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Ecological Focus - Planning Rule Connections 2012

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Ecological Focus - Planning Rule Connections 2012

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1. Terrestrial Ecosystems, Aquatic Ecosystems, and Watersheds

Mountain Peaks with Snow

Ecosystems are spatially explicit, relatively homogeneous units of the Earth that include all interacting organisms and elements of the abiotic environment within their boundaries. They should be described in terms of their composition, structure, function, and connectivity. These publications and tools include valuable information for terrestrial ecosystems, aquatic ecosystems, and watersheds. They can be used as a starting point in planning assessment, and should be supplemented by information specific to the individual planning unit.

Resources

The Forest Inventory and Analysis Database: Database description and users manual version 4.0 for Phase 2.

Applicability: In-depth users manual for FIA data. It does a great job of making the reader aware of what type of data can be generated from FIA/FIDO/eVALIDATOR, as well as some detailed instructions on how to generate specific stand-level estimates.

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Authors: Woudenberg, Sharon W.; Conkling, Barbara L.; O'Connell, Barbara M.; LaPoint, Elizabeth B.; Turner, Jeffery A.; Waddell, Karen L. RMRS-GTR-245 - 2010

Abstract: This document is based on previous documentation of the nationally standardized Forest Inventory and Analysis database (Hansen and others 1992; Woudenberg and Farrenkopf 1995; Miles and others 2001). Documentation of the structure of the Forest Inventory and Analysis database (FIADB) for Phase 2 data, as well as codes and definitions, is provided. Examples for producing population level estimates are also presented. This database provides a consistent framework for storing forest inventory data across all ownerships for the entire United States. These data are available to the public.

Scope and scale: Variable depending on the FIA output.

Internet Address: http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs/rmrs_gtr245.html

Forest Inventory and Analysis

Applicability: Through FIDO, the FIA Data Mart, and eValidator, users can generate extensive information regarding vegetation type, species, invasive species, etc. This information can then be synthesized into the assessment framework of composition, structure, function, and connectivity. Information updated annually.

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Description: The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program of the U.S. Forest Service provides the information needed to assess America's forests.

As the Nation's continuous forest census, our program projects how forests are likely to appear 10 to 50 years from now. This enables us to evaluate whether current forest management practices are sustainable in the long run and to assess whether current policies will allow the next generation to enjoy America's forests as we do today.

FIA reports on status and trends in forest area and location; in the species, size, and health of trees; in total tree growth, mortality, and removals by harvest; in wood production and utilization rates by various products; and in forest land ownership.

Scope and Scale: Variable depending on the FIA output.

Internet Address: http://www.fia.fs.fed.us/tools-data/default.asp

Field Sampled Vegetation

Applicability: A Natural Resource Manager tool. It also includes a spatial version that is currently being developed. Accessing the data requires eAuthentication. Each forest should have a "primary resource steward" who is familiar with this product and what it can generate. You can work with your local Forest Service partner to view this resource.

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Authors: FSVeg

Description: Field Sampled Vegetation (FSVeg) stores data about trees, fuels, down woody material, surface cover, and understory vegetation. FSVeg supports the business of common stand exam, fuels data collection, permanent grid inventories, and other vegetation inventory collection processes.

Scope and scale: Stand-level and up.

Internet Address: http://www.fs.fed.us/nrm/fsveg/index.shtml

National Inventory and Monitoring Applications Center

Applicability: A clearinghouse for forest-level reports and data, maintained by the Northern Research Station. Includes reports on the forests of different states as well as climate and carbon information. NIMAC only includes data on certain states in Regions 1 and 2.

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Authors: NIMAC

Description: The National Inventory and Monitoring Applications Center (NIMAC) is a program with national scope, based at the headquarters office of the US Forest Service’s Northern Research Station in Newtown Square, Pennsylvania. We originated from within the Northern Forest Inventory and Analysis Program (FIA) in 2006, and are comprised of staff with expertise in biometry, statistics, geospatial technology, computer programming, databases, forestry field methods, and forestry data analysis – covering much of the range of FIA itself.

Scope and Scale: Typically state-wide.

Internet Address: http://www.nrs.fs.fed.us/nimac/

Natural Resource Manager

Applicability: Relevant NRM applications include: Air, aquatic surveys, FSVeg, FSVeg spatial, Inventory and mapping, Rangeland inventory and monitoring, timber, TESP/IS (threatened, endangered, and sensitive plants/invasive species), watershed classification and assessment tracking tool (WCATT), watershed improvement tracking (WIT), water rights and uses (WRU), and wildlife. You can work with your local Forest Service partner to view this resource.

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Description: Natural Resource Manager (NRM) is a national Forest Service organization that is responsible for coordinating software development activities for four application groups whose data are accessible through the NRM platform or the Enterprise Data Center (EDC):

  • Forest Service Activity Tracking System (FACTS)
  • Infra
  • Natural Resource Information System (NRIS)
  • Timber Information Manager (TIM)

These applications often intersect in how they collect and share data and in how they develop software and use technology. NRM finds ways to manage and grow these applications efficiently, and has already begun to standardize the processes used to develop an integrated program of work. NRM also will be looking for effective ways to use resources to reduce duplication of effort and to maximize technology investments.

Scope and scale: Variable depending on report generated.

Internet Address: http://www.fs.fed.us/nrm/

Spatial Patterns of Land Cover in the United States: A Technical Document Supporting the Forest Service 2010 RPA Assessment

Applicability: Useful for looking at connectivity of ecosystems. It can also be helpful for assessment area 14.

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Author: Kurt H. Riitters SRS-GTR-136 2011

Abstract: Land cover patterns inventoried from a national land cover map provide information about the landscape context and fragmentation of the Nation’s forests, grasslands, and shrublands. This inventory is required to quantify, map, and evaluate the capacities of landscapes to provide ecological goods and services sustainably. This report documents the procedures to inventory and summarize land cover composition, juxtaposition, and structure as exhibited at several measurement scales. National and regional results are summarized in tabular form, and representative statistics are illustrated in figures (for States) and maps (for counties). The baseline information in this inventory is a starting point for future analyses of landscape changes.

Scope and Scale: Regional.

Internet Address: http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/37766

Montana’s forest resources, 2003–2009.

Applicability: Extensive information on terrestrial ecosystems, specifically forests and vegetation information, in the state of Montana.

