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Joseph A. Burns CWB
National Transportation Ecology Program Leader
Watershed, Fish, Wildlife, Air, Rare Plants
1400 Independance Ave SW - MS1121
Washington, D.C. 20250-1121
(202) 205-0919
jaburns@fs.fed.us

Sandra Jacobson
Wildlife Biologist
USDA Forest Service
Pacific Southwest Research Station
(541) 678-5240
sjacobson@fs.fed.us

 

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Mortality and Roadkill Effects Related to OHV Use and Roads References

Last update June 1, 2008
(keywords searched: roadkill, mortality, wildlife mortality)

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1286. Alexander, S., and N. Waters. 2000. The effects of highway transportation corridors on wildlife:  A case study of Banff National Park. Transportation Research Part C:  Emerging Technologies 8: 307-320.
 
1026. Allaback, Mark L., and David M. Laabs. 2002/2003. Effectiveness of road tunnels for the Santa Cruz long-toed salamander. Transactions of the Western Section of The Wildlife Society 38/39: 5-8.
 
1287. Allen, R. E. , and D. R. McCullough. 1976. Deer-car accidents in southern Michigan. Journal of Wildlife Management 8: 44-49.
 
464. Andrews, Kimberly M., and J. Whitfield Gibbons. 2005. How do highways influence snake movement? Behavioral responses to roads and vehicles. Copeia 2005(4): 772-782.
 
1027. Aresco, Mathew J. 2003. Highway mortality of turtles and other herpetofauna at Lake Jackson, Florida, USA and the efficacy of a temporary fence/culvert system to reduce road kills. Pp. 443-449 in: C. L. Irwin, P. Garrett, K. P. McDermott and (editors), 2003 Proceedings of the International Conference on Ecology and Transportation. Center for Transportation and the Environment, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, N. C.
 
533. Aresco, Mathew J. 2005. Mitigation measures to reduce highway mortality of turtles and other herpetofauna at a north Florida lake. Journal of Wildlife Management 69(2): 549-560.
 
534. Aresco, Mathew J. 2005. The effect of sex-specific terrestrial movements and roads on the sex ratio of freshwater turtles. Biological Conservation 123: 37-44.
 
1149. Ashley, E. P., and J. T. Robinson. 1996. Road mortality of amphibians, reptiles and other wildlife on the Long Point causeway, Lake Erie, Ontario. Canadian Field Naturalist 110: 403-412.
 
1088. Baker, Philip J., Claire V. Dowding, Susie E. Molony, Piran C. L. White, and Stephen Harris. 2007. Activity patterns of urban red-foxes (Vulpes vulpes) reduce the risk of traffic-induced mortality. Behavioral Ecology 18(4): 716-724.
 
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1291. Bangs, E. E. , T. N.  Bailey, and M. F. Portner. 1989. Survival rates of adult female moose on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Journal of Wildlife Management 53: 557-563.
 
1292. Barbour, E. H. 1895. Bird fatality along Nebraska railroads. Auk 12: 187.
 
1209. Barnum, S. A. 2003. Identifying the best locations along highways to provide safe crossing opportunities for wildlife. Pp. 246-252 in, Proceedings of the International Conference on Ecology and Transportation, August 24-29, Lake Placid, New York.
 
1293. Bashore, T. L., W. M. Tzilkowski, and E. D. Bellis. 1985. Analysis of deer-vehicle collision sites in Pennsylvania. Journal of Wildlife Management 49: 769-774.
 
1294. Baumgartner, F. M. 1934. Bird mortality on the highways. Auk 51: 537-538.
 
1295. Baur, A., and B. Baur. 1990. Are roads barriers to dispersal in the land snail Arianta arbustorum? Canadian Journal of Zoology 68: 613-617.
 
1298. Bekker, H. G. J. , and K. Canters. 1997. The continuing story of badgers and their tunnels. Pp. 344-353 in: K. Canters, Habitat Fragmentation and Infrastructure. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, Delft, Netherlands.
 
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1305. Bertwistle, J. 1999. The effects of reduced speed zones on reducing bighorn sheep and elk collisions with vehicles on the Yellowhead highway in Jasper National Park. Pp. 89-97 in: G. L. Evink, P. Garrett and D. Zeigler (editors), Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Wildlife Ecology and Transportation. FL-ER-73-99. Florida Department of Transportation, Tallahassee, FL.
 
