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Edge Effects Related to OHV Use and Roads References

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113. Allan, B. F., F.  Keesing, and R. S. Ostfeld. 2003. Effect of forest fragmentation on Lyme disease risk. Conservation Biology 17(1): 267-272.

705. Alldredge, M. W., J. M. Peek, and W. A. Wall. 2001. Shrub community development and annual productivity trends over a 100-year period on an industrial forest of Northern Idaho. Forest Ecology and Management 152(1-3): 259-273.

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118. Bender, Darren J., T. A. Contreras, and Lenore Fahrig. 1998. Habitat loss and population decline: A meta-analysis of the patch size effect. Ecology 79(2): 517-533.

124. Bogaert, J., P. Van Hecke, D. Salvador-Van Eysenrode, and I. Impens. 2000. Landscape fragmentation assessment using a single measure. Wildlife Society Bulletin 28(4): 875-881.

125. Bolger, D. T., A. C. Alberts, R. M. Sauvajot, P. Potenza, C. McCalvin, D. Tran, S. Mazzoni, and M. E. Soulé. 1997. Response of rodents to habitat fragmentation in coastal southern California. Ecological Applications 7(2): 552-563.

574. Branhagen, A. J. 1990. Gravel prairie, sedge meadow and fen restoration underway at Kieselberg forest preserve. Restoration & Management Notes 8(2): 102-103.

729. Breininger, D. R., M. J. Kehl, R. B. Smith, D. M. Oddy, J. A. Provancha, and V. L. Larson. 1992. Identification of species considerations for maintenance of biological diversity along the Atlantic coast of Florida. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 73(2).

130. Bright, P. W. 1993. Habitat fragmentation - problems and predictions for British mammals. Mammal Review 23(3/4): 101-111.

1213. Brown, Douglas L., James Laird, William D. Sommers, and Amanda Hamilton. 1995. Methods used by the Arizona Department of Transportation to reduce wildlife mortality and improve highway safety. Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix, AZ. 2.

400. Burkey, T. V. 1989. Extinction in nature reserves: the effect of fragmentation and the importance of migration between reserve fragments. Oikos 55: 75-81.

135. Calabrese, Justin M., and William F. Fagan. 2004. A comparison-shopper's guide to connectivity metrics. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 2(10): 529-536.

136. Cale, P. 2000. Behavioral mechanisms and habitat use by birds in a fragmented agricultural landscape. Ecological Applications 10(6): 1749-1762.

1129. Cameron, R. P. 2006. Protected area - working forest interface: ecological concerns for protected areas management in Canada. Natural Areas Journal 26(4): 403-407.

403. Campbell, Mike, and Mark Jones. 2003. Habitat fragmentation and birds. 2003.

1215. Carr, T., R. Dacanay, K.  Drake, C. Everson, A. Sperry, and K. Sullivan. 2003. Wildlife Crossings: rethinking road design to improve safety and reconnect habitat, Portland State University Planning Workshop, Metro.

583. Catsadorakis, G., and M. Malakou. 1997. Conservation and management issues of Prespa National Park. Hydrobiologia 351: 175-196.

139. Chalfoun, A. D., M. J.  Ratnaswamy, and F. R. Thompson. 2002. Songbird nest predators in forest-pasture edge and forest interior in a fragmented landscape. Ecological Applications 12(3): 858-867.

1162. Chen, Jiquan, Jerry F. Franklin, and Thomas A. Spies. 1992. Vegetation responses to edge environments in old-growth Douglas-fir forests. Ecological Applications 2(4): 387-396.

1163. Chen, Jiquan, Jerry F. Franklin, and Thomas A. Spies. 1995. Growing-season microclimatic gradients from clearcut edges into old-growth Douglas-fir forests. Ecological Applications 5(1): 74-86.

1217. Clevenger, Anthony P., B. Chruszcz, K. Gunson, and J. Wierzchowski. 2002. Roads and wildlife in the Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks - movements, mortality and mitigation. Final Report to Parks Canada, Banff, Alberta, Canada. 432 p.

