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Joseph A. Burns CWB
National Transportation Ecology Program Leader
Watershed, Fish, Wildlife, Air, Rare Plants
1400 Independance Ave SW - MS1121
Washington, D.C. 20250-1121
(202) 205-0919
jaburns@fs.fed.us

Sandra Jacobson
Wildlife Biologist
USDA Forest Service
Pacific Southwest Research Station
(541) 678-5240
sjacobson@fs.fed.us

 

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Fragmentation Effects Related to OHV Use and Roads References

Last update June 1, 2008
(keywords searched: habitat fragmentation, fragmentation)

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1285. Adams, L. W., and A. D. Geis. 1983. Effects of roads on small mammals. Journal of Applied Ecology 20: 403-415.
 
1286. Alexander, S.,  and N. Waters. 2000. The effects of highway transportation corridors on wildlife:  A case study of Banff National Park. Transportation Research Part C:  Emerging Technologies 8: 307-320.
 
1146. Alexander, Shelley M., Nigel M. Waters and Paul C. Paquet. 2005. Traffic volume and highway permeability for a mammalian community in the Canadian Rocky Mountains. The Canadian Geographer 49(4): 321-331.
 
113. Allan, B. F., F.  Keesing and R. S. Ostfeld. 2003. Effect of forest fragmentation on Lyme disease risk. Conservation Biology 17(1): 267-272.
 
1021. American Ornithologists' Union Committee For The Conservation Of The Red-Cockaded Woodpecker. 1991. The conservation crisis: The red-cockaded woodpecker: on the road to oblivion? The Auk 108(1): 200-201.
 
114. Andren, H. 1994. Effects of habitat fragmentation on birds and mammals in landscapes with different proportions of suitable habitat:  a review. Oikos 71: 355-366.
 
1133. Andrews, A. 1990. Fragmentation of habitat by roads and utility corridors: a review. Australian Zoologist 26: 130-141.
 
464. Andrews, Kimberly M., and J. Whitfield Gibbons. 2005. How do highways influence snake movement? Behavioral responses to roads and vehicles. Copeia 2005(4): 772-782.
 
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1288. Apps, C. D. 1999. Space-use, diet, demographics, and topographic associations of lynx in the southern Canadian Rocky Mountains:  A study. Pp. 351-372 in: L. F. Ruggiero, K. B. Aubry, S. W. Buskirk, G. M. Koehler, C. J. Krebs, K. S. McKelvey and J. R. Squires (editors), Ecology and Conservation of Lynx in the United States. General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-30WWW. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fort Collins, CO.
 
421. Apps, Clayton D., B. N.  McLellan, T. A.  Kinley and J. P. Flaa. 2001. Scale-dependent habitat selection by mountain caribou, Columbia Mountains, British Columbia. Journal of Wildlife Management 65(1): 65-77.
 
1067. Arens, Paul, Theo van der Sluis, Wendy P. C. van't Westende, Ben Vosman, Claire C. Vos and Marinus J. M. Smulders. 2007. Genetic population differentiation and connectivity among fragmented Moor frog (Rana arvalis) populations in The Netherlands. Landscape Ecology 22(10): 1489-1500.
 
99. Ascensao, F., and A. Mira. 2007. Factors affecting culvert use by vertebrates along two stretches of road in southern Portugal. Ecological Research 22(1): 57-66.
 
424. Atzet, Thomas, and Robert E. Martin. 1991. Natural disturbance regimes in the Klamath Province. Pp. 40-48 in: R. Harris, D. C. Erman and H. M. Kerner (editors), Wildland Resources Center Report 29. Wildland Resources Center, Santa Rosa, CA.
 
465. Austen, Madeline J. W., Charles M. Francis, Dawn M. Burke and Michael S. W. Bradstreet. 2001. Landscape context and fragmentation effects on forest birds in southern Ontario. The Condor 103: 701-714.
 
1088. Baker, Philip J., Claire V. Dowding, Susie E. Molony, Piran C. L. White and Stephen Harris. 2007. Activity patterns of urban red-foxes (Vulpes vulpes) reduce the risk of traffic-induced mortality. Behavioral Ecology 18(4): 716-724.
 
