Browse by Subject
Contact Information

Joseph A. Burns CWB
National Transportation Ecology Program Leader
Watershed, Fish, Wildlife, Air, Rare Plants
1400 Independance Ave SW - MS1121
Washington, D.C. 20250-1121
(202) 205-0919

Sandra Jacobson
Wildlife Biologist
USDA Forest Service
Pacific Southwest Research Station
(541) 678-5240


You are here: HOME » Library » Mortality and Roadkill Effects Related to OHV Use and Roads References
OHV Library

Mortality and Roadkill Effects Related to OHV Use and Roads References

Last update June 1, 2008
(keywords searched: roadkill, mortality, wildlife mortality)

PDF File Icon Download the PDF
1286. Alexander, S., and N. Waters. 2000. The effects of highway transportation corridors on wildlife:  A case study of Banff National Park. Transportation Research Part C:  Emerging Technologies 8: 307-320.
1026. Allaback, Mark L., and David M. Laabs. 2002/2003. Effectiveness of road tunnels for the Santa Cruz long-toed salamander. Transactions of the Western Section of The Wildlife Society 38/39: 5-8.
1287. Allen, R. E. , and D. R. McCullough. 1976. Deer-car accidents in southern Michigan. Journal of Wildlife Management 8: 44-49.
464. Andrews, Kimberly M., and J. Whitfield Gibbons. 2005. How do highways influence snake movement? Behavioral responses to roads and vehicles. Copeia 2005(4): 772-782.
1027. Aresco, Mathew J. 2003. Highway mortality of turtles and other herpetofauna at Lake Jackson, Florida, USA and the efficacy of a temporary fence/culvert system to reduce road kills. Pp. 443-449 in: C. L. Irwin, P. Garrett, K. P. McDermott and (editors), 2003 Proceedings of the International Conference on Ecology and Transportation. Center for Transportation and the Environment, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, N. C.
533. Aresco, Mathew J. 2005. Mitigation measures to reduce highway mortality of turtles and other herpetofauna at a north Florida lake. Journal of Wildlife Management 69(2): 549-560.
534. Aresco, Mathew J. 2005. The effect of sex-specific terrestrial movements and roads on the sex ratio of freshwater turtles. Biological Conservation 123: 37-44.
1149. Ashley, E. P., and J. T. Robinson. 1996. Road mortality of amphibians, reptiles and other wildlife on the Long Point causeway, Lake Erie, Ontario. Canadian Field Naturalist 110: 403-412.
1088. Baker, Philip J., Claire V. Dowding, Susie E. Molony, Piran C. L. White, and Stephen Harris. 2007. Activity patterns of urban red-foxes (Vulpes vulpes) reduce the risk of traffic-induced mortality. Behavioral Ecology 18(4): 716-724.
715. Baker, W. L., and D. Ehle. 2001. Uncertainty in surface-fire history:  the case of ponderosa pine forests in the western United States. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 31(7): 1205-1226.
1291. Bangs, E. E. , T. N.  Bailey, and M. F. Portner. 1989. Survival rates of adult female moose on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Journal of Wildlife Management 53: 557-563.
1292. Barbour, E. H. 1895. Bird fatality along Nebraska railroads. Auk 12: 187.
1209. Barnum, S. A. 2003. Identifying the best locations along highways to provide safe crossing opportunities for wildlife. Pp. 246-252 in, Proceedings of the International Conference on Ecology and Transportation, August 24-29, Lake Placid, New York.
1293. Bashore, T. L., W. M. Tzilkowski, and E. D. Bellis. 1985. Analysis of deer-vehicle collision sites in Pennsylvania. Journal of Wildlife Management 49: 769-774.
1294. Baumgartner, F. M. 1934. Bird mortality on the highways. Auk 51: 537-538.
1295. Baur, A., and B. Baur. 1990. Are roads barriers to dispersal in the land snail Arianta arbustorum? Canadian Journal of Zoology 68: 613-617.
1298. Bekker, H. G. J. , and K. Canters. 1997. The continuing story of badgers and their tunnels. Pp. 344-353 in: K. Canters, Habitat Fragmentation and Infrastructure. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, Delft, Netherlands.
1299. Bellis, E. D., and H. B. Graves. 1971. Deer mortality on a Pennsylvania interstate highway. Journal of Wildlife Management 35: 232-237.
1304. Bernardino, F. S., Jr., and G. H. Dalrymple. 1992. Seasonal activity and road mortality of the snakes of the Pa-hay-okee wetlands of the Everglades National Park, USA. Biological Conservation 72: 71-75.
