FOREST SERVICE HANDBOOK

VALLEJO, CA

FSH 2709.11 - SPECIAL USES HANDBOOK

Region 5 Supplement No. 2709.11-99-1

Effective January 4, 2000

POSTING NOTICE. Supplements are numbered consecutively by Handbook number and calendar year. Post document in numerical order of chapters. Retain this transmittal as the first page of this document. The last supplement to this Handbook was Supplement 2709.11-89-8.

Superseded New

Document Name (Number of Pages)

2709.11,40 - 16

Digest:

41 -

BRADLEY E. POWELL

Acting Regional Forester

2709.11 - SPECIAL USES HANDBOOK

R5 SUPPLEMENT 2709.11-99-1

EFFECTIVE 01/04/00

Contents

41 RECREATION SPECIAL USES

41.2 Individual Use

41.23 Recreation Residence Use

41.23e Permit Administration

41.23f Use of Recreation Residence

41.23g Construction and Reconstruction Standards

41.23h Maintenance Standards

2709.11 - SPECIAL USES HANDBOOK

R5 SUPPLEMENT 2709.11-99-1

EFFECTIVE 01/04/00

CHAPTER 40 - SPECIAL USES ADMINISTRATION

41 - RECREATION SPECIAL USES .

41.2 - Individual Use.

41.23 - Recreation Residence Use .

1. Objectives. The recreation residence permit is designed and administered to maintain a forest-related recreation experience for the permit holder and the public. The laws, regulations, and policies governing the use and maintenance of recreation residences are those necessary to comply with federal, state, and county ordinances, building, and sanitation codes to safeguard the national forests' resources. Restrictions and special rules are designed to fit local conditions. Following are the Region 5 objectives:

a. Protect the forest environment including soil, vegetation, water quality, wildlife, air quality, and historic resources.

b. Prevent urbanization of recreation residence tracts.

c. Help assure safety of the general public and the permit holders.

d. Maintain the national forest setting.

e. Comply with the terms and conditions of the special use permit.

f. Comply with requirements for protection of threatened and endangered species, historic cabins and tracts, and archaeological properties.

2. Policy. Authorized officers shall use these standards and guidelines to administer recreation residence permits and evaluate proposals for modifications of permitted improvements.

3. Definitions. Following are Region 5 definitions for recreation residence administration.

Commercial Use. Any activity which brings revenue to the permit holder or for anybody else using the permitted property, except for incidental rental up to fourteen days.

Maintenance. Maintenance is the act of keeping the facility in an ordinary, efficient operating condition. It includes preventative maintenance, normal repairs, and activities needed to preserve the improvement to achieve its expected life. On historic properties, some activities may require consultation with the authorized officer.

Permit Holder. Any applicant who has received a special use authorization (see FSM 2705). A recreation residence permit holder must be an individual, a married couple, or a designated representative of a formally established living or family trust. The holder of the permit must be able to demonstrate ownership of the authorized improvements. When the holder is a designated representative of a family or living trust, the holder must be able to demonstrate ownership of the authorized improvements in the name of the trust which they are representing.

Principal Residence. The principal residence can be a house, apartment, mobile home, or other reasonable domicile, either owned or rented, and must be open and available to the permit holder at all times. The principal residence cannot be simply an address used to give the appearance of living in a home elsewhere. It must be the place where the permit holder routinely receives mail, is registered to vote, from which children attend school, and from where the permit holder normally commutes to work.

Recreation Residence. See FSM 2340.5 and FSM 2721.23.

Recreation Residence Use. The recreation residence is used for personal recreation only.

4. Application. Recreation residence owners must apply for authorizations to occupy National Forest System lands. Only those who may qualify as an eventual permit holder (see definition above) may submit an application, and be considered for, a recreation residence term special use permit. (See FSM 2721.23b).

Issuance of a new special use permit is not automatic. Changes in public needs and environmental standards may result in new requirements. Changes may be incorporated in new permits, and the new holder will be subject to these terms. The permit is a privilege to use and occupy National Forest System lands for recreation residence purposes. Buyers of a recreation residence may be granted new a permit, only if they qualify as a holder of a permit, as defined under Section 41.23, 2 (above), and they do not already hold a recreation residence special use permit elsewhere on National Forest System land. When a recreation residence special use permit is revoked or expires, and a new permit is issued, the new permit may be revised to include terms and conditions consistent with the existing laws, regulations, and policies.