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Authors: Menlove, Jim; Shaw, John D.; Thompson, Michael T.; Witt, Chris; Amacher, Michael C.; Morgan, Todd A.; Sorenson, Colin; McIver, Chelsea; Werstak, Charles. RMRS-RB-15 2012

Abstract: This report presents a summary of the most recent inventory information for Montana’s forest lands. The report includes descriptive highlights and tables of area, number of trees, biomass, volume, growth, mortality, and removals. Most of the tables are organized by forest type group, species group, diameter class, or owner group. The report also describes inventory design, inventory terminology, and data reliability. Results show that Montana’s forest land totals 25.6 million acres. Sixty percent (15.4 million acres) of this forest land is administered by the USDA Forest Service. Douglas-fir forests cover 7.5 million acres or roughly 29 percent of Montana’s forested lands, making it the most abundant forest type in the State. The lodgepole pine type is the second-most common individual forest type comprising 17 percent of Montana’s forest land. Lodgepole pine is the most abundant tree species in Montana by number of trees, and Douglas-fir is the most abundant species by volume or biomass. Net annual growth of all live trees 5.0 inches diameter and greater on Montana forest land totaled 289.8 million cubic feet. Average annual mortality totaled nearly 746.3 million cubic feet.

Scope and Scale: State-wide.

Internet Address: http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs/rmrs_rb015.html

Idaho’s Forest Resources, 2004–2009

Applicability: Extensive information on terrestrial ecosystems, specifically forests and vegetation information, in the state of Idaho.

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Authors: Witt, Chris; Shaw, John D.; Thompson, Michael T.; Goeking, Sara A.; Menlove, Jim; Amacher, Michael C.; Morgan, Todd A.; Werstak, Charles. RMRS-RB-14 2012

Abstract: This report presents a summary of the most recent inventory information for Idaho’s forest lands. The report includes descriptive highlights and tables of area, number of trees, biomass, volume, growth, mortality, and removals. Most of the tables are organized by forest type, species, diameter class, or owner group. The report also describes inventory design, inventory terminology, and data reliability. Results show that Idaho’s forest land totals 21.4 million acres. Nearly 76 percent (16.2 million acres) of this forest land is administered by the USDA Forest Service. Douglas-fir forests cover almost 6.3 million acres or roughly 29 percent of Idaho’s forested lands, making it the most abundant forest type in the State. The lodgepole pine type is the second-most common type comprising 11.5 percent of Idaho’s forest land. In terms of number of individual trees, subalpine fir is the single most abundant tree species in Idaho. Net annual growth of all live trees 5.0 inches diameter and greater on Idaho forest land totaled 376.2 million cubic feet. Average annual mortality totaled nearly 814.6 million cubic feet.

Scope and Scale: State-wide

Internet Address: http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs/rmrs_rb014.html

Colorado’s forest resources, 2002-2006

Applicability: Extensive information on terrestrial ecosystems, specifically forests and vegetation information, in the state of Colorado.

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Authors: Thompson, Michael T.; Duda, Joseph A.; DeBlander, Larry T.; Shaw, John D.; Witt, Chris; Morgan, Todd A.; Amacher, Michael C. RMRS-RB-11 2010

Abstract: This report presents a summary of the most recent inventory information for Colorado’s forest lands. The report includes descriptive highlights and tables of area, number of trees, biomass, volume, growth, mortality, and removals. Most of the tables are organized by forest type, species, diameter class, or owner group. The report also describes inventory design, inventory terminology, and data reliability. Results show that Colorado’s forest land totals 23 million acres. Nearly 50 percent of this forest land is administered by the USDA Forest Service. Pinyon-juniper forests cover over 5.5 million acres whereas forest comprised of fir, spruce, and hemlock comprise 24 percent of Colorado’s forest land. Aspen is the single most abundant tree species in Colorado. Net annual growth of all live trees 5.0 inches diameter and greater on Colorado forest land totaled 219.6 million cubic feet. Average annual mortality totaled nearly 421.0 million cubic feet.

Scope and scale: State-wide

Internet Address: http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs/rmrs_rb011.html

Utah’s forest resources, 2000–2005

Applicability: Extensive information on terrestrial ecosystems, specifically forests and vegetation information, in the state of Utah

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Authors: DeBlander, Larry T.; Shaw, John D.; Witt, Chris; Menlove, Jim; Thompson, Michael T.; Morgan, Todd A.; DeRose, R. Justin; Amacher, Michael C. RMRS-RB-10 2010

Abstract: FIA is responsible for periodic assessments of the status and trends of the renewable resources of America’s forests. Fundamental to the accomplishment of these assessments are the State-by-State resource inventories, which are now conducted on an annual basis. This report summarizes the results, interpretations, and future significance of Utah’s annual inventory. The organization and layout of this report begins with a short introduction of FIA’s annual inventory system and then a detailed description of its inventory methods. After an overview of the report tables, the bulk of the report is contained in the “Forest Resources” and “Current Issues” and “FIA Indicators” sections, and finishes with a discussion of Utah’s Timber Products. The “Forest Resources” section is outlined similar to past periodic reports for ease of comparisons. The “Current Issues” and “FIA Indicators” sections cover topics considered pertinent to Utah’s forests relative to the information FIA collects, and points to other related or more in-depth studies and research.

Scope and scale: State-wide.

Internet Address: http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs/rmrs_rb010.html

Risk of impaired condition of watersheds containing National Forest lands

Applicability: A technical document supporting the RPA. This publication looks at stressors, so could also be useful in assessment area 3. It includes both a nationwide assessment as well as spreadsheets with more detailed information.

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Authors: Brown, Thomas C.; Froemke, Pamela. RMRS-GTR-251 2010

Abstract: We assessed the risk of impaired condition of the nearly 3700 5th-level watersheds in the contiguous 48 states containing the national forests and grasslands that make up the U.S. Forest Service’s National Forest System (NFS). The assessment was based on readily available, relatively consistent nationwide data sets for a series of indicators representing watershed stressors and resources at risk of watershed impairment. Using a set of weights that express the relative importance of the indicators, a summary measure of relative risk of watershed impairment was computed for each entire watershed, each NFS part of each watershed, and each non-NFS part of each watershed. The summary measure reflects the assumption that indicators are linearly related to risk of watershed impairment. The orderings based on these measures provide a first-cut at a consistent nationwide comparison of watersheds with NFS land. Users of the spreadsheets that contain the detailed results of the assessment may alter the weights according to their own understanding of the relative importance of the indicators, producing their own ratings and rankings. Among other things, we find that the non-NFS parts of the watersheds are consistently under much greater stress than the NFS parts, but that the resources at risk are more evenly spread across the NFS and non-NFS parts of the watersheds; and that risk is unevenly spread across the NFS, with most units in the two eastern regions at higher risk than nearly all units in the western regions. The results of this assessment offer a starting point for deciding about risk mitigation efforts, one that could be supplemented by locally available data on additional indicators and by a comparison of the costs and benefits of mitigation options.