1305. Bertwistle, J. 1999. The effects of reduced speed zones on reducing bighorn sheep and elk collisions with vehicles on the Yellowhead highway in Jasper National Park. Pp. 89-97 in: G. L. Evink, P. Garrett and D. Zeigler (editors), Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Wildlife Ecology and Transportation. FL-ER-73-99. Florida Department of Transportation, Tallahassee, FL.
1211. Bissonette, J. A., and M. Hammer. 2000. Effectiveness of earthen return ramps in reducing big game highway mortality in Utah. Utah Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (UTCFWRU) Report Series 2000(1): 1-29.
1307. Bonnett, X. , N. Guy, and R. Shine. 1999. The dangers of leaving home: dispersal and mortality in snakes. Biological Conservation 89: 39-50.
692. Bowman, R. 2001. Demography of Florida scrub-jays in a suburban matrix: implications for reserve design and spatially-explicit modeling. Pp. 3 in: D. P. Zattau (editor), Proceedings of the Florida Scrub Symposium 2001. U.S. Department of Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Jacksonville, FL.
1309. Brandenburg, D. M. 1996. Effects of roads on behavior and survival of black bears in coastal North Carolina. Master's Thesis. University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN. 
574. Branhagen, A. J. 1990. Gravel prairie, sedge meadow and fen restoration underway at Kieselberg forest preserve. Restoration & Management Notes 8(2): 102-103.
729. Breininger, D. R., M. J. Kehl, R. B. Smith, D. M. Oddy, J. A. Provancha, and V. L. Larson. 1992. Identification of species considerations for maintenance of biological diversity along the Atlantic coast of Florida. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 73(2).
1311. Brody, A. J. , and M. R. Pelton. 1989. Effects of roads on black bear movements in western North Carolina. Wildlife Society Bulletin 17: 5-10.
131. Brooker, L., M. Brooker, and P. Cale. 1999. Animal dispersal in fragmented habitat: measuring habitat connectivity, corridor use, and dispersal mortality. Conservation Ecology 3(1): 4.
1174. Brooks, Matthew L., and Bridget Lair. 2005. Ecological effects of vehicular routes in a desert ecosystem. U.S. Geological Survey, Western Ecological Research Center, Las Vegas Field Station, Henderson, NV.
1213. Brown, Douglas L., James Laird, William D. Sommers, and Amanda Hamilton. 1995. Methods used by the Arizona Department of Transportation to reduce wildlife mortality and improve highway safety. Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix, AZ. 2.
1313. Buchanan, J. B. 1987. Seasonality in the occurrence of long-tailed weasel road-kills. Murrelet 68: 67-68.
1314. Buhlmann, K. A. 1995. Habitat use, terrestrial movements, and conservation of the turtle, Deirochelys reticularia, in Virginia. Journal of Herpetology 29: 173-181.
743. Bull, E. L., and B. C. Wales. 2001. Effects of disturbance on amphibians of conservation concern in eastern Oregon and Washington. Northwest Science 75: 174-179.
1315. Bunyan, R. 1990. Monitoring Program of Wildlife Mitigation Measures:  Trans-Canada Highway Twinning - Phase II. Final Report to Parks Canada, Banff National Park. 
1317. Calvo, R., and N. Silvy. 1996. Key deer mortality, U.S. Highway 1 in the Florida Keys. Pp. 287-296 in: G. L. Evink, P. Garrett, D. Zeigler and J. Berry (editors), Trends in Addressing Transportation Related Wildlife Mortality. Report FL-ER-58-96. Florida Department of Transportation, Tallahassee, FL.
1318. Cameron, R., D. J. Reed, J. R.  Dau, and W. T. Smith. 1992. Redistribution of calving caribou in response to oil field development on the arctic slope of Alaska. Arctic 45: 338-342.
306. Carr, L. W., and Lenore Fahrig. 2001. Effect of road traffic on two amphibian species of differing vagility. Conservation Biology 15(4): 1071-1078.
307. Carroll, Carlos, Reed F. Noss, and Paul C. Paquet. 2001. Carnivores as focal species for conservation planning in the Rocky Mountain Region. Ecological Applications 11(4): 961-980.
1321. Case, R. M. 1978. Interstate highway road-killed animals: A data source for biologists. Wildlife Society Bulletin 6: 8-13.
1162. Chen, Jiquan, Jerry F. Franklin, and Thomas A. Spies. 1992. Vegetation responses to edge environments in old-growth Douglas-fir forests. Ecological Applications 2(4): 387-396.
309. Chruszcz, B, A. P. Clevenger, K Gunson, and M. L. Gibeau. 2003. Relationships among grizzly bears, highways, and habitat in the Banff-Bow Valley, Alberta, Canada. Canadian Journal of Zoology 81: 1378-1391.
