksch. 1967. Oklahoma birds: their ecology and distribution with comments on the avifauna of the southern Great Plains. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press. 674 p. [23000] 30. Terres, John K. 1980. The Audubon Society encyclopedia of North American birds. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. 1109 p. [16195] 31. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. [11573] 32. Wallmo, O. C. 1956. Ecology of scaled quail in west Texas. Contribution of the Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Act; Special report: Project W-57-R; Department of Wildlife Management, A & M College of Texas. Austin, TX: Texas Game and Fish Commission, Division of Wildlife Restoration. 134 p. [24189] 33. Wright, Henry A.; Bailey, Arthur W. 1982. Fire ecology: United States and southern Canada. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 501 p. [2620] 34. Hubbard, John Patrick; Hubbard, Claudia L. 1979. Birds of New Mexico's national parklands. Glenwood, NM: Tecolote Press, Inc. 40 p. [22827] 35. Bunting, Stephen C.; Wright, Henry A.; Neuenschwander, Leon F. 1980. Long-term effects of fire on cactus in the southern mixed prairie of Texas. Journal of Range Management. 33(2): 85-88. [4271] 36. Best, Troy L.; Smartt, Richard A. 1985. Foods of scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) in southeastern New Mexico. Texas Journal of Science. 37(2&3): 155-162. [23520]

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