WWETAC Projects

Project Title: Regional variation in North American fungal associates of Dendroctonus valens: What goes 'round comes 'round?

Status: Ongoing

Principal Investigators: Nancy E. Gillette, PSW Research Station, Berkeley, CA; Donald R. Owen, California Department Forestry and Fire Protection, Redding, CA

E-mail Contact: Nancy Gillette, ngillette[at]fs.fed.us

Summary: Dendroctonus valens was introduced from North America to Asia and has become well established there. It has caused unprecedented losses of Pinus tabuliformis in China, and appears to attack all pine hosts with which it comes into contact there. It is expected to expand its range across Eurasia, and may well acquire new fungal associates, especially in the genus Ophiostoma and related imperfect genera such as Leptographium. Some of these fungal associates may be more virulent toward North American pines than indigenous fungi, especially as our native pines will not have evolved defenses against these exotic fungi. Forest health specialists in the United States and Canada are concerned about the risk of reintroduction of D. valens from Asia carrying new, exotic fungal associates. Very little is known about either the exotic or indigenous fungi, so it is difficult to identify new fungal introductions. The goal of this project is to identify and characterize the indigenous fungal associates of D. valens so that it will be possible to recognize new introductions. A parallel study is underway in China that is characterizing species of Asian Ophiostoma and related imperfect genera isolated from D. valens.

Study Objectives and Goals: Collect, isolate, and culture fungal associates across the range of D. valens in North America. Provide cultures of these fungi for molecular taxonomic work and quarantine cross-inoculations to FABI (Wingfield and Min), CAS (Sun), and U. Montana (Six), collaborators. Describe existing geographical variation in fungal associates of D. valens based on both molecular and morphological characters.

Collaborator(s) and Affiliations:

Christopher Asaro, Virginia Department of Forestry
Charlottesville, VA 22903
Monica Blackman, Bureau of Indian Affairs
Harlem, MT 59526
Kevin J. Dodds, USDA Forest Service
Durham, NH 03824
Andris Eglitis, USDA Forest Service
Deschutes National Forest
Bend, OR 97702
Monica Gaylord, Northern Arizona University
Flagstaff, AZ 86011
Donald J. Goheen, USDA Forest Service
SW OR Forest Insect and Disease Service Center
Central Point, OR 97502
Robert A. Haack, USDA Forest Service
Northern Research Station
East Lansing, MI 48823
Bruce B. Hostetler, USDA Forest Service
Westside Forest Insect and Disease Service Center
Sandy, OR 97055
Constance J. Mehmel, USDA Forest Service
Okanogan and Wenatchee National Forests
Wenatchee WA 98801
Lee Pederson, USDA Forest Service
FHP-Coeur d'Alene Field Office
Coeur d'Alene, ID
Ken Raffa and Aaron Adams
Department of Entomology, University of Wisconsin
Madison, WI 53706
Danielle Reboletti, USDA Forest Service
Black Hills National Forest
Rapid City, SD 57702
Diana Six
Dept. of Ecosystem and Conservation Sciences,
College of Forestry and Conservation
University of Montana
Missoula, MT 59812
Kjerstin R. Skov, USDA Forest Service
Ogden Field Office
Ogden, UT 84403
Lia Spiegel, USDA Forest Service
Blue Mountains Pest Management Service Center
La Grande, Oregon 97850
Jianghua Sun, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Institute of Zoology
Beijing, China 100080
Elizabeth A. Willhite, Mount Hood National Forest
Sandy, Oregon 97055
Michael Wingfield and Lu Min
University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa
Dave Wood/Nadir Erbilgin
University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720

Status: We are conducting the first year of sampling across North America, with 17 collaborators, primarily from USDA Forest Service Forest Health Protection staff. Fungal cultures have been made from 10 North American localities, and laboratory isolations are underway. Isolates will be sent to South Africa for DNA sequencing this summer.

Deliverables: Molecular and morphological characterization of species of Ophiostoma and related imperfect genera collected from D. valens across its native range in North America.

Background Citations:

Catarino, M.S.; Cho, S.; Sperling, F.A.H. 2000. The current state of insect molecular systematics: a thriving tower of Babel. Annual Review of Entomology. 45: 1-54.