1089. Ciarniello, Lana M., Mark S. Boyce, Douglas C. Heard, and Dale R. Seip. 2007. Components of grizzly bear habitat selection: density, habitats, roads, and mortality risk. Journal of Wildlife Management 71(5): 1446-1457.
1322. Clark, W. D. , and J. R. Karr. 1979. Effects on highways on red-winged blackbird and horned lark populations. Wilson Bulletin 91: 143-145.
310. Clarke, G. P., P. C. L. White, and S. Harris. 1998. Effects of roads on badger Meles meles populations in south-west England. Biological Conservation 86: 117-124.
1323. Clarke, H. 1930. Birds killed by automobiles. Bird-Banding 32: 271.
1324. Clevenger, A. P. 1998. Permeability of the Trans-Canada Highway to wildlife in Banff National Park:  Importance of crossing structures and factors influencing their effectiveness. Proceedings of the International Conference on Wildlife Ecology and Transportation, Tallahassee, FL, Florida Department of Transportation.
1217. Clevenger, Anthony P., B. Chruszcz, K. Gunson, and J. Wierzchowski. 2002. Roads and wildlife in the Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks - movements, mortality and mitigation. Final Report to Parks Canada, Banff, Alberta, Canada. 432 p.
314. Clevenger, Anthony P., B. Chruszcz, and K. E. Gunson. 2003. Spatial patterns and factors influencing small vertebrate fauna road-kill aggregations. Biological Conservation 109: 15-26.
1325. Clevenger, A. P., F. J.  Purroy, and M. A. Campos. 1997. Habitat assessment of a relict brown bear Ursus arctos population in northern Spain. Biological Conservation 80: 17-22.
1106. D'Angelo, Gino J., Joseph G. D'Angelo, George R. Gallagher, David A. Osborn, Karl V. Miller, and Robert J. Warren. 2006. Evaluation of wildlife warning reflectors for altering white-tailed deer behavior along roadways. Wildlife Society Bulletin 34(4): 1175-1183.
1330. Davis, W. H. 1934. The automobile as a destroyer of wild life. Science 79: 504-505.
586. DellaSala, D. A., and E. Frost. 2001. An ecologically based strategy for fire and fuel management in national forest roadless areas. Fire Management Today 61(2): 12-23.
1331. Dickerson, L. M. 1939. The problem of wildlife destruction by automobile traffic. Journal of Wildlife Management 2: 104-116.
1343. Doak, D. F., P. Kareiva, and B. Klepetka. 1994. Modeling population viability for the desert tortoise in the western Mojave Desert. Ecological Applications 4(3): 446-460.
317. Dodd Jr., C. K., W. J. Barichivich, and L. L. Smith. 2004. Effectiveness of a barrier wall and culverts in reducing wildlife mortality on a heavily traveled highway in Florida. Biological Conservation 118: 619-631.
1274. Dodd Jr., C. K., K. M. Enge, and J. N. Stuart. 1989. Reptiles on highways in North-Central Alabama, USA. Journal of Herpetology 23: 197-200.
1332. Dreyer, W. A. 1935. The question of wildlife destruction by the automobile. Science 82: 439-440.
1080. Dunn, Robert R., and James A. Danoff-Burg. 2007. Road size and carrion beetle assemblages in a New York forest. Journal of Insect Conservation 11(4): 325-332.
1079. Dussault, Christian, Jean-Pierre Ouellet, Catherine Laurian, Rehaume Courtois, Marius Poulin, and Laurier Breton. 2007. Moose movement rates along highways and crossing probability models. Journal of Wildlife Management 71(7): 2338-2345.
1338. Evink, G. L. 1996. Florida Department of Transportation initiatives related to wildlife mortality. Pp. 278-286 in: G. L. Evink, P. Garrett, D. Zeigler and J. Berry (editors), Trends in addressing transportation related wildlife mortality. Report No. FL-ER-58-96. Florida Department of Transportation, Tallahassee, FL.
1339. Evink, G. L., P. Garrett, and D. Zeigler (editors). 1999. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Wildlife Ecology and Transportation. FL-ER-73-99. Florida Department of Transportation, Tallahassee, FL.
1279. Evink, G. L., P. Garrett, D. Zeigler, and J. Berry (editors). 1996. Trends in addressing transportation related wildlife mortality. Report No. FL-ER-58-96. Florida Department of Transportation, Tallahassee, FL.
1031. Fahrig, Lenore, John H. Pedlar, Sealagh E. Pope, Philip D. Taylor, and John F. Wegner. 1995. Effect of road traffic on amphibian density. Biological Conservation 73: 177-182.
1223. Falk, N. W., H. B. Graves, and E. D. Bellis. 1978. Highway right-of-way fences as deer deterrents. Journal of Wildlife Management 42(3): 646-650.