Scope and Scale: National and county-wide data included.

Internet Address: http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs/rmrs_gtr251.html

Cumulative watershed effects of fuel management in the western United States

Applicability: This publication looks at water resources, aquatic ecosystems, and riparian zones. It also considers cumulative watershed impacts and analyzes the effects of management actions regarding fuel and their impacts on watersheds (could also be useful in assessment area 3). It includes more of a general overview and consideration of trends rather than information on specific locations.

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Authors: Elliot, William J.; Miller, Ina Sue; Audin, Lisa. Eds. RMRS-GTR-231 2010

Abstract: Fire suppression in the last century has resulted in forests with excessive amounts of biomass, leading to more severe wildfires, covering greater areas, requiring more resources for suppression and mitigation, and causing increased onsite and offsite damage to forests and watersheds. Forest managers are now attempting to reduce this accumulated biomass by thinning, prescribed fire, and other management activities. These activities will impact watershed health, particularly as larger areas are treated and treatment activities become more widespread in space and in time. Management needs, laws, social pressures, and legal findings have underscored a need to synthesize what we know about the cumulative watershed effects of fuel management activities. To meet this need, a workshop was held in Provo, Utah, on April, 2005, with 45 scientists and watershed managers from throughout the United States. At that meeting, it was decided that two syntheses on the cumulative watershed effects of fuel management would be developed, one for the eastern United States, and one for the western United States. For the western synthesis, 14 chapters were defined covering fire and forests, machinery, erosion processes, water yield and quality, soil and riparian impacts, aquatic and landscape effects, and predictive tools and procedures. We believe these chapters provide an overview of our current understanding of the cumulative watershed effects of fuel management in the western United States.

Scope and Scale: Regional Information

Internet Address: http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs/rmrs_gtr231.html

Watershed Condition Classification Technical Guide

Applicability: This document provides and explains 12 different watershed condition classification indicators, which are primarily useful at the monitoring phase. It gives guidance on how to evaluate each of the indicators and provides valuable background information on how the watershed condition framework data are developed.

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Authors: John P. Potyondy, Theodore W. Geier FS-978 2011

Abstract: The watershed condition goal of the Forest Service is “to protect National Forest System watersheds by implementing practices designed to maintain or improve watershed condition, which is the foundation for sustaining ecosystems and the production of renewable natural resources, values, and benefits” (FSM 2520). U.S. Secretary of Agriculture Tom Vilsack reemphasized this policy in his “Vision for the Forest Service” when he stated that achieving restoration of watershed and forest health would be the primary management objective of the Forest Service (USDA 2010). This Watershed Condition Classification Technical Guide helps to implement this policy objective by—

  1. Establishing a systematic process for determining watershed condition class that all national forests can apply consistently.
  2. Improving Forest Service reporting and tracking of watershed condition.
  3. Strengthening the effectiveness of the Forest Service to maintain and restore the productivity and resilience of watersheds and their associated aquatic systems on NFS lands.

Scope and Scale: Procedural document.

Internet Address: http://www.fs.fed.us/publications/watershed/watershed_classification_guide.pdf

Watershed Condition Framework

Applicability: This document explains what the Watershed Condition Framework is, and how it classifies watershed condition. It also discusses the 12 indicators, which can be useful in monitoring, as well as restoration techniques that can be useful in the planning stage.

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FS-977 2011

Abstract: The Watershed Condition Framework (WCF) is a comprehensive approach for proactively implementing integrated restoration on priority watersheds on national forests and grasslands. The WCF proposes to improve the way the Forest Service approaches watershed restoration by targeting the implementation of integrated suites of activities in those watersheds that have been identified as priorities for restoration. The WCF also establishes a nationally consistent reconnaissance-level approach for classifying watershed condition, using a comprehensive set of 12 indicators that are surrogate variables representing the underlying ecological, hydrological, and geomorphic functions and processes that affect watershed condition. Primary emphasis is on aquatic and terrestrial processes and conditions that Forest Service management activities can influence. The approach is designed to foster integrated ecosystem-based watershed assessments; target programs of work in watersheds that have been identified for restoration; enhance communication and coordination with external agencies and partners; and improve national-scale reporting and monitoring of program accomplishments. The WCF provides the Forest Service with an outcome-based performance measure for documenting improvement to watershed condition at forest, regional, and national scales

Scope and Scale: Procedural document.

Internet Address: http://www.fs.fed.us/publications/watershed/Watershed_Condition_Framework.pdf

Watershed Condition and Prioritization Interactive Map

Applicability: Builds off of the 12 watershed condition indicators. The tool includes regional maps, an interactive online map, and GIS data. Watersheds are shown visually as functioning properly, at risk, or impaired. The interactive map can also include a layer with forest boundaries or be searched by forest name, making it planning unit-level relevant. Once a watershed is selected, the tool will give an overview of the 12 indicators in that area. Data are also useful in assessment area 1.

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Description: The results of the Forest Service Watershed Condition Framework planning work are available through a map viewer website where users can view the priority watersheds, read about why the watershed was selected, download the Watershed Restoration Action Plans and learn about other important planning items, including estimated costs and restoration partners.  Each watershed on the map also contains information on the overall watershed condition rating and the individual rating of its 12 watershed condition indicators.

Scope and Scale: Planning unit, 12-digit HUC.

Internet Address: http://www.fs.fed.us/publications/watershed/

Stream Temperature Modeling and Monitoring

Applicability: Boise lab tool that provides dynamic information regarding aquatic ecosystems and habitat suitability. Focused on stream temperatures, which can affect a range of different fish species. Also useful for assessment area 5.

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Description: Thermal regimes are important to aquatic ecosystems because they strongly dictate species distributions, productivity, and abundance. Inexpensive digital temperature loggers, geographic information systems (GIS), remote sensing technologies, and new spatial analyses are facilitating the development of temperature models and monitoring networks applicable at broad spatial scales. This web site provides a mapping tool to help those in the western US organize temperature monitoring efforts, describes techniques for measuring stream temperatures, and describes several statistical models for predicting stream temperatures and thermally suitable fish habitats from temperature data. The web site also provides links to other stream temperature resources such as publications, videos, and presentations on topics relating to thermal regimes in streams.

Scope and scale: Site-specific

Internet address: http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/boise/AWAE/projects/stream_temperature.shtml

USGS Science in your Watershed

Applicability: User-friendly watershed information clearinghouse. Allows you to click down from national to regional to local watersheds and then presents you with a menu of "additional information" for that watershed in a series of links. Includes much of the same information as the USGS watershed mapping site, but presented in a different format. The tool also includes links to relevant EPA information for the watershed once it has been selected.