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1307. Bonnett, X. , N. Guy, and R. Shine. 1999. The dangers of leaving home: dispersal and mortality in snakes. Biological Conservation 89: 39-50.
 
692. Bowman, R. 2001. Demography of Florida scrub-jays in a suburban matrix: implications for reserve design and spatially-explicit modeling. Pp. 3 in: D. P. Zattau (editor), Proceedings of the Florida Scrub Symposium 2001. U.S. Department of Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Jacksonville, FL.
 
1309. Brandenburg, D. M. 1996. Effects of roads on behavior and survival of black bears in coastal North Carolina. Master's Thesis. University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN. 
 
574. Branhagen, A. J. 1990. Gravel prairie, sedge meadow and fen restoration underway at Kieselberg forest preserve. Restoration & Management Notes 8(2): 102-103.
 
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131. Brooker, L., M. Brooker, and P. Cale. 1999. Animal dispersal in fragmented habitat: measuring habitat connectivity, corridor use, and dispersal mortality. Conservation Ecology 3(1): 4.
 
1174. Brooks, Matthew L., and Bridget Lair. 2005. Ecological effects of vehicular routes in a desert ecosystem. U.S. Geological Survey, Western Ecological Research Center, Las Vegas Field Station, Henderson, NV.
 
1213. Brown, Douglas L., James Laird, William D. Sommers, and Amanda Hamilton. 1995. Methods used by the Arizona Department of Transportation to reduce wildlife mortality and improve highway safety. Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix, AZ. 2.
 
1313. Buchanan, J. B. 1987. Seasonality in the occurrence of long-tailed weasel road-kills. Murrelet 68: 67-68.
 
1314. Buhlmann, K. A. 1995. Habitat use, terrestrial movements, and conservation of the turtle, Deirochelys reticularia, in Virginia. Journal of Herpetology 29: 173-181.
 
743. Bull, E. L., and B. C. Wales. 2001. Effects of disturbance on amphibians of conservation concern in eastern Oregon and Washington. Northwest Science 75: 174-179.
 
1315. Bunyan, R. 1990. Monitoring Program of Wildlife Mitigation Measures:  Trans-Canada Highway Twinning - Phase II. Final Report to Parks Canada, Banff National Park. 
 
1317. Calvo, R., and N. Silvy. 1996. Key deer mortality, U.S. Highway 1 in the Florida Keys. Pp. 287-296 in: G. L. Evink, P. Garrett, D. Zeigler and J. Berry (editors), Trends in Addressing Transportation Related Wildlife Mortality. Report FL-ER-58-96. Florida Department of Transportation, Tallahassee, FL.
 
1318. Cameron, R., D. J. Reed, J. R.  Dau, and W. T. Smith. 1992. Redistribution of calving caribou in response to oil field development on the arctic slope of Alaska. Arctic 45: 338-342.
 
306. Carr, L. W., and Lenore Fahrig. 2001. Effect of road traffic on two amphibian species of differing vagility. Conservation Biology 15(4): 1071-1078.
 
307. Carroll, Carlos, Reed F. Noss, and Paul C. Paquet. 2001. Carnivores as focal species for conservation planning in the Rocky Mountain Region. Ecological Applications 11(4): 961-980.
 
1321. Case, R. M. 1978. Interstate highway road-killed animals: A data source for biologists. Wildlife Society Bulletin 6: 8-13.
 
1162. Chen, Jiquan, Jerry F. Franklin, and Thomas A. Spies. 1992. Vegetation responses to edge environments in old-growth Douglas-fir forests. Ecological Applications 2(4): 387-396.
 
309. Chruszcz, B, A. P. Clevenger, K Gunson, and M. L. Gibeau. 2003. Relationships among grizzly bears, highways, and habitat in the Banff-Bow Valley, Alberta, Canada. Canadian Journal of Zoology 81: 1378-1391.
 
1089. Ciarniello, Lana M., Mark S. Boyce, Douglas C. Heard, and Dale R. Seip. 2007. Components of grizzly bear habitat selection: density, habitats, roads, and mortality risk. Journal of Wildlife Management 71(5): 1446-1457.
 
1322. Clark, W. D. , and J. R. Karr. 1979. Effects on highways on red-winged blackbird and horned lark populations. Wilson Bulletin 91: 143-145.
 
310. Clarke, G. P., P. C. L. White, and S. Harris. 1998. Effects of roads on badger Meles meles populations in south-west England. Biological Conservation 86: 117-124.
 
