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Joseph A. Burns CWB
National Transportation Ecology Program Leader
Watershed, Fish, Wildlife, Air, Rare Plants
1400 Independance Ave SW - MS1121
Washington, D.C. 20250-1121
(202) 205-0919
jaburns@fs.fed.us

Sandra Jacobson
Wildlife Biologist
USDA Forest Service
Pacific Southwest Research Station
(541) 678-5240
sjacobson@fs.fed.us

 

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Soil Effects Related to OHV Use and Roads References

 Last update June 1, 2008
(keywords searched: soil, soils, soil compaction, erosion, runoff, desertification, soil stabilizer, gullying, rut)

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1244. Adams, J. A., A. S. Endo, L. H. Stolzy, P. G. Rowlands, and H. B. Johnson. 1982. Controlled experiments on soil compaction produced by off-road vehicles in the Mojave Desert, California. Journal of Applied Ecology 19: 167-175.
 
1117. Ahlstrand, G. M., and C. H. Racine. 1993. Response of an Alaska, USA, shrub-tussock community to selected all-terrain vehicle use. Arctic and Alpine research 25(2): 142-149.
 
1137. Albrecht, J., and T. B. Knopp. 1985. Off Road Vehicles - Environmental Impact - Management Response: A Bibliography. Miscellaneous Publication No. 35. Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN.
 
496. Amaranthus, M. P., R. M. Rice, N. R. Barr, and R. R. Ziemer. 1985. Logging and forest roads related to increased debris slides in southwestern Oregon. Journal of Forestry 83(4): 229-233.
 
713. Atzet, T. 1996. Fire regimes and restoration needs in southwestern Oregon in The use of fire in forest restoration: a general session at the annual meeting of the Society for Ecological Restoration. Pp. 74-76 in: C. C. Hardy and S. F. Arno (editors). General Technical Report INT-GTR-341. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Ogden, UT.
 
714. Baker Jr., M. B. 1990. Hydrologic and water quality effects of fire in Effects of Fire Management of Southwestern Natural Resources: Proceedings of the Symposium. Pp. 31-42 in: J. S. Krammes (editor). General Technical Report GTR-RM-191. USDA Forest Service, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO.
 
569. Bengston, G., J. DuPre, W. Twomey, and R. Hooper. 1993. Longleaf ecosystem restoration in the wake of Hurricane Hugo. Pp. 339-347 in: S. M. Hermann (editor), The longleaf pine ecosystem:  ecology, restoration and management. Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference: No. 18. Springer, New York, NY.
 
718. Bentley, J. R. 1967. Conversion of chaparral areas to grassland:  techniques used in California. Pp. in, Agriculture Handbook. U.S. Department Agriculture, Washington DC.
 
1302. Bergerud, A. T. , R. D.  Jakimchuk, and D. R. Carruthers. 1984. The buffalo of the north: Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) and human developments. Arctic 37: 7-22.
 
720. Bildstein, K. L., G. T. Bancroft, P. J. Dugan, D. H. Gordon, R. M. Erwin, E. Nol, L. X. Payne, and S. E. Senner. 1991. Approaches to the conservation of coastal wetlands in the western hemisphere. The Wilson Bulletin 103(2): 218-254.
 
722. Biswell, H. H. 1963. Research in wildland fire ecology in California. Pp. 63-97 in: E. V. Komarek Sr. (editor), Proceedings Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference:  No. 2. Tall Timbers Research Station, Tallahassee, FL.
 
723. Blakely, K. L., J. A. Crawford, R. S. Lutz, and K. M. Kilbride. 1990. Response of key foods of California quail to habitat manipulations. Wildlife Society Bulletin 18(3): 240-245.
 
1254. Blom, C. W. P. M. 1976. Effects of trampling and soil compaction on the occurrence of some Plantago species in coastal sand dunes. Oecologia Plantarum 11: 225-241.
 
1258. Brodhead, J. M., and P. J. Godfrey. 1977. Off road vehicle impact in Cape Cod National Seashore: disruption and recovery of dune vegetation. International Journal of Biometeorology 21: 299-306.
 