151. Debinski, D. M., and R. D. Holt. 2000. A survey and overview of habitat fragmentation experiments. Conservation Biology 14(2): 342-355.

425. Dixon, John D. 2000. Effects of nighttime illumination on wildlife. California Coastal Commission, San Francisco, CA. 

778. Dobkin, D. S., A. C. Rich, J. A. Pretare, and W. H. Pyle. 1995. Nest-Site Relationships among Cavity-Nesting Birds of Riparian and Snowpocket Aspen Woodlands in the Northwestern Great-Basin. Condor 97(3): 694-707.

782. Edenius, L., and J. Elmberg. 1996. Landscape level effects of modern forestry on bird communities in North Swedish boreal forests. Landscape Ecology 11(6): 325-338.

1336. Edge, W. D. , and C. L. Marcum. 1985. Movements of elk in relation to logging disturbances. Journal of Wildlife Management 49: 926-930.

157. Ewers, R. M., and R. K. Didham. 2007. The Effect of Fragment Shape and Species Sensitivity to Habitat Edges on Animal Population Size. Conservation Biology 21(4): 926-936.

159. Fahrig, L. 1997. Relative effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on population extinction. Journal of Wildlife Management 61(3): 603-610.

160. Fahrig, L. 2002. Effect of habitat fragmentation on the extinction threshold: a synthesis. Ecological Applications 12(2): 346-353.

428. Fletcher, Robert J., and R. R. Koford. 2002. Habitat and landscape associations of breeding birds in native and restored grasslands. Journal of Wildlife Management 66(4): 1011-1022.

541. Forman, Richard T. T., and Robert D. Deblinger. 2000. The ecological road-effect zone of a Massachusetts (U.S.A.) suburban highway. Conservation Biology 14(1): 36-46.

500. Forman, Richard T. T., Daniel Sperling, John A. Bissonette, Anthony P. Clevenger, Carol D. Cutshall, Virginia H. Dale, Lenore Fahrig, Robert France, Charles R. Goldman, Kevin Heanue, Julia A. Jones, Frederick J. Swanson, Thomas Turrentine, and Thomas C. Winter. 2003. Road Ecology: Science and Solutions. Island Press, Washington DC.

1165. Frederick, Glenn P. 1991. Effects of forest roads on grizzly bears, elk, and gray wolves: a literature review. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Kootenai National Forest, Libby, MT. 41 p.

321. Freilich, J. E., and E. L. LaRue Jr. 1998. Amphibian movements in response to forest edges, roads, and streambeds in southern New England. Journal of Wildlife Management 62(2): 590-595.

1091. Frey, S. Nicole, and Michael R. Conover. 2006. Habitat use by meso-predators in a corridor environment. Journal of Wildlife Management 70(4): 1111-1118.

796. Fulbright, T. E. 1996. Viewpoint: A theoretical basis for planning woody plant control to maintain species diversity. Journal of Range Management 49(6): 554-559.

801. Gascon, C., G. B. Williamson, and G. A. B. daFonseca. 2000. Receding forest edges and vanishing reserves. Science 288(5470): 1356-1358.

44. Gehrt, S. D., and J. E. Chelsvig. 1999. Patterns of bat use of urban forest preserves in the Chicago Region. Abstracts of The Wildlife Society 6th annual Conference, Austin, TX.

1124. Gibbs, J. P. 1998. Amphibians movements in response to forest edges, roads, and streambeds in southern New England. Journal of Wildlife Management 62(2 Suppl.): 584-589.

1099. Giroux, Wendy, Pierre Blanchette, Claude Bourgeois, and Gilbert Cabana. 2007. Ruffed grouse brood habitat use in mixed Softwood-Hardwood Nordic-Temperate forests, Quebec, Canada. Journal of Wildlife Management 71(1): 87-95.

1134. Gutzwiller, Kevin J. 1995. Recreational disturbance and wildlife communities. Pp. 169-182 in: R. L. Knight and K. J. Gutzwiller (editors), Wildlife and Recreationists: Coexistence through Management and Research. Island Press, Washington D. C.