1323. Clarke, H. 1930. Birds killed by automobiles. Bird-Banding 32: 271.
 
1324. Clevenger, A. P. 1998. Permeability of the Trans-Canada Highway to wildlife in Banff National Park:  Importance of crossing structures and factors influencing their effectiveness. Proceedings of the International Conference on Wildlife Ecology and Transportation, Tallahassee, FL, Florida Department of Transportation.
 
1217. Clevenger, Anthony P., B. Chruszcz, K. Gunson, and J. Wierzchowski. 2002. Roads and wildlife in the Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks - movements, mortality and mitigation. Final Report to Parks Canada, Banff, Alberta, Canada. 432 p.
 
314. Clevenger, Anthony P., B. Chruszcz, and K. E. Gunson. 2003. Spatial patterns and factors influencing small vertebrate fauna road-kill aggregations. Biological Conservation 109: 15-26.
 
1325. Clevenger, A. P., F. J.  Purroy, and M. A. Campos. 1997. Habitat assessment of a relict brown bear Ursus arctos population in northern Spain. Biological Conservation 80: 17-22.
 
1106. D'Angelo, Gino J., Joseph G. D'Angelo, George R. Gallagher, David A. Osborn, Karl V. Miller, and Robert J. Warren. 2006. Evaluation of wildlife warning reflectors for altering white-tailed deer behavior along roadways. Wildlife Society Bulletin 34(4): 1175-1183.
 
1330. Davis, W. H. 1934. The automobile as a destroyer of wild life. Science 79: 504-505.
 
586. DellaSala, D. A., and E. Frost. 2001. An ecologically based strategy for fire and fuel management in national forest roadless areas. Fire Management Today 61(2): 12-23.
 
1331. Dickerson, L. M. 1939. The problem of wildlife destruction by automobile traffic. Journal of Wildlife Management 2: 104-116.
 
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317. Dodd Jr., C. K., W. J. Barichivich, and L. L. Smith. 2004. Effectiveness of a barrier wall and culverts in reducing wildlife mortality on a heavily traveled highway in Florida. Biological Conservation 118: 619-631.
 
1274. Dodd Jr., C. K., K. M. Enge, and J. N. Stuart. 1989. Reptiles on highways in North-Central Alabama, USA. Journal of Herpetology 23: 197-200.
 
1332. Dreyer, W. A. 1935. The question of wildlife destruction by the automobile. Science 82: 439-440.
 
1080. Dunn, Robert R., and James A. Danoff-Burg. 2007. Road size and carrion beetle assemblages in a New York forest. Journal of Insect Conservation 11(4): 325-332.
 
1079. Dussault, Christian, Jean-Pierre Ouellet, Catherine Laurian, Rehaume Courtois, Marius Poulin, and Laurier Breton. 2007. Moose movement rates along highways and crossing probability models. Journal of Wildlife Management 71(7): 2338-2345.
 
1338. Evink, G. L. 1996. Florida Department of Transportation initiatives related to wildlife mortality. Pp. 278-286 in: G. L. Evink, P. Garrett, D. Zeigler and J. Berry (editors), Trends in addressing transportation related wildlife mortality. Report No. FL-ER-58-96. Florida Department of Transportation, Tallahassee, FL.
 
1339. Evink, G. L., P. Garrett, and D. Zeigler (editors). 1999. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Wildlife Ecology and Transportation. FL-ER-73-99. Florida Department of Transportation, Tallahassee, FL.
 
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1031. Fahrig, Lenore, John H. Pedlar, Sealagh E. Pope, Philip D. Taylor, and John F. Wegner. 1995. Effect of road traffic on amphibian density. Biological Conservation 73: 177-182.
 
1223. Falk, N. W., H. B. Graves, and E. D. Bellis. 1978. Highway right-of-way fences as deer deterrents. Journal of Wildlife Management 42(3): 646-650.
 
539. Forman, Richard T. T., and Lauren E. Alexander. 1998. Roads and their major ecological effects. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 207-231.
 
500. Forman, Richard T. T., Daniel Sperling, John A. Bissonette, Anthony P. Clevenger, Carol D. Cutshall, Virginia H. Dale, Lenore Fahrig, Robert France, Charles R. Goldman, Kevin Heanue, Julia A. Jones, Frederick J. Swanson, Thomas Turrentine, and Thomas C. Winter. 2003. Road Ecology: Science and Solutions. Island Press, Washington DC.
 