Cibrian Tovar, D.; Montiel, J.T.M.; Bolanos, R.C.; Yates, H.O., III; Lara, J.F. 1995. Forest insects of Mexico. Universidad Autónoma Chapingo. 453 p.

Cognato, A.I.; Hua, S.J.; Anducho Reyes, M.A.; Owen, D.R. 2005. Genetic variation and origin of red turpentine beetle (Dendroctonus valens LeConte) introduced to the People's Republic of China. Agricultural and Forest Entomology. 7(1): 87-94.

Erbilgin, N.; Mori, S.R.; Sun, J.H.; Stein, J.D.; Owen, D.R.; Merrill, L.D.; Bolaños, R.C.; Raffa, K.F.; Montiel, T.M.; Wood, D.L.; Gillette, N.E. 2007. Response to host volatiles by native and introduced populations of Dendroctonus valens (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) in North America and China. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 33: 131-146.

Fox, J.W.; Wood, D.L.; Akers, P.P.; Parmeter, J.R., Jr. 1992. Survival and development of Ips paraconfusus Lanier (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) reared axenically and with tree pathogenic fungi vectored by cohabiting Dendroctonus species. Canadian Entomologist. 124: 1157-1167.

Furniss, R.L.; Carolin, V.M. 1977. Western forest insects. Misc. Pub. No. 1339. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 654 p.

Jacobs, K.; Bergdahl, D.R.; Wingfield, M.J.; Halik, S.; Seifert, K.A.; Bright, D.E.; Wingfield, B.D. 2004. Leptographium wingfieldii introduced into North America and found associated with exotic Tomicus piniperda and native bark beetles. Mycological Research. 108: 411-418.

Klepzig, K.D.; Raffa, K.F.; Smalley, E.B. 1991. Association of an insect-fungal complex with red pine decline in Wisconsin. Forest Science. 37: 1119-1139.

Miao Z.W.; Chou W.M.; Huo F.Y.; Wang X.L.; Fang J.X.; Zhao, M.M. 2001. Biology of Dendroctonus valens in Shanxi Province. Shanxi Forestry Science and Technology. 23: 34-37.

Owen, D.R. 1985. The role of Dendroctonus valens and its vectored fungi in the mortality of ponderosa pine. Berkeley, CA: University of California, Ph.D. dissertation. 64.

Owen, D.R.; Lindahl, K.Q., Jr.; Wood, D.L.; Parmeter, J.R., Jr. 1987. Pathogenicity of fungi isolated from Dendroctonus valens, D. brevicomis, and D. ponderosae to ponderosa pine seedlings. Phytopathology. 77: 631-636.

Owen, D.R.; Wood, D.L.; Parmeter, J.R., Jr. 2005. Association between Dendroctonus valens and black stain root disease on ponderosa pine in the Sierra Nevada of California. Canadian Entomologist. 137: 367-375.

Paine, T.D.; Raffa, K.F.; Harrington, T.C. 1997. Interactions among scolytid bark beetles, their associated fungi, and host conifers. Annual Review, Entomology. 42: 179-206.

Rane, K.K.; Tattar, T.A. 1987. Pathogenicity of blue-stain fungi associated with Dendroctonus terebrans. Plant Disease. 71: 879-883.

Rappaport, N.G.; Owen, D.R.; Stein, J.D. 2001. Interruption of semiochemical-mediated attraction of Dendroctonus valens (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) and selected nontarget insects by verbenone. Environmental Entomology. 30: 837-841.

Smith, R.H. 1961. Red turpentine beetle. Forest Pest Leaflet 55. U.S. Department of Agriculture. 8 p.

Sun, J.H.; Gillette, N.E.; Miao, Z.; Kang, L.; Zhang, Z.; Owen, D.R.; Stein, J.D. 2003. Verbenone interrupts attraction to host volatiles and reduces attack on Pinus tabuliformis by Dendroctonus valens LeConte (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in the People's Republic of China. The Canadian Entomologist. 135: 721-732.

Sun, J.H.; Miao, Z.; Kang, L.; Zhang, Z.; Gillette, N.E. 2004. Red turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus valens LeConte (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), response to host semiochemicals in China. Environmental Entomology. 33: 206-212.

Wood, S.L. 1982. The bark and ambrosia beetles of North and Central America (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), a taxonomic monograph. Great Basin Naturalist No. 6.

Project ID: FY07TS37