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Description: The purpose of this site is to help you find scientific information organized on a watershed basis. This information, coupled with observations and measurements made by the watershed groups, provides a powerful foundation for characterizing, assessing, analyzing, and maintaining the status and health of a watershed.

Discussions with watershed groups across the country resulted in this web site. This web site provides access to:

  • Locate Your Watershed - use the mapping interface to locate your watershed and link to additional information from your watershed.
  • Information Discovery - find projects, publications, and databases related to your watershed.
  • Data Integration - learn more about how you can use scientific data to understand your watershed

Scope and Scale: 8-digit HUC

Internet Address: http://water.usgs.gov/wsc/

Fish and other aquatic resource trends in the United States: A technical document supporting the Forest Service 2010 RPA Assessment.

Applicability: This publication gives a case-study approach, a national assessment, and regional narratives. It discusses the National Fish Habitat Action Plan, with management implications, and the National Hydrography Dataset Plus. It may also be of use for assessment area 8, multiple use.

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Authors:Loftus, Andrew J.; Flather, Curtis H. RMRS-GTR-283 2012

Abstract: The Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act (RPA) of 1974 requires periodic assessments of the status and trends in the Nation's renewable natural resources including fish and other aquatic species and their habitats. Data from a number of sources are used to document trends in habitat quality, populations, resource use, and patterns of imperilment among aquatic fauna. Freshwater habitat quality varied widely across the United States. Nationwide, more than half of monitored lakes were ranked in good condition, but the percentage ranged from a high of 91 percent in the upper Midwest to a low of 1 percent in the Northern Plains. Habitat conditions in monitored small streams indicated that 42 percent were found to be in poor condition. The Southern Appalachians, Southern Plains, and Northern Plains have 50 percent or more of their stream lengths in poor condition. The condition of small stream habitats was best in the Western mountains. Data availability continues to limit comprehensive evaluations of freshwater fish populations. Of the 253 marine fish stocks assessed in 2009, 38 percent were deemed to be overfished or subject to overfishing. Pacific salmon have declined throughout much of their range although stocks native to Alaska have fared better than those in the Pacific Northwest. Species associated with aquatic habitats have higher proportions of species considered to be at-risk of extinction than other species groups. At-risk aquatic species are concentrated in watersheds occurring in the southern Appalachians and the southeastern coastal plain. The number of anglers has declined since the early 1990s. Relationships between land use, water quality, and aquatic species conditions are explored in a series of case studies. The report provides implications of aquatic resource trends for management and planning.

Scope and Scale: National, regional, or state.

Internet Address: http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/41241

Except where noted, definitions are taken from §219.19 "Definitions" of the 2012 Planning Rule.

Connectivity

Ecological conditions that exist at several spatial and temporal scales that provide landscape linkages that permit the exchange of flow, sediments, and nutrients; the daily and seasonal movements of animals within home ranges; the dispersal and genetic interchange between populations; and the long distance range shifts of species, such as in response to climate change.

Ecosystem

A spatially explicit, relatively homogeneous unit of the Earth that includes all interacting organisms and elemtns of the abiotic environment within its boundaries. An ecosystem is commonly described in terms of its composition, structure, function, and connectivity.

Ecological conditions

The biological and physical environment that can affect the diversity of plant and animal communities, the persistence of native species, and the productive capacity of ecological systems. Ecological conditions include habitat and other influences on species and the environment. Examples of ecological conditions include the abundance and distribution of aquatic and terrestrial habitats, connectivity, roads and other structural developments, human uses, and invasive species.

Ecosystem Integrity

The quality or condition of an ecosystem when its dominant ecological characteristics (for example, composition, structure, function, connectivity, and species composition and diversity) occur within the natural range of variation and can withstand and recover from most perturbations imposed by natural environmental dynamics or human influence.

Inherent capability of the plan area

The ecological capacity or ecological potential of an area characterized by the interrelationship of its physical elements, its climatic regime, and natural disturbances.

Riparian Areas

Three-dimensional ecotones of interaction that include terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems that extend down into the groundwater, up above the canopy, outward across the floodplain, up the near-slopes that drain the water, laterally into the terrestrial ecosystem, and along the water course at variable widths.

Riparian management zone

Portions of a watershed where riparian-dependent resources receive primary emphasis, and for which plans include plan components to maintain or restore riparian functions and ecological functions.

Watershed

A region or land area drained by a single stream, river, or drainage network; a drainage basin.

Natural range of variation (NRV)

Spatial and temporal variation in ecosystem characteristics under historic disturbance regimes during a reference period. The reference period considered should be sufficiently long to include the full range of variation produced by dominant natural disturbance regimes, often several centuries, for such disturbances as fire and flooding and should also include short-term variation and cycles in climate. "Natural range of variation" (NRV) is a term used synonymously with historic range of variation or range of natural variation. The NRV is a tool for assessing ecological integrity, and does not necessarily constitute a management target or desired condition. The NRV can help identify key structural, functional, compositional, and connectivity characteristics, for which plan components may be important for either maintenance or restoration of such ecological conditions (From Forest Service Handbook draft directives).

2. Air, soil, and water resources and quality

Creek with Grass

Air, soil, and water resources and quality provide the foundation for ecosystems and ecosystem services. These publications and tools include valuable information in these areas, including spatial modeling tools and publications specific to certain regions. They can be used as a starting point in planning assessment, and should be supplemented by information specific to the individual planning unit.

Resources

USDA Forest Service national protocols for sampling air pollutionsensitive waters

Applicability: While especially useful for establishing a monitoring program, this resource is an extensive book that outlines procedures for keeping stock of both air and water quality through water sampling. It includes indicators, methods, and training information.

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Authors: Sullivan, T.J., ed.

Publication Number: GTR-278

Year: 2012

Summary: The first step in designing a surface water sampling program is identifying one or more problems or questions that require information on water quality. Common water quality problems include nutrient enrichment (from a variety of causes), effects of atmospheric deposition (acidification, eutrophication, toxicity), and effects of major disturbances such as fire or pest infestations. Once the problems or questions have been clearly defined, a sampling program can be designed that addresses where to sample, what to measure, and when and how to conduct the sampling. The selection of measurements should be tailored to specific study objectives and to the study design, which guides the specifics of field, laboratory, and data analysis protocols.

Scope / Scale: Procedural document.

Internet Address: http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs/rmrs_gtr278.html

U.S. Forest Service Region 1 Lake Chemistry, NADP, and IMPROVE air quality data analysis

Applicability: Very data rich air quality information for Region 1. Not applicable outside of the region except as a procedural document.