1289. Baker, R. H. 1998. Are man-made barriers influencing mammalian speciations? Journal of Mammalogy 79: 370-371.
 
1526. Baker, W. L., and R. L. Knight. 2000. Roads and forest fragmentation in the southern Rocky Mountains. Pp. 97-122 in: R. L. Knight, F. W. Smith, S. W. Buskirk, W. H. Romme and W. L. Baker (editors), Forest fragmentation in the southern Rocky Mountains. University of Colorado Press, Boulder, CO.
 
116. Bakker, V. J., and D. H. Van Vuren. 2004. Gap-crossing decisions by the Red Squirrel, a forest-dependent small mammal. Conservation Biology 18(3).
 
1290. Bakowski, C., and M. Kozakiewicz. 1988. The effect of forest roads on bank vole and yellow-necked mouse populations. Acta Theriologica 33: 345-353.
 
117. Banks, S. C., G. R.  Finlayson, S. J.  Lawson, D. B.  Lindenmayer, D.  Paetkau, S. J. Ward and A. C. Taylor. 2005. The effects of habitat fragmentation due to forestry plantation establishment on the demography and genetic variation of a marsupial carnivore, Antechinus agilis. Biological Conservation 122: 581-597.
 
1292. Barbour, E. H. 1895. Bird fatality along Nebraska railroads. Auk 12: 187.
 
1209. Barnum, S. A. 2003. Identifying the best locations along highways to provide safe crossing opportunities for wildlife. Pp. 246-252 in, Proceedings of the International Conference on Ecology and Transportation, August 24-29, Lake Placid, New York.
 
1295. Baur, A., and B. Baur. 1990. Are roads barriers to dispersal in the land snail Arianta arbustorum? Canadian Journal of Zoology 68: 613-617.
 
1296. Beier, P., and R. H. Barrett. 1991. The Cougar in the Santa Ana Mountain Range, California.  Final Report. Orange County Co-operative Mountain Lion Study,  Department of Forestry and Resource Management, Berkeley, CA. 
 
1297. Beier, P., and S. Loe. 1992. A checklist for evaluating impacts to wildlife movement corridors. Wildlife Society Bulletin 20: 434-440.
 
447. Beier, P., and Reed F. Noss. 1998. Do habitat corridors provide connectivity? Conservation Biology 12(6): 1241-1252.
 
1298. Bekker, H. G. J.,  and K. Canters. 1997. The continuing story of badgers and their tunnels. Pp. 344-353 in: K. Canters, Habitat Fragmentation and Infrastructure. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, Delft, Netherlands.
 
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118. Bender, Darren J., T. A. Contreras and Lenore Fahrig. 1998. Habitat loss and population decline: A meta-analysis of the patch size effect. Ecology 79(2): 517-533.
 
1252. Bennett, A. F. 1991. Roads, roadsides and wildlife conservation:  A review. Pp. 99-117 in: D. A. Saunders and R. J. Hobbs (editors), Nature Conservation:  The Role of Corridors. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, Australia.
 
119. Bentley, J. M., and C. P. Catterall. 1997. The use of bushland, corridors, and linear remnants by birds in southeastern Queensland, Australia. Conservation Biology 11(5): 1173-1189.
 
1302. Bergerud, A. T., R. D.  Jakimchuk and D. R. Carruthers. 1984. The buffalo of the north: Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) and human developments. Arctic 37: 7-22.
 
120. Bergman, K., and J. Landin. 2001. Distribution of occupied and vacant sites and migration of Lopinga achine (Nymphalide: Satyrinae) in a fragmented landscape. Biological Conservation 102: 183-190.
 
1303. Beringer, J. J., S. G.  Seibert and M. R. Pelton. 1990. Incidence of road crossing by black bears on Pisgah National Forest, North Carolina. International Conference on Bear Research and Management 8: 85-92.
 
1304. Bernardino, F. S., Jr., and G. H. Dalrymple. 1992. Seasonal activity and road mortality of the snakes of the Pa-hay-okee wetlands of the Everglades National Park, USA. Biological Conservation 72: 71-75.
 