1174. Brooks, Matthew L., and Bridget Lair. 2005. Ecological effects of vehicular routes in a desert ecosystem. U.S. Geological Survey, Western Ecological Research Center, Las Vegas Field Station, Henderson, NV.
 
737. Brown, G. W., and J. T. Krygier. 1971. Clear-cut logging and sediment production in the Oregon Coast Range. Water Resources Research 7(5): 1189-1198.
 
1192. Buckley, Ralf, Catherine Pickering, and David Bruce Weaver. 2003. Environment impacts of ecotourism. CABI Publishing, 
 
579. Butler, W. H. 1987. Management of disturbance in an arid remnant: The Barrow Island Experience. Pp. 279-285 in: D. A. Saunders, G. W. Arnold, A. A. Burbidge and J. M. Hopkins (editors), Nature Conservation:  The role of remnants of native vegetation. Surrey Beatty & Sons, New South Wales.
 
750. Campbell, V. L., and J. Bush. 1997. Cooperative interagency forest recovery efforts - dealing with the fire's aftermath. Pp. 15-17 in: J. M. Greenlee (editor), Proceedings: Conference on Fire Effects on Rare and Endangered Species and Habitats. International Association of Wildland Fire, Fairfield, WA.
 
583. Catsadorakis, G., and M. Malakou. 1997. Conservation and management issues of Prespa National Park. Hydrobiologia 351: 175-196.
 
755. Caufield, Catherine. 1990. The ancient forest. New Yorker: 46-84.
 
1163. Chen, Jiquan, Jerry F. Franklin, and Thomas A. Spies. 1995. Growing-season microclimatic gradients from clearcut edges into old-growth Douglas-fir forests. Ecological Applications 5(1): 74-86.
 
1200. Cole, David N. 1986. Resource impacts caused by recreation. INT4901 Publication # 165. The Commission, Washington D.C.
 
9. Cole, David N., and Peter B. Landres. 1995. Indirect effects of recreation on wildlife. Chapter 11. Island Press., Washington D. C.
 
764. Cowling, R. M., I. A. W. Macdonald, and M. T. Simmons. 1996. The Cape Peninsula, South Africa: Physiographical, biological and historical background to an extraordinary hot-spot of biodiversity. Biodiversity and Conservation 5(5): 527-550.
 
765. Cox, J., R. Kautz, M. MacLaughlin, and T. Gilbert. 1994. Closing the gaps in Florida's wildlife habitat conservation system:  recommendations to meet minimum conservation goals for declining wildlife species and rare plant and animal communities. Pp. in. Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, Office of Environmental Services, Tallahassee, FL.
 
1193. Dale, Virginia H., Daniel L. Druckenbrod, Latha Baskaran, Matthew Aldridge, Michael Berry, Chuck Garten, Lisa Olsen, and Rebecca Efroymson. 2005. Vehicle impacts on the environment at different spatial scales: observations in west central Georgia, USA. Journal of Terramechanics 42(3-4): 383-402.
 
1272. Davidson, E., and M. Fox. 1974. Effects of off-road motorcycle activity on Mojave Desert vegetation and soil. Madrono 22: 381-412.
 
768. DeByle, Norbert V. 1981. Clearcutting and fire in the Larch/Douglas-fir forests of western Montana - a multifaceted research summary. Pp. 73 p. in. General Technical Report GTR-INT-99. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT.
 
586. DellaSala, D. A., and E. Frost. 2001. An ecologically based strategy for fire and fuel management in national forest roadless areas. Fire Management Today 61(2): 12-23.
 
1420. Dregne, H. E. 1983. Soil and soil formation in arid regions. Pp. 15-30 in: R. H. Webb and H. G. Wilshire (editors), Environmental Effects of Off-Road Vehicles: Impacts and Management in Arid Regions. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY.
 
1335. Eaglin, G. S. , and W. A. Hubert. 1993. Effects of logging and roads on substrate and trout in streams of the Medicine Bow National Forest, Wyoming. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 13: 844-846.
 