1427. Hannah, D. H. 1992. Fragmentation in the Ocala National Forest: a GIS Analysis. M.S. Thesis. University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. 

175. Harper, K. A., and S. E. Macdonald. 2002. The critical values program for assessing edge influence. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 83(1): 61-62.

176. Harper, Karen A., S. Ellen MacDonald, Philip J. Burton, Jiquan Chen, Kimberley D. Brosofske, Sari C. Saunders, Eugenie S. Euskirchen, Dar Roberts, Malanding S. Jaiteh, and Per-Anders Esseen. 2005. Edge influence on forest structure and composition in fragmented landscapes. Conservation Biology 19(3): 768-782.

1428. Harris, L., and G. Silva-Lopez. 1992. Forest fragmentation and the conservation of biological diversity. Pp. 197-237 in: P. Fiedler and S. Jain (editors), Conservation Biology, the Theory and Practice of Nature Conservation. Chapman and Hall, New York, NY.

179. Haskell, D. G. 1995. A reevaluation of the effects of forest fragmentation on rates of bird-nest predation. Conservation Biology 9(5): 1316-1318.

833. Hessburg, P. F., B. G. Smith, and R. B. Salter. 1999. Detecting change in forest spatial patterns from reference conditions. Ecological Applications 9(4): 1232-1252.

332. Huijser, M. P., and P. J. M. Bergers. 2000. The effect of roads and traffic on hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) populations. Biological Conservation 95: 111-116.

399. Jimerson, Thomas M., and Lisa D. Hoover. 1991. Old growth forest fragmentation: changes in amount, patch size, and edge as a result of logging. Pp. 168-174 in: R. R. Harris, D. C. Erman and H. M. Kerner (editors), Wildlife Resource Center Report No. 29. Santa Rosa, CA.

401. Jules, Erik. S., Evan J.  Frost, L. Scott Mills, and David A. Tallmon. 1999. Ecological consequences of forest fragmentation in the Klamath Region. Natural Areas Journal 19(4): 368-378.

186. Jules, Erik S., and B. J. Rathcke. 1999. Mechanisms of reduced trillium recruitment along edges of old-growth forest fragments. Conservation Biology 13(4): 784-793.

506. Knapp, Shannon M., Carola A. Haas, Douglas N. Harpole, and Roy L. Kirkpatrick. 2003. Initial effects of clearcutting and alternative silvicultural practices on terrestrial salamander abundance. Conservation Biology 17(3): 752-762.

426. Kruse, William H. 1999. Commercial fuelwood harvesting affects on small mammal habitats in Central Arizona. Ecology and Management of Pinyon-juniper communities within the interior West, 15-18 September 1997, Provo, UT, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station.

1125. Kuitunen, M., E. Rossi, and A. Stenroos. 1998. Do highways influence density of land birds? Environmental Management 22(2): 297-302.

196. Laurance, W. F., and C. Gascon. 1997. How to creatively fragment a landscape. Conservation Biology 11(2): 577-579.

655. Laurance, W. F., H. L. Vasconcelos, and T. E. Lovejoy. 2000. Forest loss and fragmentation in the Amazon: implications for wildlife conservation. Oryx 34(1): 39-45.

407. Laurance, W. F., and E. Yensen. 1991. Predicting the impacts of edge effects in fragmented habitats. Biological Conservation 55: 77-92.

1460. Leung, Y-F., and J. L. Marion. 1996. Trail degradation as influenced by environmental factors: a state-of-the-knowledge review. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 51(2): 130-136.

877. Lunney, D., L. O'Neill, A. Matthews, and W. B. Sherwin. 2002. Modelling mammalian extinction and forecasting recovery: koalas at Iluka (NSW, Australia). Biological Conservation 106(1): 101-113.

1543. Macie, Edward A., and L. Annie Hermansen (editors). 2002. Human influences on forest ecosystems: the southern wildland-urban influence assessment. General Technical Report GTR-SRS-55. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Asheville, NC.

