Johansen, David Kim; Copstead, Ronald L.; Moll, Jeffry E.. 1997. Relief Culverts. 9777 1812P. Water/Road Interaction Technology Series: Volume Issue . San Dimas, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, San Dimas Technology and Development Center. 9 p.
Relief culverts are conduits buried beneath the road surface to relieve drainage in longitudinal ditches at the toe of back slopes. They are crucial to most insloped and crowned road drainage systems and are placed at frequent intervals such that ditch flow does not concentrate to unmanageable levels. Relief culverts may be constructed from a variety of materials and may be circular, pipe arch, or rectangular in cross section.
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