539. Forman, Richard T. T., and Lauren E. Alexander. 1998. Roads and their major ecological effects. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 207-231.
500. Forman, Richard T. T., Daniel Sperling, John A. Bissonette, Anthony P. Clevenger, Carol D. Cutshall, Virginia H. Dale, Lenore Fahrig, Robert France, Charles R. Goldman, Kevin Heanue, Julia A. Jones, Frederick J. Swanson, Thomas Turrentine, and Thomas C. Winter. 2003. Road Ecology: Science and Solutions. Island Press, Washington DC.
1225. Foster, L. R., and S. R. Humphrey. 1995. Use of highway underpasses by Florida panther and other wildlife. Wildlife Society Bulletin 23(1): 95-100.
1165. Frederick, Glenn P. 1991. Effects of forest roads on grizzly bears, elk, and gray wolves: a literature review. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Kootenai National Forest, Libby, MT. 41 p.
801. Gascon, C., G. B. Williamson, and G. A. B. daFonseca. 2000. Receding forest edges and vanishing reserves. Science 288(5470): 1356-1358.
82. Gibbs, J. P., and W. G. Shriver. 2002. Estimating the effects of road mortality on turtle populations. Conservation Biology 16(6): 1647-1652.
1344. Gibbs, J. P., and W. G. Shriver. 2005. Can road mortality limit populations of pool-breeding amphibians? Wetlands Ecology and Management 13(3): 281-289.
551. Gibbs, James P., and David A. Steen. 2005. Trends in sex ratios of turtles in the United States: implications of road mortality. Conservation Biology 19(2): 552-556.
1099. Giroux, Wendy, Pierre Blanchette, Claude Bourgeois, and Gilbert Cabana. 2007. Ruffed grouse brood habitat use in mixed Softwood-Hardwood Nordic-Temperate forests, Quebec, Canada. Journal of Wildlife Management 71(1): 87-95.
1227. Gloyne, C. C., and A. P. Clevenger. 2001. Cougar use of wildlife crossing structures on the Trans-Canada Highway in Banff National Park, Alberta. Wildlife Biology 7: 117-124.
1445. Grant, Tyler J. 2005. Flat-tailed horned lizards (Phrynosoma mcallii): population size estimation, effects of off-highway vehicles, and natural history. M.S. Thesis. Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO. 97 p.
1231. Griffin, K., and D. H. Pletscher. 2006. Potential effects of highway mortality and habitat fragmentation of painted turtles in Montana. Draft Final Report. Montana Department of Transportation Research Bureau, Helena, MT. 47 p.
1232. Groot Bruinerink, G. W. T. A., and E. Hazebroek. 1996. Ungulate traffic collisions in Europe. Conservation Biology 10(4): 1059-1067.
814. Gruell, G. E. 1979. Wildlife habitat investigations and management implications on the Bridger-Teton National Forest. Pp. 63-74 in: M. S. Boyce and L. D. Hayden-Wing, North American Elk, Ecology, Behavior and Management. University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY.
600. Hann, W. J. 1992. Management for landscape and ecosystem diversity. Pp. 63-71 in: A. G. Evenden and R. L. DeVelice (editors), Proceedings: Northern Region Biodiversity Workshop, Missoula, MT, September 11-13, 1990. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Region; Intermountain Research Station, Missoula, MT.
1104. Harrington, Justin L., and Michael R. Conover. 2006. Characteristics of ungulate behavior and mortality associated with wire fences. Wildlife Society Bulletin 34(5): 1295-1305.
331. Hubbard, M. W., B. J. Danielson, and R. A. Schmitz. 2000. Factors influencing the location of deer-vehicle accidents in Iowa. Journal of Wildlife Management 64(3): 707-712.
333. Inbar, M., and R. T. Mayer. 1999. Spatio-temporal trends in armadillo diurnal activity and road-kills in central Florida. Wildlife Society Bulletin 27(3): 865-872.
1065. Jaarsma, C. F., F. van Langevelde, J. M. Baveco, M. van Eupen, and J. Arisz. 2007. Model for rural transportation planning considering simulating mobility and traffic kills in the badger Meles meles. Ecological Informatics 2(2): 73-82.
1237. Jackson, S. D. 1996. Underpass systems for amphibians. Pp. 1-4 in: G. L. Evink, P. Garrett, D. Zeigler and J. Berry (editors), Trends in addressing transportation related wildlife mortality. Proceedings of the transportation related wildlife mortality seminar (June 1996). Florida Department of Transportation, Tallahassee, FL.