207. Manolis, J. C., D. E. Andersen, and F. J. Cuthbert. 2000. Patterns in clearcut edge and fragmentation effect studies in northern hardwood-conifer landscapes:  retrospective power analysis and Minnesota results. Wildlife Society Bulletin 28(4): 1088-1101.

1098. Marsh, David M. 2007. Edge effects of gated and ungated roads on terrestrial salamanders. Journal of Wildlife Management 71(2): 389-394.

342. Marsh, D. M., and N. G. Beckman. 2004. Effects of forest roads on the abundance and activity of terrestrial salamanders. Ecological Applications 14(6): 1882-1891.

478. Matlack, G. R. 1993. Microenvironment variation within and among forest edge sites in the eastern United States. Biological Conservation 66: 185-194.

211. Matlack, Glenn R., and John Monde. 2004. Consequences of low mobility in spatially and temporally heterogeneous ecosystems. Journal of Ecology 92: 1025-1035.

890. McGarigal, K., W. H. Romme, M. Crist, and E. Roworth. 2001. Cumulative effects of roads and logging on landscape structure in the San Juan Mountains, Colorado (USA). Landscape Ecology 16(4): 327-349.

345. Miller, J. R., L. A. Joyce, R. L. Knight, and R. M. King. 1996. Forest roads and landscape structure in the southern Rocky Mountains. Landscape Ecology 11(2): 115-127.

656. Millions, D. G., and B. J. Swanson. 2007. Impact of natural and artificial barriers to dispersal on the population structure of bobcats. Journal of Wildlife Management 71(1): 96-102.

216. Mills, L. S. 1995. Edge effects and isolation: red-backed voles on forest remnants. Conservation Biology 9(2): 395-403.

675. Mills, L. S. 1996. Fragmentation of a natural area: dynamics of isolation for small mammals on forest remnants. Pp. 199-219 in: R. G. Wright (editor), National Parks and Protected Areas. Blackwell Science, Cambridge, Mass.

903. Millsap, B. A., J. A. Gore, D. E. Runde, and S. I. Cerulean. 1990. Setting priorities for the conservation of fish and wildlife species in Florida. Wildlife Monographs(111): 1-57.

441. Morrison, Michael L., and E. Charles Meslow. 1983. Avifauna associates with early growth vegetation on clearcuts in the Oregon Coast Ranges. Report PNW-305. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Portland, OR.

219. Mortelliti, A., and L. Boitani. 2008. Interaction of food resources and landscape structure in determining the probability of patch use by carnivores in fragmented landscapes. Landscape Ecology 23: 285-298.

915. Nilon, C. 2002. Managing for the wildlife at the urban-wildland interface. The wildland-urban interface: sustaining forests in a changing landscape, Gainsville, FL, University of Florida.

423. Noble, Ian R., and R. Dirzo. 1997. Forests as human-dominated ecosystems. Science 277: 522-525.

1438. Noss, R. F. 1996. The ecological effects of roads. Pp. 2-12 in, Road-Rippers Handbook. Wildlands Center for Preventing Roads, Missoula, MT.

223. Nupp, T. E., and R. K. Swihart. 1998. Effects of forest fragmentation on population attributes of white-footed mice and eastern chipmunks. Journal of Mammalogy 79(4): 1234-1243.

224. Nupp, T. E., and R. K. Swihart. 2000. Landscape-level correlates of small-mammal assemblages in forest fragments of farmland. Journal of Mammalogy 81(2): 512-526.

414. Odum, Eugene P. 1985. Trends expected in stressed ecosystems. BioScience 35(2): 419-422.

387. Opdam, P. 1991. Metapopulation theory and habitat fragmentation: a review of holarctic breeding bird studies. Landscape Ecology 5(2): 93-106.

226. Opdam, P., and Hustings Rijsdijk, F. 1985. Bird communities in small woods in an agricultural landscape:  effects of area and isolation. Biological Conservation 34: 333-352.

