Copstead, Ronald L.; Johansen, David Kim; Moll, Jeffry E.. 1998. Water/Road Interaction: Introduction to Surface Cross Drains. 9877 1806P. Water/Road Interaction Technology Series: Volume Issue . San Dimas, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, San Dimas Technology and Development Center. 15 p.
A variety of surface cross drains that are used on forest roads are described, including cross drain dips, waterbars, and open-top culverts. The applicability of different designs is given. Factors to consider when designing surface cross drains for forest roads are discussed, including location, geometry of dips, orientation, and erosion control. Some of the work that has been done to develop guides for cross drain spacing is discussed, and suggestions are made as to how to apply this work.
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