1236. Jackson, S. D., and C. R. Griffin. 2000. A strategy for mitigating highway impacts on wildlife. Pp. 143-159 in: T. A. Messmer and B. West (editors), Wildlife and highways: seeking solutions to an ecological and socio-economic dilemma. The Wildlife Society, Bethesda, MD.
1110. Jaeger, Jochen A. G., Jeff Bowman, Julie Brennan, Lenore Fahrig, Dan Bert, Julie Bouchard, Neil Charbonneau, Karin Frank, Bernd Gruber, and Katharina Tluk von Toschanowitz. 2005. Predicting when animal populations are at risk from roads: an interactive model of road avoidance behavior. Ecological Modelling 185(2-4): 329-348.
1239. Jaren, V., R. Andersen, M. Ulleberg, P. H. Pedersen, and B. Wiseth. 1991. Moose-train collisions: the effects of vegetation removal with a cost-benefit analysis. Alces 27: 93-99.
23. Joslin, G., and J. Youmans (editors). 1999. Effects of recreation on Rocky Mountain wildlife: a review for Montana. Committee on Effects of Recreation on Wildlife, Montana Chapter of the Willdife Society, Helena, MT.
336. Joyce, T. L., and S. P. Mahoney. 2001. Spatial and temporal distributions of moose-vehicle collisions in Newfoundland. Wildlife Society Bulletin 29(1): 281-291.
1062. Kleist, Andrea M., Richard A. Lancia, and Phillip D. Doerr. 2007. Using video surveillance to estimate wildlife use of a highway underpass. Journal of Wildlife Management 71(8): 2792-2800.
1242. Land, D., and M. Lotz. 1996. Wildlife crossing designs and use by Florida panthers and other wildlife in southwest Florida. Pp. 217-222 in: G. L. Evink, D. Ziegler, P. Garrett and J. Berry (editors), Trends in addressing transportation related wildlife mortality. FL-ER-58-96, Volume 71. Florida Department of Transportation.
1107. Langley, Ricky Lee, Sheila Ann  Higgins, and Kitty Brown Herrin. 2006. Risk factors associated with fatal animal-vehicle collisions in the United States. Wilderness and Environmental Medicine 17(4): 229-239.
1087. Leblond, Mathieu, Christian Dussault, Jean-Pierre Ouellet, Marius Poulin, Rehaume Courtois, and Jacques Fortin. 2007. Electric fencing as a measure to reduce moose-vehicle collisions. Journal of Wildlife Management 71(5): 1695-1703.
1346. Levy, A. 2005. Where the wildlife meets the road: Public Roads, U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.
1347. Longshore, K. M., J. R. Jaeger, and J. M. Sappington. 2003. Desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) survival at two eastern Mojave Desert sites: death by short-term drought? Journal of Herpetology 37(1): 169-177.
877. Lunney, D., L. O'Neill, A. Matthews, and W. B. Sherwin. 2002. Modelling mammalian extinction and forecasting recovery: koalas at Iluka (NSW, Australia). Biological Conservation 106(1): 101-113.
1351. Maehr, D. S. , E. D.  Land, and M. E. Roelke. 1991. Mortality patterns of panthers in Southwest Florida. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of Southeastern Association Fish and Wildlife Agencies 45: 201-207.
1352. Mansergh, I. M., and D. J. Scotts. 1989. Habitat-continuity and social organization of the mountain pygmy-possum restored by tunnel. Journal of Wildlife Management 53: 701-707.
1353. Mansfield, T. M. , and B. D. Miller. 1975. Highway Deer-Kill District 02 Regional Study. Internal report. California Department of Transportation, Sacramento. 
1098. Marsh, David M. 2007. Edge effects of gated and ungated roads on terrestrial salamanders. Journal of Wildlife Management 71(2): 389-394.
1354. Martin, R. J. 1939. Highway toll. Michigan Conservation 9: 2.
1034. Mazerolle, Marc J. 2004. Amphibian road mortality in response to nightly variations in traffic intensity. Herpetologica 60(1): 45-53.
1035. Mazerolle, Marc J., Mattieu Huot, and Mireille Gravel. 2005. Behavior of amphibians on the road in response to car traffic. Herpetologica 61(4): 380-388.
1355. McClure, H. L. 1951. An analysis of animal victims on Nebraska's highways. Journal of Wildlife Management 15: 410-420.
1542. McCown, Walter, Paul Kubilis, Thomas Eason, and Brian Scheick. 2004. Black Bear Movements and Habitat Use Relative to Roads in Ocala National Forest. Final Report Contract BD-016. Florida Department of Transportation and Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, 131 p.
1411. Melvin, S. M., A. Hecht, and C. R. Griffin. 1994. Piping plover mortalities caused by off-road vehicles on Atlantic Coast beaches. Wildlife Society Bulletin 22(3): 409-414.
