Clarkin, Kim ; Keller, Gordon ; Warhol, Terry ; Hixson, Suzan . 2006. Low-Water Crossings: Geomorphic, Biological, and Engineering Design Considerations. 0625 1808P. San Dimas, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, San Dimas Technology and Development Center. 366 p.
Low-water crossings are road-stream crossing structures designed to be overtopped by high flows or by debris- or ice-laden flows. They can be desirable alternatives to culverts and bridges on very low-volume roads and trails, and they can offer substantial environmental advantages in some stream environments. They are useful, for example, where streamflow is highly variable and large amounts of woody debris pose a risk to crossing structures. This publication reviews both the advantages and disadvantages of different low-water crossing structures in various stream environments and illustrates situations in which low-water crossings may be the optimal choice of crossing structure. The publication aims to provide multidisciplinary teams planning and designing road-stream crossing structures with answers to questions about where and how to best use overtoppable crossing structures.
Keywords: crossing structures
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