1277. Eckert Jr., R. E., M. K. Wood, W. H. Blackburn, and F. F. Petersen. 1979. Impacts of off-road vehicles on infiltration and sediment production of two desert soils. Journal of Range Management 32: 394-397.
 
1063. Eliasson, Lars, and Iwan Wasterlund. 2007. Effects of slash reinforcement of strip roads on rutting and soil compaction on a moist fine-grained soil. Forest Ecology and Management 252(1-3): 118-123.
 
1172. Fang, Shoufan, Stephen Wente, George Z. Gertner, Guangxing Wang, and Alan Anderson. 2002. Uncertainty analysis of predicted disturbance from off-road vehicular traffic in complex landscapes at Fort Hood. Environmental Management 30(2): 199-208.
 
793. Fischer, A., M. Lindner, C. Abs, and P. Lasch. 2002. Vegetation dynamics in central European forest ecosystems (near-natural as well as managed) after storm events. Folia Geobotanica 37(1): 17-32.
 
539. Forman, Richard T. T., and Lauren E. Alexander. 1998. Roads and their major ecological effects. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 207-231.
 
500. Forman, Richard T. T., Daniel Sperling, John A. Bissonette, Anthony P. Clevenger, Carol D. Cutshall, Virginia H. Dale, Lenore Fahrig, Robert France, Charles R. Goldman, Kevin Heanue, Julia A. Jones, Frederick J. Swanson, Thomas Turrentine, and Thomas C. Winter. 2003. Road Ecology: Science and Solutions. Island Press, Washington DC.
 
795. Franklin, S. E. 1997. Chaparral management techniques for development:  public and governmental perceptions. Pp. 145-148 in: J. M. Greenlee (editor), Conference on Fire Effects on Rare and Endangered Species and Habitats. International Association of Wildland Fire, Fairfield, WA.
 
800. Galatowitsch, S. M. 1990. Using the original land survey notes to reconstruct presettlement landscapes in the American West. The Great Basin Naturalist 50(2): 181-191.
 
550. Garland, John J. 1983. Logging: Maintaining Woodland Roads. Oregon State University Extension Service Circular 1139: 1-11.
 
1052. Gelbard, J. L., and S. Harrison. 2003. Roadless habitats as refuges for native grasslands: interactions with soil, aspect and grazing. Ecological Applications 13(2): 404-415.
 
1120. Grace III, J. M., and B. D. Clinton. 2007. Protecting soil and water in forest road management. Transactions of the ASABE 50(5): 1579-1584.
 
1445. Grant, Tyler J. 2005. Flat-tailed horned lizards (Phrynosoma mcallii): population size estimation, effects of off-highway vehicles, and natural history. M.S. Thesis. Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO. 97 p.
 
810. Greenberg, C. H., S. H. Crownowver, and D. R. Gordon. 1997. Roadside soils: a corridor for invasion of xeric scrub by nonindigenous plants. Natural Areas Journal 17(2): 99-109.
 
1189. Griggs, Gary B., and Barbara L. Walsh. 1981. The impact, control, and mitigation of off-road activity in Hungry Valley, California. Environmental Geology 3(4): 229-243.
 
814. Gruell, G. E. 1979. Wildlife habitat investigations and management implications on the Bridger-Teton National Forest. Pp. 63-74 in: M. S. Boyce and L. D. Hayden-Wing, North American Elk, Ecology, Behavior and Management. University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY.
 
327. Gucinski, Hermann, Michael J. Furniss, Robert R. Ziemer, and Martha H. Brookes. 2001. Forest roads:  a synthesis of scientific information. General Technical Report PNW-GTR-509. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, Oregon.
 
1134. Gutzwiller, Kevin J. 1995. Recreational disturbance and wildlife communities. Pp. 169-182 in: R. L. Knight and K. J. Gutzwiller (editors), Wildlife and Recreationists: Coexistence through Management and Research. Island Press, Washington D. C.
 