1225. Foster, L. R., and S. R. Humphrey. 1995. Use of highway underpasses by Florida panther and other wildlife. Wildlife Society Bulletin 23(1): 95-100.
 
1165. Frederick, Glenn P. 1991. Effects of forest roads on grizzly bears, elk, and gray wolves: a literature review. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Kootenai National Forest, Libby, MT. 41 p.
 
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1344. Gibbs, J. P., and W. G. Shriver. 2005. Can road mortality limit populations of pool-breeding amphibians? Wetlands Ecology and Management 13(3): 281-289.
 
551. Gibbs, James P., and David A. Steen. 2005. Trends in sex ratios of turtles in the United States: implications of road mortality. Conservation Biology 19(2): 552-556.
 
1099. Giroux, Wendy, Pierre Blanchette, Claude Bourgeois, and Gilbert Cabana. 2007. Ruffed grouse brood habitat use in mixed Softwood-Hardwood Nordic-Temperate forests, Quebec, Canada. Journal of Wildlife Management 71(1): 87-95.
 
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1445. Grant, Tyler J. 2005. Flat-tailed horned lizards (Phrynosoma mcallii): population size estimation, effects of off-highway vehicles, and natural history. M.S. Thesis. Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO. 97 p.
 
1231. Griffin, K., and D. H. Pletscher. 2006. Potential effects of highway mortality and habitat fragmentation of painted turtles in Montana. Draft Final Report. Montana Department of Transportation Research Bureau, Helena, MT. 47 p.
 
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1062. Kleist, Andrea M., Richard A. Lancia, and Phillip D. Doerr. 2007. Using video surveillance to estimate wildlife use of a highway underpass. Journal of Wildlife Management 71(8): 2792-2800.
 
1242. Land, D., and M. Lotz. 1996. Wildlife crossing designs and use by Florida panthers and other wildlife in southwest Florida. Pp. 217-222 in: G. L. Evink, D. Ziegler, P. Garrett and J. Berry (editors), Trends in addressing transportation related wildlife mortality. FL-ER-58-96, Volume 71. Florida Department of Transportation.
 
1107. Langley, Ricky Lee, Sheila Ann  Higgins, and Kitty Brown Herrin. 2006. Risk factors associated with fatal animal-vehicle collisions in the United States. Wilderness and Environmental Medicine 17(4): 229-239.
 
1087. Leblond, Mathieu, Christian Dussault, Jean-Pierre Ouellet, Marius Poulin, Rehaume Courtois, and Jacques Fortin. 2007. Electric fencing as a measure to reduce moose-vehicle collisions. Journal of Wildlife Management 71(5): 1695-1703.
 
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1352. Mansergh, I. M., and D. J. Scotts. 1989. Habitat-continuity and social organization of the mountain pygmy-possum restored by tunnel. Journal of Wildlife Management 53: 701-707.
 
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1098. Marsh, David M. 2007. Edge effects of gated and ungated roads on terrestrial salamanders. Journal of Wildlife Management 71(2): 389-394.
 
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1542. McCown, Walter, Paul Kubilis, Thomas Eason, and Brian Scheick. 2004. Black Bear Movements and Habitat Use Relative to Roads in Ocala National Forest. Final Report Contract BD-016. Florida Department of Transportation and Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, 131 p.
 
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1367. Munguira, M. L. , and J. A. Thomas. 1992. Use of road verges by butterfly and burnet populations, and the effect of roads on adult dispersal and mortality. Journal of Applied Ecology 29: 316-329.
 
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1391. Reeve, A. F., and S. H. Anderson. 1993. Ineffectiveness of Swareflex reflectors at reducing deer-vehicle collisions. Wildlife Society Bulletin 21: 127-132.
 
1392. Reh, W. 1989. Investigations into the influence of roads in the genetic structure of populations of the common frog Rana temporaria. Pp. 101-103 in: T. E. S. Langton (editor), Amphibians and Roads. ACO Polymer Products, Shefford, Bedforshire, England.
 
1389. Reh, W. , and A. Seiz. 1990. The influence of land use on the genetic structure of populations of the common frog Rana temporaria. Biological Conservation 54: 239-249.
 
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1399. Rolley, R. E. , and L. E. Lehman. 1992. Relationship among raccoon road-kill surveys, harvests, and traffic. Wildlife Society Bulletin 20: 313-318.
 
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