660. Ortega, Y. K., and D. E. Capen. 1999. Effects of forest roads on habitat quality for ovenbirds in a forested landscape. The Auk 116(4): 937-946.

227. Ostfeld, R. S. 1992. Small-mammal herbivores in a patchy environment:  individual strategies and population responses. Pp. 43-74 in: M. D. Hunter, T. Ohgushi and P. W. Prive (editors), Effects of Resource Distribution on Animal-Plant Interactions. Academic Press, Inc., New York.

1161. Parker, Timothy H., Brooke M. Stansberry, and C. Dustin Becker. 2005. Edge and area effects on the occurrence of migrant forest songbirds. Conservation Biology 19(4): 1157-1167.

685. Parks, S. A., and A. H. Harcourt. 2002. Reserve size, local human density, and mammalian extinctions in U. S. protected areas. Conservation Biology 16(3): 800-808.

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233. Pickett, S. T. A., and John N. Thompson. 1978. Patch dynamics and the design of nature reserves. Biological Conservation 13(1): 27-37.

234. Quinn, J. F. 2004. Influence of habitat fragmentation and crop system on Columbia Bain shrubsteppe communities. Ecological Applications 14(6): 1634-1655.

235. Radeloff, Volker C., Roger B. Hammer, and Susan I. Stewart. 2005. Rural and suburban sprawl in the U.S. Midwest from 1940 to 2000 and its relation to forest fragmentation. Conservation Biology 19.

1383. Ranney, J. W. , M. C.  Bruner, and J. B. Levenson. 1981. The importance of edge in the structure and dynamics of forest islands. Pp. 67-92 in: R. L. Burgess and D. M. Sharpe (editor), Forest Island Dynamics in Man-Dominated Landscapes. Springer-Verlag, New York.

1384. Raty, M. 1979. Effect of highway traffic on tetraonid densities. Ornis Fennica 56: 169-170.

677. Reed, R. A., J. Johnson-Barnard, and W. L. Baker. 1996. Contribution of roads to forest fragmentation in the Rocky Mountains. Conservation Biology 10(4): 1098-1106.

444. Richards, William H., D. O.  Wallin, and N. H. Schumaker. 2002. An analysis of late seral forest connectivity in western Oregon, USA. Conservation Biology 16(5): 1409-1421.

353. Richardson, J. H., R. F. Shore, and J. R. Treweek. 1997. Are major roads a barrier to small mammals? Journal of Zoology, London 243: 840-846.

355. Riley, S. P. D., R. M. Sauvajot, T. K. Fuller, E. C. York, D. A. Kamradt, C. Bromley, and R. K. Wayne. 2003. Effects of Urbanization and Habitat Fragmentation on Bobcats and Coyotes in Southern California. Conservation Biology 17(2): 566-576.

356. Ritters, K. H., and J. D. Wickhamand. 2003. How far to the nearest road? Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 1(3): 125-129.

1167. Robinson, Scott K., Frank R. Thompson III, Therese M. Donovan, Donald R. Whitehead, and John Faaborg. 1995. Regional forest fragmentation and the nesting success of migratory birds. Science 267(5206): 1987-1990.

357. Robitaille, J., and K. Aubry. 2000. Occurrence and activity of American martens Martes americana in relation to roads and other routes. Acta Theriologica 45: 137-143.

664. Rodewald, Amanda D. 2002. Nest predation in forested regions: landscape and edge effects. Journal of Wildlife Management 66(3): 634-640.

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242. Rondinini, Carlo, and Luigi Boitani. 2002. Habitat use by beech martens in a fragmented landscape. Ecography.

1148. Rondinini, C., and C. P. Doncaster. 2002. Roads as barriers to movement for hedgehogs. Functional Ecology 16(4): 504-509.

243. Rosenberg, K. V., J.D. Lowe, and A. A. Dhondt. 1999. Effects of forest fragmentation on breeding tanagers:  a continental perspective. Conservation Biology 13(3): 568-583.