346. Mumme, R. L., S. J. Schoech, G. E. Woolfenden, and J. W. Fitzpatrick. 2000. Life and death in the fast lane: demographic consequences of road mortality in the Florida scrub-jay. Conservation Biology 14(2): 501-512.
1367. Munguira, M. L. , and J. A. Thomas. 1992. Use of road verges by butterfly and burnet populations, and the effect of roads on adult dispersal and mortality. Journal of Applied Ecology 29: 316-329.
1372. Newton, I. , I. Wyllie, and A. Asher. 1991. Mortality causes in British barn owls Tyto alba, with a discussion of aldrin-dieldrin poisoning. Ibis 133: 162-169.
916. Nilson, G., C. Andren, Y. Loannidis, and M. Dimaki. 1999. Ecology and conservation of the Milos viper, Macrovipera schweizeri (Werner, 1935). Amphibia-Reptilia 20(4): 355-375.
1438. Noss, R. F. 1996. The ecological effects of roads. Pp. 2-12 in, Road-Rippers Handbook. Wildlands Center for Preventing Roads, Missoula, MT.
924. Oswald, B. P., and W. W. Covington. 1983. Changes in understory production following a wildfire in southwestern Ponderosa pine. Journal of Range Management 36(4): 507-509.
1375. Oxley, D. J. , M. B.  Fenton, and G. R. Carmody. 1974. The effects of roads on populations of small mammals. Journal of Applied Ecology 11: 51-59.
1377. Pfister, H. P., V. Keller, H.  Reck, and B. Georgii. 1997. Bio-okologische Wirksamkeit von Grunbrucken uber Verkehrswege (Bio-ecological effectiveness of wildlife overpasses or "green bridges" over roads and railway lines). Herausgegeben vom Bundesministerium fur Verkehr Abeteilung Strassenbau, Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Germany.
1378. Piepers (editor), A. A. G. 2002. Infrastructure and nature: fragmentation and defragmentation. Dutch State of Art Report for COST Activity 341.  Report P-DWW-2000-41. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, Delft, Netherlands.
1408. Pomerantz, Gerri A., Daniel J. Decker, Gary R. Goff, and Ken G. Purdy. 1988. Assessing impact of recreation on wildlife: a classification scheme. Wildlife Society Bulletin 16(1): 58-62.
1379. Puglisi, M. J. , J. S.  Lindzey, and E. D. Bellis. 1974. Factors associated with high-way mortality of white-tailed deer. Journal of Wildlife Management 38: 799-807.
1238. Putman, R. J. 1997. Deer and road traffic accidents: options for management. Journal of Environmental Management 51: 43-57.
561. Ramp, Daniel, Vanessa K. Wilson, and David B. Croft. 2006. Assessing the impacts of roads in peri-urban reserves: road-based fatalities and road usage by wildlife in the Royal National Park, New South Wales, Australia. Biological Conservation 129: 348-359.
517. Rebertus, Alan J., Thomas T. Veblen, Lynn M. Roovers, and Joy Nystrom Mast. 1992. Structure and dynamics of old-growth Engelmann Spruce-subalpine fir in Colorado. Pp. 139-153 in: M. R. Kaufmann, W. H. Moir and R. L. B. t. coordinators), Old-growth forests in the Southwest and Rocky Mountain Regions: Proceedings of a workshop. General Technical Report RM-213. U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO.
1387. Reed, D. F., and A. L. Ward. 1985. Efficacy of methods advocated to reduce deer-vehicle accidents:  Research and rationale in the USA. Pp. 285-293 in, Routes et faune sauvage. Service d'Etudes Techniques des Routes et Autoroutes, Bagneaux, France.
1390. Reeve, A. F. 1988. Vehicle-Related Mortality of Mule Deer in Nugget Canyon, Wyoming. Wyoming Cooperative Fisheries and Wildlife Research Unit, Laramie.
1391. Reeve, A. F., and S. H. Anderson. 1993. Ineffectiveness of Swareflex reflectors at reducing deer-vehicle collisions. Wildlife Society Bulletin 21: 127-132.
1392. Reh, W. 1989. Investigations into the influence of roads in the genetic structure of populations of the common frog Rana temporaria. Pp. 101-103 in: T. E. S. Langton (editor), Amphibians and Roads. ACO Polymer Products, Shefford, Bedforshire, England.
1389. Reh, W. , and A. Seiz. 1990. The influence of land use on the genetic structure of populations of the common frog Rana temporaria. Biological Conservation 54: 239-249.
461. Reijnen, Rien, and Ruud Foppen. 1994. The effects of car traffic on breeding bird populations in woodland. I. Evidence of reduced habitat quality for willow warblers (Phylloscopus trochilus) breeding close to a highway. Journal of Applied Ecology 31(1): 85-94.