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Authors: Grenon, Jill; Story, Mark

Publication Number: GTR-230

Year: 2009

Summary: This report was developed to address the need for comprehensive analysis of U.S. Forest Service (USFS) Region 1 air quality monitoring data. The monitoring data includes Phase 3 (long-term data) lakes, National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP), and Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE). Annual and seasonal data for the periods of record were evaluated for trends using non-parametric (SAS) protocols. The most significant trends were the consistent decrease in SO4 2– and increase in NH4 + at the NADP sites. Standard visual Range increased and extinction decreased at all the IMPROVE sites. Annual visibility was reduced during years of heavy wildland fire. In conclusion, considerations were listed regarding current and future monitoring and National Forest air quality protection including lake sampling protocols, and NADP and IMPROVE site continuation.

Scope / Scale: Region 1 specific

Internet Address: http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs/rmrs_gtr230.html

Soil and Water Resources Conservation Act (RCA)

Applicability: Data produced by Natural Resource Conservation Service akin to the Resource Planning Act. It includes a large amount of information regarding soil.

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Summary: The Soil and Water Resources Conservation Act (RCA) authorizes USDA to report on the condition of natural resources, and to analyze conservation programs and opportunities. This site supports the RCA by providing data from a variety of sources, including data on the status and trends of natural resources, conservation efforts (funding and conservation practices applied), and the agricultural sector. Data reports can be viewed and downloaded using the 4 easy steps below.

Scope / Scale: Variable depending on information sought.

Internet Address: http://soils.usda.gov/survey/rca/viewer/

NRCS Web Soil Survey

Applicability: Users can narrow by state and then by National Forest. Earlier sites (i.e., the NRCS Soil Data Mart) are being phased out. You can also access archived soil surveys through this tool.

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Summary: Web Soil Survey (WSS) provides soil data and information produced by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. It is operated by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) and provides access to the largest natural resource information system in the world. NRCS has soil maps and data available online for more than 95 percent of the nation's counties and anticipates having 100 percent in the near future. The site is updated and maintained online as the single authoritative source of soil survey information.

Scope / Scale: Variable depending on information sought.

Internet Address: http://soildatamart.nrcs.usda.gov/

Watershed Condition Framework

Applicability: Builds off of the 12 watershed condition indicators. The tool includes regional maps, an interactive online map, and GIS data. Watersheds are shown visually as functioning properly, at risk, or impaired. The interactive map can also include a layer with forest boundaries or be searched by forest name, making it planning unit-level relevant. Once a watershed is selected, the tool will give an overview of the 12 indicators in that area. Data are also useful in assessment area 1.

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Summary: Watershed condition classification was completed on National Forest System lands in May of 2011. During the summer and fall of 2011, priority watersheds were identified and work began on Watershed Restoration Action Plans. Watershed Restoration Action Plans are programmatic documents in which the Forest Service describes existing resource conditions and identifies possible management actions that could be taken to move the Agency towards a desired future condition. If the Forest Service determines that it wants to move forward with any of these possible actions, the proposed actions will be subject to National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requirements at the time the projects are proposed. NEPA may have already been completed or may be underway on some of the projects described in the Action Plans.

The results of the Forest Service Watershed Condition Framework planning work are available through a map viewer website where users can view the priority watersheds, read about why the watershed was selected, download the Watershed Restoration Action Plans and learn about other important planning items, including estimated costs and restoration partners. Each watershed on the map also contains information on the overall watershed condition rating and the individual rating of its 12 watershed condition indicators.

Scope / Scale: Planning unit; 12-digit HUC

Internet Address: http://www.fs.fed.us/publications/watershed/

USGS Science in your Watershed

Applicability: User-friendly watershed information clearinghouse. Allows you to click down from national to regional to local watersheds and then presents you with a menu of "additional information" for that watershed in a series of links. Includes much of the same information as the USGS watershed mapping site, but presented in a different format. The tool also includes links to relevant EPA information for the watershed once it has been selected.

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Summary: The purpose of this site is to help you find scientific information organized on a watershed basis. This information, coupled with observations and measurements made by the watershed groups, provides a powerful foundation for characterizing, assessing, analyzing, and maintaining the status and health of a watershed. Discussions with watershed groups across the country resulted in this web site. This web site provides access to: Locate Your Watershed - use the mapping interface to locate your watershed and link to additional information from your watershed. Information Discovery - find projects, publications, and databases related to your watershed. Data Integration - learn more about how you can use scientific data to understand your watershed

Scope / Scale: 8-digit HUC

Internet Address: http://water.usgs.gov/wsc/

USGS Watershed maps

Applicability: Wide range of maps and data indicating both current conditions and long-term trends for water and watersheds from USGS. This tool is especially useful for stream flow information.

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Summary: Downloadable maps and data sets including:

  • Annual Water Data Reports - Individual site data for a particular year, beginning in 2006.
  • National Water Information System (NWIS) USGS Water Data for the Nation: Water-resources data collected at approximately 1.5 million sites in all U.S. States and Territories. Primary categories are Real-time Data, Site Information, Surface Water, Groundwater and Water Quality.
  • National Hydrography Dataset - Detailed spatial data with information about surface-water features and their upstream or downstream relationships.
  • Water data discovery - Summary of water-data access tools organized by time: water now, water then, and water tomorrow.
  • Spatial data - Spatial data and metadata created for water assessment and research projects.
  • Water-use maps and data - Categories of water use in the United States in 2000, 1995, and 1990, by State, with data available by County.

Scope / Scale: Variable HUC levels.

Internet Address: http://water.usgs.gov/maps.html

Vulnerability of U.S. water supply to shortage: a technical document supporting the Forest Service 2010 RPA Assessment

Applicability: This technical document from the RPA assessment includes both information on water supply and projections for demand using the RPA scenarios. It does a variability analysis for water shortages and presents information in national spatial models.

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Authors: Foti, Romano; Ramirez, Jorge A.; Brown, Thomas C.

Publication Number: GTR-295

Year: 2012

Summary: Comparison of projected future water demand and supply across the conterminous United States indicates that, due to improving efficiency in water use, expected increases in population and economic activity do not by themselves pose a serious threat of large-scale water shortages. However, climate change can increase water demand and decrease water supply to the extent that, barring major adaptation efforts, substantial future water shortages are likely, especially in the larger Southwest. Because further global temperature increases are probably unavoidable, adaptation will be essential in the areas of greatest increase in projected probability of shortage.

Scope / Scale: National trends and data at county levels.