1425. Hall, J. A. 1980. Direct impacts of off-road vehicles on vegetation. Pp. 63-74 in: P. G. Rowlands (editor), The Effects of Disturbance on Desert Soils, Vegetation and Community Processes with Emphasis on Off-Road Vehicles: a Critical Review. U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Riverside, CA.
 
817. Halpern, C. B. 1988. Early successional pathways and the resistance and resilience of forest communities. Ecology 69(6): 1703-1715.
 
552. Haskell, David G. 2000. Effects of forest roads on macroinvertebrate soil fauna of the southern Appalachian Mountains. Conservation Biology 14(1): 57-63.
 
1432. Heede, B. H. 1983. Control of rills and gullies in off-road vehicle traffic areas. Pp. in: R. H. Webb and H. G. Wilshire (editors), Environmental Effects of Off-Road Vehicles: Impacts and Management in Arid Regions. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY.
 
829. Hellgren, E. C., M. R. Vaughan, and D. F. Stauffer. 1991. Macrohabitat use by black bears in a southeastern wetlands. The Journal of Wildlife Management 55(3): 442-448.
 
1433. Hinckley, B. S., R. M. Iverson, and B. Hallet. 1983. Accelerated water erosion in ORV-use areas. Pp. 83-96 in: R. H. Webb and H. G. Wilshire (editors), Environmental Effects of Off-Road Vehicles: Impacts and Management in Arid Regions. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY.
 
1171. Iverson, Richard M., Bern S. Hinckley, Robert M. Webb, and Bernard Hallett. 1981. Physical effects of vehicular disturbance on arid landscapes. Science 212(4497): 915-917.
 
848. Kashian, D. M., and B. V. Barnes. 2000. Landscape influence on the spatial and temporal distribution of the Kirtland's warbler at the Bald Hill burn, northern Lower Michigan, USA. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 30(12): 1895-1904.
 
607. Kaufman, D. W., G. A. Kaufman, and B. K. Clark. 2000. Small mammals in native and anthropogenic habitats in the Lake Wilson area of north-central Kansas. Southwestern Naturalist 45(1): 45-60.
 
506. Knapp, Shannon M., Carola A. Haas, Douglas N. Harpole, and Roy L. Kirkpatrick. 2003. Initial effects of clearcutting and alternative silvicultural practices on terrestrial salamander abundance. Conservation Biology 17(3): 752-762.
 
862. Kreutzwiser, R. D., and C. S. Wright. 1990. Factors influencing integrated forest management on private industrial forest land. Journal of Environmental Management 30(1): 31-46.
 
864. Kurczewski, F. E. 2000. History of white pine (Pinus strobus)/oak (Quercus spp.) savanna in southern Ontario, with particular reference to the biogeography and status of the antenna-waving wasp, Tachysphex pechumani (Hymenoptera : Sphecidae). Canadian Field Naturalist 114(1): 1-20.
 
1459. Kutiel, P., E. Eden, and Y. Zhevelev. 2000. Effect of experimental trampling and off-road motorcycle traffic on soil and vegetation of stabilized coastal dunes, Israel. Environmental Conservation 27(1): 14-23.
 
868. Laurance, W. F. 2001. Tropical logging and human invasions. Conservation Biology 15(1): 4-5.
 
869. Laurance, W. F., A. K. M. Albernaz, G. Schroth, P. M. Fearnside, S. Bergen, E. M. Venticinque, and C. Da Costa. 2002. Predictors of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Journal of Biogeography 29(5-6): 737-748.
 
1177. Lei, S. A. 2004. Soil compaction from human trampling, biking, and off-road motor vehicle activity in a blackbrush (Coleogyne ramosissima) shrubland. Western North American Naturalist 64: 125-130.
 
1460. Leung, Y-F., and J. L. Marion. 1996. Trail degradation as influenced by environmental factors: a state-of-the-knowledge review. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 51(2): 130-136.
 
1183. Li, Q., P. D. Ayers, and A. B. Anderson. 2007. Prediction of impacts of wheeled vehicles on terrain. Journal of Terramechanics 44(2): 205-215.
 