121. Betts, M. G., G. J. Forbes and A. W. Diamond. 2007. Thresholds in Songbird Occurrence in Relation to Landscape Structure. Conservation Biology 21(4): 1046-1058.
 
122. Bissonette, J. A., and S. Broekhuizen. 1995. Martes populations as indicators of habitat spatial patterns:  the need for a multi-scale approach. Pp. 95-121 in: W. Z. Lidicker Jr. (editor), Landscape approaches in mammalian ecology and conservation. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN.
 
123. Bissonette, J. A., D. J. Harrison, C. D. Hargis and T. G. Chapin. 1997. The influence of spatial scale and scale-sensitive properties on habitat selection by American marten. Pp. 368-385 in: J. A. Bissonette (editor), Wildlife and Landscape Ecology. Springer-Verlag, New York.
 
435. Boecklen, William J. 1986. Optimal design of nature reserves: consequences of genetic drift. Biological Conservation 38: 323-338.
 
124. Bogaert, J., P. Van Hecke, D. Salvador-Van Eysenrode and I. Impens. 2000. Landscape fragmentation assessment using a single measure. Wildlife Society Bulletin 28(4): 875-881.
 
125. Bolger, D. T., A. C. Alberts, R. M. Sauvajot, P. Potenza, C. McCalvin, D. Tran, S. Mazzoni and M. E. Soulé. 1997. Response of rodents to habitat fragmentation in coastal southern California. Ecological Applications 7(2): 552-563.
 
442. Bolger, D. T., T. A.  Scott and J. T. Rotenberry. 1997. Breeding bird abundance in an urbanizing landscape in coastal Southern California. Conservation Biology 11: 406-421.
 
126. Bolger, D. T., T. A. Scott and J. T. Rotenberry. 2001. Use of corridor-like landscape structures by bird and small mammal species. Biological Conservation 102: 213-224.
 
1212. Bond, M. 2003. Principles of wildlife corridor design, Center for Biological Diversity. 2008.
 
1045. Boone, R. B. and W. B. Krohn. 2000. Predicting broad-scale occurrences of vertebrates in patchy landscapes. Landscape Ecology 15: 63-74.
 
572. Boren, J. C., D. M. Engle, M. W. Palmer, R. E. Masters and T. Criner. 1999. Land use change effects on breeding bird community composition. Journal of Range Management 52(5): 420-430.
 
128. Boulinier, T., J. D. Nichols, J. E. Hines, J. R. Sauer, C. H. Flather and K. H. Pollock. 1998. Higher temporal variability of forest breeding bird communities in fragmented landscapes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 95: 7497-7501.
 
127. Boulinier, T., J. D. Nichols, J. E. Hines, J. R. Sauer, C. H. Flather and K. H. Pollock. 2001. Forest fragmentation and bird community dynamics: inference at regional scales. Ecology 82(4): 1159-1169.
 
692. Bowman, R. 2001. Demography of Florida scrub-jays in a suburban matrix: implications for reserve design and spatially-explicit modeling. Pp. 3 in: D. P. Zattau (editor), Proceedings of the Florida Scrub Symposium 2001. U.S. Department of Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Jacksonville, FL.
 
129. Brainerd, S. M. 1990. The pine marten and forest fragmentation: a review and general hypothesis. Transactions of the 19th Congress of the International Union of Game Biologists, September 1989, Trondheim, Norway, NINA, Norwegian Institute for Nature Research.
 
729. Breininger, D. R., M. J. Kehl, R. B. Smith, D. M. Oddy, J. A. Provancha and V. L. Larson. 1992. Identification of species considerations for maintenance of biological diversity along the Atlantic coast of Florida. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 73(2).
 
1310. Breuste, J., H. Feldmann and O. Uhlmann (editors). 1998. Urban Ecology. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY.
 
130. Bright, P. W. 1993. Habitat fragmentation - problems and predictions for British mammals. Mammal Review 23(3/4): 101-111.
 