5. General Permit Requirements. In addition to the standard provisions of the recreation residence term permits, many permits also contain additional site-specific clauses addressing such things as power withdrawal or home owners' associations. Recreation residence permits may also authorize improvements such as outbuildings, sleeping quarters, water systems, rights-of-way, and footbridges, located both on and off the lot, when such improvements are owned by the holder and used in conjunction with the holder's use of the lot as a recreation residence.

6. Destruction, Abandonment, Termination, and Revocation. The following actions are considered to be undertakings with potential adverse effect that require compliance with the consultation procedures identified in Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966.

a. Destruction. Following destruction or substantial damage of a recreation residence by catastrophic events or natural causes (for example falling trees or limbs, avalanches, rising water, landslides), give the permit holder the following options:

(1) The permit holder may rebuild a recreation residence on the lot if the authorized officer determines that the site can be safely occupied and that rebuilding will be allowed. Plans must be approved by the Forest Service, the applicable county agency, and others (where appropriate). The building must be completed within two years. Forest Service shall not allow separate structures such as guest houses and garages to be rebuilt. New buildings shall not be larger than the original footprint or 1400 square feet, whichever is smaller.

(2) The permit holder may elect to abandon the residence, in which case the permit will terminate after the Forest Service has received written notification of abandonment and given written agreement to the request. The permit holder is responsible for disposal of the improvements and restoration of the site.

b. Abandonment. If after the permit holder has been notified in writing (or other reasonable notice has been given in instances where the permit holder cannot be contacted) that the Forest Service has reason to believe the property has been abandoned, and if the noncompliance is not resolved within a reasonable time after such notice has been served, the Forest Service will determine that the improvements have been abandoned and the permit holder will be notified that the permit has been terminated. The holder is obligated to comply with the permit requirement to remove and dispose of the improvements and restore the site to its natural condition under Forest Service supervision. Establish a maximum six-month time limit, subject to weather conditions. If the permit holder fails to remove the improvements and to restore the site, the Forest Service will have that work done and bill the permit holder as is required by the terms of the permit.

c. Termination. All term permits within a tract should have a common expiration date. There is no guarantee, implied or intended, that a new permit will be issued at the end of any currently existing term permit.

Issue new permits for existing recreation residences at the end of their current term when it is in the public interest to do so and no management use conflicts exist which cannot be mitigated (see FSH 2709.11, 41.23a, b, & c). Encourage permit holders to check with the District Ranger for information on anticipated future management requirements concerning their continued use of National Forest System lands. In addition, the District Ranger should make every effort to keep the permit holders informed of changes that might affect them.

When a term permit expires and is not renewed, the Forest Service is not required to compensate the holder for their improvements or to issue a new authorization. If a term permit expires and a new permit is not issued, the permit holder is still responsible for removal and disposal of the improvements and restoration of the site.

d. Revocation. A permit can be revoked either for cause or in the public interest. Term recreation residence permits provide for compensation if a permit is revoked in the public interest.

41.23e - Permit Administration .

1. Inspections and Monitoring. Special use permit holders are required to maintain their recreation residence to acceptable standards to meet all federal regulations, the express terms of the permit, and the requirements of state law and local ordinances. While standards for neatness, appearance, and the appropriate use of National Forest System lands are established by the authorized officer, acceptable building health and safety standards are defined as those which meet state, county, or other local government rules. The Operations and Maintenance Plan, which is a part of each permit, provides the basic standards upon which the Forest Service inspections and state and local agency requirements are set forth.

Although the Forest Service does not enforce state and local health and safety laws, its authorized officers are responsible for determining compliance with the terms and conditions of the special use permit. When health and safety deficiencies are apparent, or when concern exists due to neatness, appearance, or resource damage, the authorized officer shall require permit holders to take appropriate actions. If the permit holder complies with direction, there should not normally be a need for more in-depth county inspections.

When deficiencies are suspected, and determining their extent is beyond the authorized officer's knowledge or ability, the authorized officer may require a permit holder to have an inspection performed in accord with the holder's responsibilities described in the special use permit. If the holder does not comply by having an inspection performed, the responsible official shall file an official complaint with the applicable county agency to trigger the inspection.