453. Lovich, Jeffrey E., and David Bainbridge. 1999. Anthropogenic degradation of the southern California desert ecosystem and prospects for natural recovery and restoration. Environmental Management 24(3): 309-326.
 
557. Luce, Charles H., and Thomas A. Black. 1999. Sediment production from forest roads in western Oregon. Water Resources Research 35(8): 2561-2570.
 
879. MacPhee, D. T. 1991. Prescribed burning and managed grazing restores tobasa grassland, antelope populations (Arizona). Restoration & Management Notes 9(1): 35-36.
 
1098. Marsh, David M. 2007. Edge effects of gated and ungated roads on terrestrial salamanders. Journal of Wildlife Management 71(2): 389-394.
 
342. Marsh, D. M., and N. G. Beckman. 2004. Effects of forest roads on the abundance and activity of terrestrial salamanders. Ecological Applications 14(6): 1882-1891.
 
1111. McGrann, M. C., G. R. Wright, R. J. Dial, and A. M. McGrann. 2006. Off-highway vehicle impact on the flat-tailed horned lizard, Phyrnosoma Mcallii, in the Colorado desert of southern California. California Fish and Game 92(2): 67-80.
 
903. Millsap, B. A., J. A. Gore, D. E. Runde, and S. I. Cerulean. 1990. Setting priorities for the conservation of fish and wildlife species in Florida. Wildlife Monographs(111): 1-57.
 
1438. Noss, R. F. 1996. The ecological effects of roads. Pp. 2-12 in, Road-Rippers Handbook. Wildlands Center for Preventing Roads, Missoula, MT.
 
918. Noss, Reed F., and L. D. Harris. 1990. Habitat connectivity and the conservation of biological diversity:  Florida as a case history. Proceedings of the Society of American Foresters National Convention 1989:  Forestry on the Frontier, Bethesda, MD, The Society.
 
924. Oswald, B. P., and W. W. Covington. 1983. Changes in understory production following a wildfire in southwestern Ponderosa pine. Journal of Range Management 36(4): 507-509.
 
1190. Payne, Gene F., John W. Foster, and Wayne C. Leininger. 1983. Vehicle impacts on northern Great Plains range vegetation. Journal of Range Management 36(3): 327-331.
 
1465. Priskin, J. 2003. Physical impacts of four-wheel drive related tourism and recreation in a semi-arid, -natural coastal environment. Ocean and Coastal Management 46: 127-155.
 
937. Puckett, K. M., W. E. Palmer, P. T. Bromley, J. R. Anderson Jr., and T. L. Sharpe. 2000. Effects of filter strips on habitat use and home range of northern bobwhites on Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge in. Quail IV:  Proceedings of the Fourth National Quail Symposium, Tallahassee, FL, Tall Timbers Research Station, 6-9 May 1997.
 
1381. Quarles, H. D. , R. B.  Hanawalt, and W. E. Odum. 1974. Lead in small mammals, plants, and soil at varying distances from a highway. Journal of Applied Ecology 11: 937-949.
 
564. Rice, R. M., and J. Lewis. 1991. Estimating erosion risks associated with logging and forest roads in northwestern California. Water Resources Bulletin 27(5): 809-818.
 
1037. Robichaud, Peter R., Jan L. Beyers, and Daniel G. Neary. 2000. Evaluating the effectiveness of postfire rehabilitation treatments. General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-63. U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Ogden, UT.
 
954. Roessler, J. S., and E. C. Packee. 2000. Disturbance history of the Tanana River basin in Alaska: management implications. Pp. 46-57 in: W. K. Moser and C. F. Moser (editors), Proceedings of the Twenty-first Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference: 1998 April 14-16; Tallahassee, FL No. 21. Tall Timbers Research Station, Tallahassee, FL.
 
1179. Rowlands, P. G. 1983. Effects of disturbance on desert soils, vegetation, and community processes with emphasis on off-road vehicles: a critical review. Desert Plan Staff Special Publication. U. S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Riverside, California.
 