Internet Address: http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs/rmrs_gtr295.html

STREAM Team

Applicability: USFS group which has developed a variety of publications and software tools, including BAGS, WinXSPRO, FishXing, and Aquarius. The publications include information about trends and projections, including climate impacts. The modeling tools can provide information regarding sediment, hydrology, and competing uses for water. Some information has not been updated since 2007 or 2008.

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Summary: The Stream Systems Technology Center, or "STREAM TEAM " is a national technical center chartered to improve knowledge of stream systems and watershed hydrology, develop operational tools and technology, provide training and technical support, and identify research needs for the purpose of coordinating development of needed technology to secure favorable conditions of water flows. The Stream Systems Technology Center is part of the Washington Office Watershed, Fisheries, and Wildlife Staff.

Scope / Scale: Variable depending on programs and publications

Internet Address: http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/

Except where noted, definitions are taken from §219.19 "Definitions" of the 2012 Planning Rule.

Airshed

A geographic area that, because of topography, meteorology, and, or, climate, is frequently affected by the same air mass. (From Forest Service Handbook draft directives)

Critical load

The concentration of air pollution or total deposition of pollutants above which specific deleterious effects may occur. (From Forest Service Handbook draft directives)

3. System drivers, including dominant ecological processes, disturbance regimes, and stressors, such as natural succession, wildland fire, invasive species, and climate change; and the ability of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems on the plan area to adapt to change

Fire Fighters in Buring Forest

The ecosystems in National Forests are dynamic systems. They react to systems drivers ranging from wildland fire to climate change in different ways. These resources provide a starting point for assessing both the presence of stressors and the ways in which ecosystems adapt. The information here should be supplemented by information specific to the individual planning unit.

Resources

Wildfire, Wildlands, and People: Understanding and Preparing for Wildfire in the Wildland-Urban Interface

Applicability: This publication gives general information regarding natural fire regimes and WUI. It discusses the relationship between wildfire and other systems drivers such as climate change, insects, and disease. Included are data regarding national costs of wildfire-related programs and damages. It provides information regarding different management techniques and community outreach efforts including several useable charts, diagrams, and maps.

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Authors: Stein, S.M.; Menakis, J.; Carr, M.A.; Comas, S.J.; Stewart, S.I.; Cleveland, H.; Bramwell, L.; Radeloff, V.C.

Publication Number: GTR-299

Year: 2013

Summary: Fire has historically played a fundamental ecological role in many of America's wildland areas. However, the rising number of homes in the wildland-urban interface (WUI), associated impacts on lives and property from wildfire, and escalating costs of wildfire management have led to an urgent need for communities to become "fire-adapted." We present maps of the conterminous United States that illustrate historical natural fire regimes, the wildland-urban interface, and the number and location of structures burned since 1999. We outline a sampler of actions, programs, and community planning and development options to help decrease the risks of and damages from wildfire.

Scope / Scale: Mostly includes national data. Can be used for developing at the WUI.

Internet Address: http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs/rmrs_gtr299.html

A qualitative and quantitative analysis of risk perception and treatment options as related to wildfires in the USDA FS Region 3 National Forests.

Applicability: This publication describes data from Region 3, but could be used across regions (at least in the interior west). It looks at different perspectives of wildfire treatment and how to best communicate them. It can be useful as a tool to learn how to reach out/collaborate with local stakeholders with different backgrounds regarding wildfire. Applicability could extend beyond simply system drivers assessment to inform how forests can drive a process that is simultaneously science-based and collaborative. Also discusses properly informing agency personnel in addition to members of the public regarding wildfire.

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Authors: Martin, Ingrid M.; Martin, Wade E.; Raish, Carol B.

Publication Number: GTR-260

Year: 2011

Summary: As the incidence of devastating fires rises, managing the risk posed by these fires has become critical. This report provides important information to examine the ways that different groups or disaster subcultures develop the mentalities or perceived realities that affect their views and responses concerning risk and disaster preparedness. Fire risk beliefs and attitudes of individuals and groups from four geographic areas in the Southwest (U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Region 3, Arizona and New Mexico) surrounding the Kaibab, Tonto, Santa Fe, and Lincoln National Forests are presented. Using both quantitative and qualitative methods, we collected information from three distinct groups: general public, informed lay public, and local experts. In addition, personal interviews were conducted with a group of policy experts in the science of wildfires and climate change. A primary finding indicates that all of the groups that we interviewed expressed a strong desire for land managers to manage the public lands proactively in order to reduce the risk of catastrophic wildfire. However, respondents expressed different preferences regarding the management approach that should be used. One important observation was that respondents in each of the three distinct respondent groups prioritized their preferred means of communication differently.

Scope / Scale: Forest scale. Especially useful in Region 3.

Internet Address: http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs/rmrs_gtr260.html

Review of fuel treatment effectiveness in forests and rangelands and a case study from the 2007 megafires in central, Idaho, USA.

Applicability: Case study on fuel treatments in Idaho. It addresses the ability of terrestrial ecosystems to adapt to change, looks at natural succession. The study looks at effectiveness of different restoration techniques. This tool could be used to help assess how past management actions have altered the disturbance regime.

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Author: Hudak, Andrew T.; Rickert, Ian; Morgan, Penelope; Strand, Eva; Lewis, Sarah A.; Robichaud, Peter R.; Hoffman, Chad; Holden, Zachary A.

Publication Number: GTR-252

Year: 2011

Summary: This report provides managers with the current state of knowledge regarding the effectiveness of fuel treatments for mitigating severe wildfire effects. A literature review examines the effectiveness of fuel treatments that had been previously applied and were subsequently burned through by wildfire in forests and rangelands. A case study focuses on WUI fuel treatments that were burned in the 2007 East Zone and Cascade megafires in central Idaho. Both the literature review and case study results support a manager consensus that forest thinning followed by some form of slash removal is most effective for reducing subsequent wildfire severity.

Scope / Scale: Ecosystem-specific, Idaho-focused but with broader implications.

Internet Address: http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs/rmrs_gtr252.html

Retrospective fire modeling: Quantifying the impacts of fire suppression.

Applicability: Provides guidance on utilizing the FARSITE program and determining median fire return intervals in an ecosystem. This tool can help assess the historical fire regimes and effects of fire suppression on the land.

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Author: Davis, Brett H.; Miller, Carol; and Parks, Sean A.

Publication Number: GTR-236

Year: 2010

Summary: Land management agencies need to understand and monitor the consequences of their fire suppression decisions. We developed a framework for retrospective fire behavior modeling and impact assessment to determine where ignitions would have spread had they not been suppressed and to assess the cumulative effects that would have resulted. This document is a general guidebook for applying this methodology and is for land managers interested in quantifying the impacts of fire suppression. Using this methodology will help land managers track the cumulative effects of suppression, frame future suppression decisions and cost-benefit analyses in the context of past experiences, and communicate tradeoffs to the public, non-government organizations, land management agencies, and other interested parties.