2. Transfer Inspections. Usually the Forest Service will conduct an inspection when notified of intended sale or change in ownership of the improvements. This inspection is to ensure compliance with the terms of the permit and review the condition of the improvements and lot before a new permit is issued. Such transfer inspections are not required and may not be necessary if the cabin has recently been inspected.

3. Alternatives to County Inspections . An inspection by County health and safety personnel is the best measure of compliance with health and safety

standards. Authorized officers have traditionally either asked counties to inspect, or required holders to have their residences inspected by the county. If the agencies are unable or unwilling to make those inspection, holders should be allowed to use qualified professional, technical, and administrative inspectors, as long as the county standards are met and the use of private inspectors is not prohibited by local ordinances.

4. Operation and Maintenance Plan . The recreation residence permit requires an Operation and Maintenance Plan (O&M Plan) to be jointly prepared by the holder and the authorized officer. The O&M Plan is reviewed annually and updated as necessary. The authorized officer must approve in writing improvements and repairs identified in the O&M Plan before such projects are initiated. The holder must supply information about how often the cabin will be used each year and proof of a principal residence.

41.23f - Use of Recreation Residence .

1. Residency. A recreation residence permitted on National Forest System land may not be the permit holder's primary residence; therefore, the permit holder may not utilize the residence continuously for twelve months a year. The recreation residence should be utilized at least 15 days per year by the permit holder to ensure that the privilege granted by the permit is exercised.

2. Commercial Use. All commercial use of, or in, a permitted residence is prohibited. No business may be conducted from a recreation residence. Examples of prohibited uses are real estate sales, firewood sales, carpentry, repair services, and snowmobile rentals.

3. Rental Restrictions. When approved in advance by the authorized officer, the permitted improvements may be rented for recreational use. Rental for commercial use is prohibited. If authorized, renting shall be limited to no more than 14 days per year, and must be addressed in the O&M Plan.

4. Guest Buildings. Construction of additional guest cabins or sleeping quarters is not permitted. In cases where more than one dwelling currently occupies a single site, the use will be permitted to continue in accordance with the authorization. However, such structures built without prior approval must be removed upon transfer of ownership of improvements and permit issuance.

Conversion of storage or other outbuildings to sleeping quarters or guest cabins is prohibited.

5. Animal Management. No animals, other than common household pets, shall be kept on the premises. Pets shall be under physical control at all times and shall not be left unattended. No permanent pet enclosures shall be allowed. Animals must not pose a health or safety threat to humans, native wildlife, or the forest habitat. Livestock is prohibited. Under no condition may any animal be released onto the National Forest System lands.

6. Vehicle Parking and Storage. All vehicles must be located within the designated driveway where one exists. Unregistered or inoperable vehicles are not allowed on the premises. Recreation vehicles (RV) may be used to expand the capacity of a recreation residence only on a short-term basis not to exceed two weeks for holiday weekends, family reunions, and other social occasions. An RV may be used as the means of transportation to reach a recreation residence, but it may not be used routinely as additional sleeping quarters.

The recreation residence lot is not an appropriate storage area for motor homes, trailers, or similar items. Only temporary seasonal storage of recreation equipment is permissible and must be included in the O&M Plan. All boats, trailers, snowmobiles, off-highway vehicles, and outdoor furniture must be removed annually, as stated in the O & M Plan. Garages or sheds to store or protect this equipment are not authorized.

7. Public Use. The special use permit does not provide exclusive use of National Forest System lands to recreation residence permit holders, but allows for use of the lot. The public is allowed free access for all lawful and proper purposes to National Forest System lands. Within recreation residence tracts, the general public may access National Forest System lands by walking across the permitted lot or parking in areas not under permit.

Where public use of the authorized area is materially interfering with the holder's authorized use of the permitted area for recreation residence purposes, the authorized officer will work with the holder to mitigate the impacts of that interference. This may be done, for example, by developing facilities (such as signs, trails, fencing) to concentrate, direct, or control public uses. In all cases, consideration will be given to adequately protecting National Forest resources, including the habitat of threatened, endangered, and sensitive plant and animal species, watershed, and heritage resources.

41.23g - Construction/Reconstruction Standards. The Forest Service's emphasis is to maintain the rustic nature of the setting of each tract using natural materials. Wood and stone used in the original design of the buildings harmonizes well with the forest surroundings. Prior to any changes to the buildings or lot, the permit holder must consult with the authorized officer for specific requirements for that tract and lot.