47. Brocke, Rainer H., John P. O'Pezio and Kent A. Gustafson. 1990. A forest management scheme mitigating impact of road networks on sensitive wildlife species. Pp. 13-17 in: R. M. deGraaf and W. M. Healy (compilers), Is forest fragmentation a management issue in the Northeast? General Technical Report GTR-NE-140. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeast Forest Experiment Station, Radnor, PA.
 
131. Brooker, L., M. Brooker and P. Cale. 1999. Animal dispersal in fragmented habitat: measuring habitat connectivity, corridor use, and dispersal mortality. Conservation Ecology 3(1): 4.
 
1174. Brooks, Matthew L. and Bridget Lair. 2005. Ecological effects of vehicular routes in a desert ecosystem. U.S. Geological Survey, Western Ecological Research Center, Las Vegas Field Station, Henderson, NV.
 
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1214. Brudin III, C. O. 2003. Wildlife use of existing culverts and bridges in north central Pennsylvania. Pp. 344-352 in, Proceedings from the International Conference of Ecology and Transportation, August 24-29, Lake Placid, New York.
 
132. Buford, E. W., and D. E. Capen. 1999. Abundance and productivity of forest songbirds in a managed, unfragmented landscape in Vermont. Journal of Wildlife Management 63(1): 180-188.
 
400. Burkey, T. V. 1989. Extinction in nature reserves: the effect of fragmentation and the importance of migration between reserve fragments. Oikos 55: 75-81.
 
134. Burkey, T. V. 1995. Extinction rates in Archipelagoes:  implications for populations in fragmented habitats. Conservation Biology 9(3): 527-541.
 
1264. Burnett, S. E. 1992. Effects of a rainforest road on movements of small mammals: mechanisms and implications. Wildlife Research 19: 95-104.
 
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579. Butler, W. H. 1987. Management of disturbance in an arid remnant: The Barrow Island Experience. Pp. 279-285 in: D. A. Saunders, G. W. Arnold, A. A. Burbidge and J. M. Hopkins (editors), Nature Conservation:  The role of remnants of native vegetation. Surrey Beatty & Sons, New South Wales.
 
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139. Chalfoun, A. D., M. J.  Ratnaswamy and F. R. Thompson. 2002. Songbird nest predators in forest-pasture edge and forest interior in a fragmented landscape. Ecological Applications 12(3): 858-867.
 
137. Chalfoun, A. D., F. R. Thompson III and M. J. Ratnaswamy. 2002. Nest predators and fragmentation: review and meta-analysis. Conservation Biology 16(2): 306-318.
 
1163. Chen, Jiquan, Jerry F. Franklin and Thomas A. Spies. 1995. Growing-season microclimatic gradients from clearcut edges into old-growth Douglas-fir forests. Ecological Applications 5(1): 74-86.
 
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1324. Clevenger, A. P. 1998. Permeability of the Trans-Canada Highway to wildlife in Banff National Park:  Importance of crossing structures and factors influencing their effectiveness. Proceedings of the International Conference on Wildlife Ecology and Transportation, Tallahassee, FL, Florida Department of Transportation.
 
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490. Clevenger, Anthony P., and Nigel Waltho. 2000. Factors influencing the effectiveness of wildlife underpasses in Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada. Conservation Biology 14(1): 47-56.
 
1216. Clevenger, Anthony P., and N. Waltho. 2005. Performance indices to identify attributes of highway crossing structures facilitating movement of large mammals. Biological Conservation 121(3): 453-464.
 
141. Cochrane, M. A. 2001. Synergistic interactions between habitat fragmentation and fire in evergreen tropical forests. Conservation Biology 15(6): 1515-1521.
 
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152. Di Orio, Aaron P., Richard Callas and Robert J. Schaefer. 2005. Forty-eight year decline and fragmentation of aspen (Populus tremuloides) in the South Warner Mountains of California. Forest Ecology and Management 206: 307-313.
 
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159. Fahrig, L. 1997. Relative effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on population extinction. Journal of Wildlife Management 61(3): 603-610.
 
160. Fahrig, L. 2002. Effect of habitat fragmentation on the extinction threshold: a synthesis. Ecological Applications 12(2): 346-353.
 
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