Scope / Scale: Landscape-scale data.

Internet Address: http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs/rmrs_gtr236.html

Guidebook on LANDFIRE fuels data acquisition, critique, modification, maintenance, and model calibration.

Applicability: Companion to the LANDFIRE program, a technical document regarding how to effectively utilize the tool. This document is aimed at fire specialists, who should already be aware of this type of data. Other individuals should know this information is out there and to request it in assessing system drivers from wildfires (including doing so spatially).

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Author: Stratton, Richard D.

Publication Number: GTR-220

Year: 2009

Summary: With the advent of LANDFIRE fuels layers, an increasing number of specialists are using the data in a variety of fire modeling systems. However, a comprehensive guide on acquiring, critiquing, and editing (ACE) geospatial fuels data does not exist. This paper provides guidance on ACE as well as on assembling a geospatial fuels team, model calibration, and maintaining geospatial data and documentation.

The LANDFIRE Data Access Tool (LFDAT), an ArcMap extension, and the Wildland Fire Decision Support System (WFDSS) are the primary tools outlined in this guide to obtain the Fire Area Simulator (FARSITE) landscape file (LCP) for geospatial fuels application. Other useful geographic information system (GIS) data acquisition websites and layers for geospatial fire analysis are also provided. Critiquing the data consists of (1) a tabular critique of the inputs using LCP Critique and (2) a geospatial critique of the inputs and outputs using FlamMap and ArcMap. Detailed information is provided on many of the layers that constitute the LCP (fuel model, canopy cover, stand height, crown base height, crown bulk density).

Inputs are spatially critiqued using FlamMap and ArcMap in combination with the existing vegetation type layer. Outputs critiqued include flame length, rate of spread, fireline intensity, crown fire activity, and fire growth. Compare-Models-Four and Minimum Travel Time (MTT) are discussed, the WFDSS landscape editor is demonstrated as a tool to edit and update an LCP and a section on model calibration using FARSITE and MTT is included. The paper concludes with direction and discussion on data maintenance, documentation, and complexities of a national fuels dataset for field application.

Scope / Scale: Landscape-scale data.

Internet Address: http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs/rmrs_gtr220.html

Wildland Fire Potential (WFP) Map

Applicability: Good information for long-term planning, it can be used in addition to data generate in other fire simulation models. It can be downloaded as a GIS data set.

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Year: 2012

Summary: The wildland fire potential (WFP) map is a raster geospatial product produced by the USDA Forest Service, Fire Modeling Institute that is intended to be used in analyses of wildfire risk or hazardous fuels prioritization at large landscapes (100s of square miles) up through regional or national scales. The WFP map builds upon, and integrates, estimates of burn probability (BP) and conditional probabilities of fire intensity levels (FILs) generated for the national interagency Fire Program Analysis system (FPA) using a simulation modeling system called the Large Fire Simulator (FSim; Finney et al. 2011). The specific objective of the 2012 WFP map is to depict the relative potential for wildfire that would be difficult for suppression resources to contain, based on past fire occurrence, 2008 fuels data from LANDFIRE, and 2012 estimates of wildfire likelihood and intensity from FSim. Areas with higher WFP values, therefore, represent fuels with a higher probability of experiencing high-intensity fire with torching, crowning, and other forms of extreme fire behavior under conducive weather conditions.

We don't intend for the WFP map to take the place of any of the FSim products; rather, we hope that it provides a useful addition to the information available to managers, policy makers, and scientists interested in wildland fire risk analysis in the United States.

Scope / Scale: National; large landscapes.

Internet Address: http://www.firelab.org/fmi/data-products/229-wildland-fire-potential-wfp

Rocky Mountain Research Station invasive species visionary white paper.

Applicability: This white paper gives an overview of invasive species, research, and efforts across the entire RMRS footprint. It also includes links to various resources which are more regularly updated.

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Author: Pearson, D. E.; Kim, M.; Butler, J., eds.

Publication Number: GTR-265

Year: 2011

Summary: Invasive species represent one of the single greatest threats to natural ecosystems and the services they provide. Effectively addressing the invasive species problem requires management that is based on sound research. We provide an overview of recent and ongoing invasive species research conducted by Rocky Mountain Research Station scientists in the Intermountain West in order to familiarize managers with the Station and its products. We also provide several links to continuously updated web sites and a periodic newsletter that covers Rocky Mountain Research Station's invasives species research.

Scope / Scale: Regions 1, 2, 3, and 4.

Internet Address: http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs/rmrs_gtr265.html

Invasive species working group

Applicability: Similar to the visionary white paper, but more currently updated. Includes set of links to other information: http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/invasive-species/links/

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Summary: Includes publications, a newsletter, and information regarding invasive species throughout the footprint of the RMRS.

Scope / Scale: Variable depending on resource selected

Internet Address: http://www.rmrs.nau.edu/invasive_species/

National invasive species information center

Applicability: A one-stop shop for invasive species info presented in an up-to-date, user-friendly format.

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Summary: Up-to-date databases regarding invasive species. Can be browsed by type of invasive, regionally, or for general information. Also includes information regarding their economic impact (which would help for ecosystem services)

Scope / Scale: Variable depending on resource selected

Internet Address: http://www.invasivespeciesinfo.gov/resources/databases.shtml

A System for Assessing Vulnerability of Species (SAVS) to Climate Change

Applicability: This publication introduces the SAVS framework and explains how to utilize and apply it. It is also useful for assessment area 5. Case studies have been done for Fort Huachuca, AZ, (GTR-302); the Barry M. Goldwater Range, AZ, (GTR-284), and the Sky Islands of the Southwest (GTR-273).

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Author: Bagne, Karen E.; Friggens, Megan M.; and Finch, Deborah M.

Publication Number: GTR-257

Year: 2011

Summary: Sustained conservation of species requires integration of future climate change effects, but few tools exist to assist managers. The System for Assessing Vulnerability of Species (SAVS) identifies the relative vulnerability or resilience of vertebrate species to climate change. Designed for managers, the SAVS is an easily applied tool that uses a questionnaire of 22 predictive criteria to create vulnerability scores. The user scores species' attributes relating to potential vulnerability or resilience associated with projections for their region. Six scores are produced: an overall score denoting level of vulnerability or resilience, four categorical scores (habitat, physiology, phenology, and biotic interactions) indicating source of vulnerability, and an uncertainty score, which reflects user confidence in the predicted response. The SAVS provides a framework for integrating new information into the climate change assessment process. Case studies have been done for Fort Huachuca, AZ, (GTR-302); the Barry M. Goldwater Range, AZ, (GTR-284), and the Sky Islands of the Southwest (GTR-273).