463. Reijnen, Rien, and Ruud Foppen. 1995. The effects of car traffic on breeding bird populations in woodland. IV. Influence of population size on the reduction of density close to a highway. Journal of Applied Ecology 32(3): 481-491.
563. Reijnen, Rien, Ruud Foppen, Cajo Ter Braak, and Johan Thissen. 1995. The effects of car traffic on breeding bird populations in woodland. III. Reduction in density in relation to the proximity of main roads. Journal of Applied Ecology 32(1): 187-202.
1084. Reynolds-Hogland, Melissa J., and Michael S. Mitchell. 2007. Effects of roads on habitat quality for bears in the Southern Appalachians: a long term study. Journal of Mammalogy 88(4): 1050-1061.
1395. Riffell, S. K. 1999. Road mortality of dragonflies (Odonata) in a Great Lakes coastal wetland. Great Lakes Entomologist 32: 63-73.
954. Roessler, J. S., and E. C. Packee. 2000. Disturbance history of the Tanana River basin in Alaska: management implications. Pp. 46-57 in: W. K. Moser and C. F. Moser (editors), Proceedings of the Twenty-first Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference: 1998 April 14-16; Tallahassee, FL No. 21. Tall Timbers Research Station, Tallahassee, FL.
1399. Rolley, R. E. , and L. E. Lehman. 1992. Relationship among raccoon road-kill surveys, harvests, and traffic. Wildlife Society Bulletin 20: 313-318.
1400. Romin, L. , and L. B. Dalton. 1992. Lack of response by mule deer to wildlife warning whistles. Wildlife Society Bulletin 20: 382-384.
1401. Romin, L. A. 1994. Factors associated with the highway mortality of mule deer at Jordanelle Reservoir, Utah. Master's thesis. Utah State University, Logan. 
1402. Romin, L. A., and J. A. Bissonette. 1996. Deer-vehicle collisions: Status of state monitoring activities and mitigation efforts. Wildlife Society Bulletin 24: 276-283.
1403. Romin, L. A., and J. A. Bissonette. 1996. Temporal and spatial distribution of highway mortality of mule deer on newly constructed roads at Jordanelle Reservoir, Utah. Great Basin Naturalist 56: 1-11.
1404. Roof, J. , and J. Wooding. 1996. Evaluation of the S. R. 46 wildlife crossing in Lake County, Florida. Pp. in: G. L. Evink, P. Garrett, D. Zeigler and J. Berry (editors), Trends in Addressing Transportation Related Wildlife Mortality. Publication FL-ER-58-96. Florida Department of Transportation, Tallahassee, FL.
1405. Rosell, C. , J.  Parpal, R.  Campeny, S.  Jove, A.  Pasquina, and J. M. Velasco. 1997. Mitigation of barrier effect on linear infrastructures on wildlife. Pp. in: K. Canters (editor), Habitat Fragmentation & Infrastructure. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, Delft, Netherlands.
1406. Rosen, P. C., and C. H. Lowe. 1994. Highway mortality of snakes in the Sonoran Desert of southern Arizona. Biological Conservation 68: 143-148.
565. Row, Jeffrey R. , Gabriel Blouin-Demers, and Patrick J. Weatherhead. 2007. Demographic effects of road mortality in black ratsnakes (Elaphe obsoleta). Biological Conservation 137: 117-124.
1470. Ruediger, B. 1996. The relationship between rare carnivores and highways. Pp. 24-38 in: G. L. Evink, P. Garrett, D. Zeigler and J. Berry (editors), Trends in Addressing Transportation Related Wildlife Mortality. Publication FL-Er-58-96. Florida Department of Transportation, Tallahassee.
359. Ruediger, B. 2002. High, wide and handsome: designing more effective carnivore crossings for roads and highways. From the mountains to the sea: a conference on carnivore biology and conservation, Monterey, California, Defenders of Wildlife.
1472. Russell, H. N. , and D. Amadon. 1938. A note on highway mortality. Wilson Bulletin 50: 205-206.
1066. Rytwinski, Trina, and Lenore Fahrig. 2007. Effect of road density on abundance of white footed mice. Landscape Ecology 22(10): 1501-1512.
1085. Santos, X., G. A. Llorente, A. Montori, M. A. Carretero, M. Franch, N. Garriga, and A. Richter-Boix. 2007. Evaluating factors affecting amphibian mortality on roads: the case of the common toad Bufo bufo, near a breeding place. Animal Biodiversity and Conservation 30.1: 97-104.
1473. Schafer, J. A. , and S. T. Penland. 1985. Effectiveness of Swareflex reflectors in reducing deer-vehicle accidents. Journal of Wildlife Management 49: 774-776.
