Lichen Links & Resources
Here are some helpful links about lichens. Some have great pictures and stories about lichen use, and others give more detailed explanations about lichen biology and structure. Browse through these sites and enter the world of lichens and the people who research them.
Books & Guides
There are plenty of books and guides available about lichens. Many of them have spectacular photographs, while others are all business to help you identify lichens.
Keep in mind that lichenology is a specific field of study and many of the keys and books are no longer published simply because the demand for them is not great. Some of these publications can be found in online formats, while others may be found by looking in a used bookstore. Check out these books, and then search for more!
Brodo, I. M., S. D. Sharnoff, & S. Sharnoff. 2001. Lichens of North America. Yale University Press, New Haven and London.
Goward, T. 1999. The Lichens of British Columbia. Illustrated Keys. Part 2, Fruticose Species. British Columbia Ministry of Forests. Crown Publications Inc., Victoria, B.C.
Goward, T., B. McCune, and D. Meidinger. 1994. The Lichens of British Columbia. Part 1. Foliose and Squamulose Species. British Columbia Ministry of Forests. Crown Publications Inc., Victoria, B.C.
Hale, Mason E. 1969. How to Know the Lichens. WCB McGraw-Hill, Boston, Mass.
Hale, Mason E. and Mariette Cole. 1989. Lichens of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.
McCune, B. and L. Geiser. 1997. Macrolichens of the Pacific Northwest. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis, OR.
Medlin, Julie Jones. 1996. Michigan Lichens. Cranbrook Institute of Science, Bloomfield Hills, MI.
Rosentreter, R., M. Bowker, and J. Belnap. 2007. A Field Guide to Biological Soil Crusts of Western U.S. Drylands (PDF, 15.8 MB). U.S. Government Printing Office, Denver, Colorado.
St. Clair, Larry L. 1999. A Color Guidebook to Common Rocky Mountain Lichens. Brigham Young University, Provo, UT.
Thomson, John W. 2003. Lichens of Wisconsin. Wisconsin State Herbarium, Madison, WI.