1. Plans and Procedures. No construction or reconstruction may commence without the approval of the District Ranger. These activities are undertakings that require Section 106 consultation.

a. Maintenance. The dominant character of the tract must be the forest environment, not human improvements. The residences and lots should be cared for to retain the tract's visual and historic character. Minor maintenance involving repairs-in-kind do not need Forest Service approval if there are no effects to the resources and no structural changes. Examples of minor maintenance include replacing a few boards in a deck, a few shingles on a roof, or a broken windowpane. All other actions such as reconstruction, new construction, additions, and exterior modification require Forest Service approval.

b. Construction. The special use permit requires a permit holder to submit conceptual design and site plans for proposed development or changes to the District Ranger. The conceptual plans should be detailed enough to allow preparation of an analysis, and details shown should include roads, trees, rock outcrops, planned and existing improvement location, structure size, materials, and lot boundary as accurately as possible. Comments from affected neighbors must also be solicited for projects proposing construction of additional structures such as outhouses, sheds, or pump houses.

The District Ranger must review the proposal for environmental, visual, and historic concerns, and if there are no concerns, give written approval-in-concept. The permit holder will submit construction plans to the county building department for approval, and obtain the required permits. After the District Ranger receives copies of any necessary permits and gives final written authorization, construction may proceed.

Approve only the conceptual design and site plan for the construction project. The permit holder must obtain required permits or approval from other agencies (where applicable) before the project can start.

New construction, alteration, addition, or substantial repair of existing improvements will be authorized only when, in the opinion of the authorized officer, it does not exceed the acceptable size standards and meets visual, environmental, and historic property concerns.

c. Codes. All construction must adhere to local, state, and county codes. In instances where there may be historic concerns, the State Historic Building Code should be referenced. The permit holder is responsible for acquiring all permits needed for that project. Most counties will waive a permit requirement for minor repairs that do not alter structural support or create ground disturbance. Replacement of a few boards on a deck or other minor exterior repairs may not require a permit from the counties.

d. Lot Line Locations. When improvements are proposed, the permit holder is responsible for locating the corners of the lot in order to comply with setback requirements. Setback shall be at least ten feet from the lot line for all structures and improvements. Existing main residences encroaching on lot line and/or setback line may remain until it is reasonable to move (for example, rebuilding due to fire or flood). All other improvements must be removed and/or relocated, if authorized, at time of permit transfer. Variances may be granted on a case-by-case basis.

2. Dwellings. The desired condition is to have only one dwelling per lot (recreation residence). Unauthorized structures, or authorized structures on the

face of the permit that do not meet current specifications, such as sheds, garages, or sleeping quarters, must be phased out as opportunity allows. Opportunities that may allow removal of excess structures include: (1) a change in ownership, (2) expiration of a permit, (3) a request for new construction, and (4) destruction of the structure.

All improvements off the lot must be authorized on the face of the permit, or by separate permit. This would include improvements such as water systems (pipes, tanks, and distribution lines), pump houses, and outhouses.

a. Number of buildings. Only one recreation residence shall be on each lot. Separate structures may be permitted for uses not logically attached to the main structure, such as an outhouse, pumphouse, or generator. The overall appearance of improvements should be inconspicuous and blend with natural land forms on the site.

b. Size. Recreation residence floor space should be limited to a maximum of 1,400 square feet. Factors such as environmental, visual, and historic resources were used to develop this objective. These same factors may cause the authorized officer to restrict building size of individual recreation residences to less than the maximum.

Do not approve recreation residence expansions beyond the existing footprint, for reasons of visual and environmental effects related to increased use. Consider requests for expansion to meet health, safety, and accessibility concerns only but maintain 1,400 square feet maximum.