966. Schubert, G. H., L. J. Heidmann, and M. M. Larson. 1970. Artificial reforestation practices for the Southwest. Agricultural Handbook. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, D. C.
 
972. Sidle, R. C. 1980. Impacts of forest practices on surface erosion. Oregon State University, Extension Service, Corvallis, OR.
 
1194. Slaughter, Charles W., Charles H. Racine, Donald A. Walker, Larry A. Johnson, and Gunars Abele. 1990. Use of off-road vehicles and mitigation of effects in Alaska permafrost environments: a review. Environmental Management 14(1): 63-72.
 
1188. Sparrow, S. D., F. J. Wooding, and E. H. Whiting. 1978. Effects of off-road vehicle traffic on soils and vegetation in the Denali Highway region of Alaska. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 33: 20-27.
 
1535. Springfield, H. W. 1976. Characteristics and management of southwestern pinyon-juniper ranges: the status of our knowledge. Research paper. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO.
 
1537. Stowkowski, Patricia A., and Christopher B. LaPointe. 2000. Environmental and social effects of ATVs and ORVs: an annotated bibliography and research assessment. University of Vermont, School of Natural Resources, Burlington, VT. 32 p.
 
1444. The Wilderness Society. 2006. Addressing the ecological effects of off-road vehicles (ORV's). Science and Policy Brief 3: 1-16.
 
1448. Thompson, Katherine A. 2007. Management perceptions of off-highway vehicle use on National Forest system lands in Appalachia. M.S. Thesis. West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV. 155 p.
 
702. Tilman, D., and C. Lehman. 2001. Human-caused environmental change: Impacts on plant diversity and evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 98(10): 5433-5440.
 
1497. Turtle, S. L. 2000. Embryonic survivorship of the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) in roadside and woodland vernal pools in southeastern New Hampshire. Journal of Herpetology 34: 60-67.
 
1538. Unsworth, J. W., J. J. Beecham, and L. R. Irby. 1989. Female black bear habitat use in west-central Idaho. The Journal of Wildlife Management 53(3): 668-673.
 
1195. Vollmer, A. T., B. G. Maza, P. A. Medica, F. B. Turner, and S. A. Bamberg. 1977. The impact of off-road vehicles on a desert ecosystem. Environmental Management 1(2): 115-129.
 
1514. Weathers, K. C. , M. L.  Cadenasso, and S. T. A. Pickett. 2001. Forest edges as nutrient and pollutant concentrations: potential synergisms between fragmentation, forest canopies, and the atmosphere. Conservation Biology 15: 1506-1514.
 
1516. Webb, R. H. 1982. Off-road motorcycle effects on a desert soil. Environmental Conservation 9: 197-208.
 
1442. Webb, R. H. 1983. Compaction of desert soils by off-road vehicles. Pp. 51-79 in: R. H. Webb and H. G. Wilshire (editors), Environmental Effects of Off-Road Vehicles: Impacts and Management in Arid Regions. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY.
 
1187. Webb, Robert H., H. Craig Ragland, William H. Godwin, and Oennis Jenkins. 1978. Environmental effects of soil property changes with off-road vehicle use. Environmental Management 2(3): 219-233.
 
1173. Wilshire, Howard G. 1976. Off-road vehicle effects on California's Mojave Desert. California Geology 29(6): 123-132.
 
1443. Wilshire, H. G. 1983. The impact of vehicles on desert soil stabilizers. Pp. 31-50 in: R. H. Webb and H. G. Wilshire (editors), Environmental Effects of Off-Road Vehicles: Impacts and Management in Arid Regions. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY.
 
1446. Wright, Richard, David McKinsey, and Barbara Bell. 1992. Integrating soil loss standards and geographic information systems in the management of off-highway vehicle parks. LIS 1992 Annual Conference and Exposition, San Jose, CA, ACSM, ASPRS, AM/FM International, AG, URISA.
 
275. Wu, Y., F. H. Sklar, and K. Rutchey. 1997. Analysis and simulations of fragmentation patterns in the Everglades. Ecological Applications 7(1): 268-276.
 

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