394. Rosenberg, Kenneth V., and Martin G. Raphael. 1986. Effects of forest fragmentation on vertebrates in Douglas fir forests. Pp. 263-272 in: J. Verner, M. L. Morrison and C. J. Ralph (editors), Wildlife 2000: Modeling Habitat Relationships of Terrestrial Vertebrates. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, WI.

1471. Ruediger, B., J.  Claar, and J. Gore. 1999. Restoration of carnivore habitat connectivity in the Northern Rockies. Pp. 5-20 in: G. L. Evink, P. Garrett and D. Zeigler (editors), Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Wildlife Ecology and Transportation. Publication FL-ER-73-99. Florida Department of Transportation, Tallahassee.

246. Sanchez-Cordero, Victor, Patricia Illoldi-Rangel, Miguel Linaje, Sahotra Sarkar, and A. Townsend Peterson. 2005. Deforestation and extant distributions of Mexican endemic mammals. Biological Conservation 126: 465-473.

1085. Santos, X., G. A. Llorente, A. Montori, M. A. Carretero, M. Franch, N. Garriga, and A. Richter-Boix. 2007. Evaluating factors affecting amphibian mortality on roads: the case of the common toad Bufo bufo, near a breeding place. Animal Biodiversity and Conservation 30.1: 97-104.

1539. Sauvajot, Raymond M., Marybeth Buechner, Denise A. Kamradt, and Christine M. Schonewald. 1998. Patterns of human disturbance and response by small mammals and birds in chaparral near urban development. Urban Ecosystems 2(4): 279-297.

249. Schlaepfer, M. A., and T. A. Gavin. 2001. Edge effects on lizards and frogs in tropical forest fragments. Conservation Biology 15(4): 1079-1090.

1474. Schonewald-Cox, C. , and M. Buechner. 1992. Park protection and public roads. Pp. 373-396 in: P. L. Fieldler and S. L. Jain (editors), Conservation Biology:  The Theory and Practice of Nature Conservation, Preservation and Management. 373-395. Chapman and Hall, New York.

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251. Sisk, T. D., N. M. Haddad, and P. R. Ehrlich. 1997. Bird assemblages in patchy woodlands: modeling the effects of edge and matrix habitats. Ecological Applications 7(4): 1170-1180.

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1095. Steen, David A., Lora L. Smith, L. Mike Conner, Jean C. Brock, and Shannon K. Hoss. 2007. Habitat use of sympatric rattlesnake species within the Gulf Coastal Plain. Journal of Wildlife Management 71(3): 759-764.

253. Stephens, S. E., D. N. Koons, J. J. Rotella, and D. W. Willey. 2003. Effects of habitat fragmentation on avian nesting success: a review of the evidence at multiple spatial scales. Biological Conservation 115: 101-110.

398. Suarez, A. V., D. T.  Bolger, and T. J. Case. 1998. Effects of fragmentation and invasion on native ant communities on coastal southern California. Ecology 79: 2041-2056.

422. Suarez, A. V., K. S Pfennig, and S. K. Robinson. 1997. Nesting success of a disturbance-dependent songbird on different kinds of edges. Conservation Biology 11: 928-935.

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254. Swihart, R. K., T. M.  Gehring, M. B.  Kolozsvary, and T. E. Nupp. 2003. Responses of 'resistant' vertebrates to habitat loss and fragmentation: the importance of niche breadth and range boundaries. Diversity and Distributions 9: 1-18.

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260. Trzcinski, M. K., L. Fahrig, and G. Merriam. 1999. Independent effects of forest cover and fragmentation on the distribution of forest breeding birds. Ecological Applications 9(2): 586-593.

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269. Wauters, L. A., Y. Hutchinson, D. T. Parkin, and A. A. Dhondt. 1994. The effects of habitat fragmentation on demography and on the loss of genetic variation in the red squirrel. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences.

1514. Weathers, K. C. , M. L.  Cadenasso, and S. T. A. Pickett. 2001. Forest edges as nutrient and pollutant concentrations: potential synergisms between fragmentation, forest canopies, and the atmosphere. Conservation Biology 15: 1506-1514.

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