Determination of walled-in space includes the sum total of all habitable structures. A total of 1,400 square feet includes both floors of a two story residence (excluding loft which is defined as an unpartitioned open space under a roof), and where they already exist, authorized guest cabins and garages with living space. A 40-square foot shed may be allowed in addition to the 1,400 square foot maximum. Where the total of all structures on the lot exceeds the maximum of 1,400 square feet, action to reduce the square footage will be taken when the structure is destroyed or when major changes to the residence are proposed.

c. Height. Limit a recreation residence on level ground to one story and a loft. Where excavation has been allowed into a slope, limit recreation residences to two stories and a loft (the "day lighted" basement is considered the first story). Total height must conform to County ordinances and Forest Service visual objectives.

d. Decks, Porches, and Patios. Decks are uncovered platforms, porches are platforms with roofs, and patios are courtyards without roofs. Decks, porches, and patios must be attached to the residence. Combined deck, porch, and patio size (including walkways) is limited to 60 percent of the primary structure square footage. Under no condition may they exceed 800 square feet. Their location must conform with the setback

requirements, and be approved by the authorized officer, and where applicable, by other local agencies. Decks on only one side of the residence are preferred, but wrap-around walkways will be considered. If the area beneath a deck is used for storage, it must be fully enclosed with solid material or lattice backed by a solid material. Porches may not be enclosed to provide additional living space. The use of screens requires written authorization, and must be temporary and well maintained. Colored canvas, plastic, and tarps are not authorized as enclosures.

e. Extra Sleeping Quarters and Garages . Existing buildings that are not structurally attached to the main residence, and used as sleeping structures or guest cabins, will be assessed a premium annual rental fee, pursuant to the recreation residence fee policy at Chapter 30 of FSH 2709.11. Do not authorize construction or reconstruction of guest cabins, sleeping cabins, or garages under any circumstances.

3. Outbuildings. Before authorizing outbuildings, the authorized officer shall consider the following guidelines: Separate structures such as storage sheds, generators, pumphouses, and outhouses may be authorized if they cannot be logically incorporated into the main residence. Separate structures shall not exceed a combined total of 40 square feet. Those structures exceeding 40 square feet must be reduced at the time of change in ownership, permit issuance, or when repairs are made. All separate structures must be constructed of materials and colors to blend with the cabin and other outbuildings. If the Forest determines to manage the recreation residence tract for historic values, and the outbuildings are determined to be an integral part of the historic significance of the tract, then the authorized officer may elect to vary from some of the direction.

a. Replacement or relocation of an outhouse must be approved by the authorized officer, and other agencies as applicable. Replacement outhouses should have a sealed vault where feasible or be a self-contained unit such as composting, chemical, or propane-fired. Whenever possible, outhouses should be replaced with a septic system.

b. Existing garages are allowed if they are attached to the dwelling. Detached garages are not permitted. No new garages may be constructed. Remove existing detached garages upon the earliest opportunity or upon transfer of ownership of improvements.

4. Off-lot Improvements. Off-lot improvements are frequently found in recreation residence tracts. Typically they are boat docks, picnic tables, fire rings, and other temporary fixtures located off the recreation residence lot and adjacent to the shore of a lake, stream, or river. Docks, individual water systems, power lines, and driveways may be authorized, but temporary, portable off-lot improvements are not allowed. When off-lot improvements are individually owned by a recreation residence owner, they may be authorized by citing them in the recreation residence special use permit (on the face of the permit as authorized uses) and on a map showing their location in relation to the lot. When off-lot improvements are owned

and operated collectively by several recreation residence owners, or an association of owners, they may be authorized under a separate permit, in the name of the owners and/or association. Assess and collect an applicable land use rental fee.

It is the responsibility of individual permit holders and permitted associations to maintain the quality of their water in accordance with California water quality standards. When water systems must be modified to meet those standards, the plans for new systems or modification to existing systems must be approved in writing by the authorized officer. Do not permit individuals to drill wells or install a private water system if a state approved system is available for hookup. Permit holders are encouraged to coordinate with adjacent cabin owners to develop a system that supplies a number of homes. The Forest Service must check existing water rights and use prior to authorizing water diversion.

5. Specific Construction Standards .

a. Boat docks and moorings must be authorized by the authorized officer and by any other agencies responsible for the water resource at their location, or must be removed.

b. Do not authorize metal buildings.

c. Do not authorize mobile homes. Those presently existing must be removed at the earliest opportunity or upon transfer of ownership of improvements.

d. The exterior color of all improvements must be compatible with the forest setting, and provide a quality visual experience for all forest visitors. To achieve that objective, owners of recreation residences must obtain approval of the authorized officer prior to painting any exterior surface. Only those paint colors that are similar to, or match, a Forest Service approved color list will be approved for use.