1477. Scott, T. G. 1938. Wildlife mortality on Iowa highways. American Midland Naturalist 20: 527-539.
1528. Servheen, C., R. Shemaker, and L. Lawrence. 2003. A sampling of wildlife use in relation to structure variables for bridges and culverts under I-90 between  Alberton and St. Regis, Montana. Pp. 331-341 in, 2003 Proceedings of the International Conference on Ecology and Transportation, August 24-29, Lake Placid, New York.
1039. Shwiff, Stephanie A., Henry T. Smith, Alice M. Bard, Terese V. Harbor, Gayle W. Heath, and Richard M. Engeman. 2003. An economic analysis of a simple structural method to reduce road-kills of Royal terns at bridges. Caribbean Journal of Science 39(2): 250-253.
972. Sidle, R. C. 1980. Impacts of forest practices on surface erosion. Oregon State University, Extension Service, Corvallis, OR.
1483. Singer, F. J. , and J. B. Beattie. 1986. The controlled traffic system and associated wildlife responses in Denali National Park. Arctic 39: 195-203.
1533. Smith, D. 2003. Monitoring wildlife use and determining standards for culvert design. Final Report. Florida Department of Transportation, 
1488. Starrett, W. C. 1938. Highway casualties in Central Illinois during 1937. Wilson Bulletin 50: 193-196.
363. Steen, D. A., and J. P. Gibbs. 2004. Effects of roads on the structure of freshwater turtle populations. Conservation Biology 18(4): 1143-1148.
1095. Steen, David A., Lora L. Smith, L. Mike Conner, Jean C. Brock, and Shannon K. Hoss. 2007. Habitat use of sympatric rattlesnake species within the Gulf Coastal Plain. Journal of Wildlife Management 71(3): 759-764.
1489. Stoner, D. 1925. The toll of the automobile. Science 61: 56-57.
1490. Stoner, D. 1936. Wildlife casualties on the highways. Wilson Bulletin 48: 276-283.
1491. Swihart, R. K. , and N. A. Slade. 1984. Road crossing in Sigmodon hispidus and Microtus ochrogaster. Journal of Mammalogy 65: 357-360.
1082. Tanner, Dawn, and Jim Perry. 2007. Road effects on abundance and fitness of Galapagos lava lizards (Microlophus albemariensis). Journal of Environmental Management 85(2): 270-278.
1493. Taskula, T. 1997. The moose ahead. Traffic Technology International 42: 170-173.
1495. Thurber, J. M., R. O.  Peterson, T. D.  Drummer, and S. A. Thomasma. 1994. Gray wolf response to refuge boundaries and roads in Alaska. Wildlife Society Bulletin 22: 61-68.
1498. Ujvari, M., H. J.  Baagoe, and A. B. Madsen. 1998. Effectiveness of wildlife warning reflectors in reducing deer-vehicle collisions: a behavioral study. Journal of Wildlife Management 62: 1094-1099.
1506. Vos, C. C. 1997. Effects of road density: A case study of the moor frog. Pp. 93-97 in: K. Canters (editor), Habitat Fragmentation & Infrastructure. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, Delft, Netherlands.
1508. Vos, C. C., and J. P. Chardon. 1998. Effects of habitat fragmentation and road density on the distribution pattern of the moor frog Rana arvalis. Journal of Applied Ecology 35: 44-56.
1510. Ward, A. L. 1982. Mule deer behavior in relation to fencing and underpasses on Interstate 80 in Wyoming. Transportation Research Record 859: 8-13.
1511. Waring, G. H., J. L. Griffis, and M. E. Vaughn. 1991. White-tailed deer roadside behavior, wildlife warning reflectors, and highway mortality. Applied Animal Behavior Science 29: 215-223.
1512. Warren, E. R. 1936. Casualties among animals on mountain roads. Science 83: 14.
1518. White, F. B. 1929. Birds and motor cars. Auk 50: 236.
1521. Wilkins, K. T. 1982. Highways as barriers to rodent dispersal. Southwestern Naturalist 27: 459-460.
1523. Yanes, M., J. M. Velasco, and F. Suarez. 1995. Permeability of roads and railways to vertebrates:  The importance of culverts. Biological Conservation 71: 217-222.
1524. Yost, A. C., and R. G. Wright. 2001. Moose, caribou, and grizzly bear distribution in relation to road traffic in Denali National Park, Alaska. Arctic 54: 41-48.
1525. Zacks, J. L. 1986. Do white-tailed deer see red?  Premise underlying the design of Swareflex wildlife reflectors. Transportation Research Record 1075: 35-43.

Page Last Modified: February 18, 2014