Colors must generally be neutral and darker than the landscape backdrop. Light and bright colors and highly reflective materials create a contrast and will usually not be approved. Natural materials and earth tones or soft shaded colors will blend with the surroundings and help to achieve the desired landscape character.

e. New utility lines should be installed underground where feasible.

f. All signs must have a rustic appearance, and must be approved by the authorized officer prior to installation. This includes signs for realtors, contractors, and trash collection.

(1) On residence. All cabins must display the lot number so that it is easily visible from the driveway. Cabins may also have signs that indicate a last name and a county assigned street address.

(2) At driveways. If the sign on the residence is not easily visible from the main road, a second sign may be posted at the driveway entrance, on a maximum 36-inch high post.

(3) All signs. All lettering must be black, white, or earth tones on a natural background and between 4 and 24 inches in height. Signs shall not be nailed to trees. Painting on natural features such as rocks and trees is prohibited. Posting "Private Property" or "No Trespassing" signs is prohibited.

(4) Realty Signs. Forest Service authorization is required prior to placing "For Sale" signs on National Forest System lands. The permit holder will be allowed one sign only and it must be located on the lot. Signs are not allowed on trees or other vegetation.

g. Outdoor decorative-type lighting is prohibited. Yard lights must be attached to posts with all associated wiring underground. Do not permit the use of several lights to light up the entire lot. High intensity dusk-to-dawn yard lights are not authorized.

h. Normally, fences are not approved. Exceptions may be made when a fence is appropriate to differentiate general public use access routes from cabin use areas, or to meet safety or other resource needs, and when it can be done within acceptable visual management constraints. Authorizing office may approve temporary enclosures.

i. All proposals for a gate require advanced review and approval from the authorized officer. Gates may be installed on Forest Service or county maintained roads and on cost-shared roads only to prevent or reduce resource damage and must be closed only for resource protection, and health and safety. On permit-holder or association-maintained roads, gates may be approved that restrict public vehicular traffic to protect resources; these gates must have a Forest Service lock in addition to the locks of any other users of the gate. Require the permit holder to submit a seasonal operation plan for the gate for Forest Service approval.

j. Propane tanks should be inconspicuous and may be required to have screening.

k. Inconspicuous satellite dishes and antennas may be approved for noncommercial personal use only.

l. No new permanent outdoor fireplaces, fire pits, or barbecues are authorized.

m. Saunas, spas, and hot tubs may be approved if incorporated into the main structure or deck, are not visible by neighbors or from public vantage points, and do not cause negative environmental impacts.

n. Do not authorize swimming pools, either permanent or temporary.

o. Discourage installation of outdoor recreation equipment such as horseshoe pits, basketball hoops, and swing sets. Temporary use of such equipment may be authorized on request.

p. Mailboxes are prohibited.

q. All cabins shall have skirting to screen the crawl space from view and enhance the visual appearance of the cabin. It is not necessary to enclose the entire crawl space. The area beneath decks is not required to be skirted, unless used for storage.

r. Installation of solar panels may be approved if constructed of a non-reflective color that blends with the forest setting and does not require routine removal of tree cover.

41.23h - Maintenance Standards . Apply the following maintenance standards.

1. Building Maintenance.

a. Building Materials. Any changes to the exterior of a cabin should retain as much of the original building material as possible. The use of consistent type of materials throughout a structure is preferred. Missing elements should be replaced in-kind where possible; if not possible they should be replaced with similar materials. Natural or organic materials are recommended as replacement; concrete, steel, glass, and other may be allowed if appropriately used. Do not allow the use of bright colored building materials. Natural looking material is required and may include rocks, logs, rough sawn lumber, or wood panels.

b. Windows and Doors. Window and door casings, shutters, and other outside trim should harmonize with the main structure and the environment and should not present strong contrast. Trim colors should be chosen from the approved color list. Window and door sashes must be bronze, black, or painted to match the cabin.

c. Foundations. Continuous foundations must be maintained with approved materials. Exposed foundations shall extend above the ground only as far as necessary to conform with acceptable construction practices. The area between foundation and floor should be enclosed to comply with county ordinances and Fire Safe Guides for Residential Development in California.

d. Chimneys. Every effort should be made to retain the stone and masonry work of existing chimneys. Solid masonry chimneys must extend to a solid ground foundation with adequate footing.

e. Roofs. Any changes to roofs must be designed to withstand the maximum snow loads of the area. Materials, style, and color must be approved, and a county permit must be obtained. The following roof coverings are prohibited for new installation: corrugated fiberglass, painted metal (does not include color-impregnated metal), and unpainted metal. Skylights of appropriate design may be approved.

f. Sheet Plastics and Tarps. Tarps may be used as temporary covering for protection from the elements. Colors should blend with the natural environment.

g. Conversion and Removal of Buildings . Conversion of storage, garage, or other authorized or unauthorized buildings to sleeping quarters or guest quarters is not permitted. Unauthorized outbuildings shall be removed.

2. Road, Trail, and Bridge Maintenance . Authorize those roads and bridges serving recreation residences that are not maintained by county, state, or other agency to a homeowner improvement association. Maintain these roads and bridges to Forest Service standards, described in the road maintenance agreement.

a. Do not authorize snow plowing simply to provide access for using the home. Review and evaluate each case on its individual merits, including consistency with the Forest Plan. If a plowing permit is issued, issue to the permit holder who would be responsible for the plowing to meet the requirements of the permit.

b. Driveway construction is limited to one single-lane width with associated parking for two cars. Do not permit paving and graveling of driveways, except in those cases where erosion is occurring, and this is the only means of control. Driveways and walks should be of native materials, or gravel in natural dark colors and textures.

c. Authorize necessary foot bridges and other non-vehicle crossings that serve only recreation residences to associations or individual cabin owners. Bridges that are unstable or in disrepair must be repaired, replaced, or removed. Consultation with hydrologists, biologists, and/or engineers may be necessary. Bridges must be designed and constructed to meet county codes.

d. Culverts may be installed for vehicular and foot traffic. Permit holders must repair and clean out culverts regularly to prevent erosion problems, and are responsible to restore the site as needed. Carefully evaluate requests for new culverts, considering the amount of fill, water drainage patterns, and other resource problems that could result from the installation.

3. General Lot Maintenance.

a. Do not allow permanent-type attachments, nails, bolts, and so forth, on or in trees. Such attachments include, but are not limited to: yard lights, antennas, fences, tree houses, benches, signs, clotheslines, swings, and wires.

b. Authorize landscaping, planting, or vegetation only to restore or maintain natural conditions or historic properties. Overall appearance should conform with the natural forest character of the area. Do not allow flower beds, lawns, ivy, and decorations such as bird baths and plastic flowers. Do not approve the use of whitewashed rocks or trees and other types of decorations foreign to the natural environment for use on the lot. Existing lawns, flower gardens, and other non-natural improvements should be removed upon transfer of ownership of improvements. Encourage current permit holders to begin phasing these out.

Removal of vegetation must be approved in advance. Do not approve removal simply to improve views. Where erosion or vegetation loss has occurred, landscape rehabilitation with approved native plant species should be considered.

c. Lots must be clean, neat, and free of litter, debris, and standing dead trees. Firewood must be neatly stacked in one area away from trees and buildings, and not exceed an amount that will be used within two years.

4. Hazard Tree Management.

a. Assessment. Permit holders are responsible for identification and removal of trees that are hazardous to their improvements, whether or not the trees are located on their lot. Permit holders should contact the Forest Service if they have questions about a particular tree. Occasionally, the Forest Service may identify hazard trees during inspections and authorize permit holders to remove them.

b. Disposition. Permit holders must have written authorization from the authorized officer prior to their cutting any tree. Trees are government property. When a cabin owner removes the hazard by felling the tree, they do not become the "owner" of the tree. Permit holders are not authorized to sell the tree for firewood. The authorized officer shall determine disposition of the tree.

c. Firewood. In any calendar year, hazard trees within the boundaries of the recreation residence lot may be authorized to be cut and used free of charge if (1) the volume is less than two cords and (2) the material is to be used on the lot. Forest products or timber removed from the lot requires a personal or commercial permit.

d. Timber Sales. Occasionally the Forest Service may conduct a timber sale or salvage sale within or adjacent to a tract. These are done for public safety concerns and forest health reasons, and may include trees on individual lots. Permit holders and Forest Service personnel are encouraged to work closely together during planning and implementation of these activities.