Scope / Scale: species-specific

Internet Address: http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs/rmrs_gtr257.html

Climate change in grasslands, shrublands, and deserts of the interior American West: a review and needs assessment.

Applicability: This excellent resource looks at climate change specifically with regards to grasslands, shrublands, and deserts. It includes ecoregion-specific information and also demonstrates the interplay between different systems drivers. It also includes useable modeling data.

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Author: Finch, Deborah M., ed.

Publication Number: GTR-285

Year: 2012

Summary: Recent research and species distribution modeling predict large changes in the distributions of species and vegetation types in the western interior of the United States in response to climate change. This volume reviews existing climate models that predict species and vegetation changes in the western United States, and it synthesizes knowledge about climate change impacts on the native fauna and flora of grasslands, shrublands and deserts of the interior American West. Species' responses will depend not only on their physiological tolerances but also on their phenology, establishment properties, biotic interactions, and capacity to evolve and migrate. The volume is divided into eight chapters that cover the topics of carbon mitigation and adaptation. Current and likely responses of species and habitats to climate change are examined in relation to taxonomic group and ecoregion and with regard to other disturbances. The volume ends with a review of management decision support needs and tools for assessing vulnerability of natural resources and conserving and restoring ecosystems that are or may be impacted by climate change.

Scope / Scale: Ecoregion-specific

Internet Address: http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs/rmrs_gtr285.html

Climate change, forests, fire, water, and fish: Building resilient landscapes, streams, and managers.

Applicability: This publication links climate change to wildfire regimes and gives specific information regarding the impacts on fish populations. It is good for showing the interplay of systems drivers.

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Author: Luce, Charles; Morgan, Penny; Dwire, Kathleen; Isaak, Daniel; Holden, Zachary; Rieman, Bruce.

Publication Number: GTR-290

Year: 2012

Summary: Fire will play an important role in shaping forest and stream ecosystems as the climate changes. Historic observations show increased dryness accompanying more widespread fire and forest die-off. These events punctuate gradual changes to ecosystems and sometimes generate stepwise changes in ecosystems. Climate vulnerability assessments need to account for fire in their calculus. The biophysical template of forest and stream ecosystems determines much of their response to fire. This report describes the framework of how fire and climate change work together to affect forest and fish communities. Learning how to adapt will come from testing, probing, and pushing that framework and then proposing new ideas. The western U.S. defies generalizations, and much learning must necessarily be local in implication. This report serves as a scaffold for that learning. It comprises three primary chapters on physical processes, biological interactions, and management decisions, accompanied by a special section with separately authored papers addressing interactions of fish populations with wildfire. Any one of these documents could stand on its own. Taken together, they serve as a useful reference with varying levels of detail for land managers and resource specialists. Readers looking for an executive summary are directed to the sections titled "Introduction" and "Next Steps."

Scope / Scale: National, visioning document.

Internet Address: http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs/rmrs_gtr290.html

Climate Change Resource Center tools

Applicability: The "climate impact" list from the drop down menu includes the most relevant information for the assessment.

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Summary: This page includes a collection of links to various tools designed to evaluate climate impacts.

Scope / Scale: Variable depending on resource selected

Internet Address: http://www.fs.fed.us/ccrc/tools/

The Sagebrush Steppe Treatment Evaluation Project (SageSTEP): A Test of State-and-Transition TheoryPrescribed

Applicability: This resource focuses on the Great Basin and sagebrush steppe ecosystems. It includes both information regarding fire and also natural succession.

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Author: McIver, J.D.; Brunson, M.; Bunting, S.C., and others.

Publication Number: GTR-237

Year: 2010

Summary: The Sagebrush Steppe Treatment Evaluation Project (SageSTEP) is a comprehensive, integrated, long-term study that evaluates the ecological effects of fire and fire surrogate treatments designed to reduce fuel and to restore sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) communities of the Great Basin and surrounding areas. SageSTEP has several features that make it ideal for testing hypotheses from state-and-transition theory: it is long-term, experimental, multisite, and multivariate, and treatments are applied across condition gradients, allowing for potential identification of biotic thresholds. The project will determine the conditions under which sagebrush steppe ecological communities recover on their own following fuel treatment versus the communities crossing ecological thresholds, which requires expensive active restoration.

Scope / Scale: Region 4 specific, Great Basin and sagebrush.

Internet Address: http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs/rmrs_gtr237.html

Except where noted, definitions are taken from §219.19 "Definitions" of the 2012 Planning Rule.

Disturbance

Any relatively discrete event in time that disrupts ecosystem, watershed, community, or species population structure and/or function and changes resources, substrate availability, or the physical environment.

Disturbance regime

A description of the characteristic types of disturbance on a given landscape; the frequency, severity, and size distribution of these characteristic disturbance types; and their interactions.

Stressors

For the purpose of this subpart: Factors that may directly or indirectly degrate or impair ecosystem composition, structure, or ecological process in a manner that may impair its ecological integrity, such as an invasive species, loss of connectivity, or the disruption of a natural disturbance regime.

4. Baseline assessment of carbon stocks

Forest with Fall Colors

Understanding the carbon stocks in a forest can have long-term implications not only for that landscape but at larger scales. Many tools are in development to assist managers in undertaking such an assessment. Here are some current tools and resources for that purpose. The information here should be supplemented by information specific to the individual planning unit.

Climate Change Scorecard #9 resources

Applicability: Climate Change scorecard #9 should provide forests with the information they need for this part of the assessment. Utilizing the tools outlined by this site will also achieve that goal.

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Summary: Completing scorecard element #9 will allow managers to understand the implications of potential future management activities on carbon stocks and flows in the forest. While the Forest Service manages our National Forests for a wide variety of ecosystem services (including timber, fresh water, recreation, fish & wildlife, habitat, etc), knowing the carbon dynamics of our forests will allow us to know how much the National Forests are mitigating climate change by serving as carbon sinks (or, in some cases, sources).

Forest Service managers and research scientists from the Northern and Rocky Mountain Research Stations and elsewhere are collaborating on several projects which will provide land managers with the scientific knowledge and tools needed to "get to yes" on scorecard element 9. These tools represent a strategic investment on a national scale that is supported by R&D expertise, so that the burden of carbon inventories does not fall to individual forests at the unit level. Many of these tools are still under development, but will be fully deployed in the coming years.

Scope / Scale: Variable from national to forest level depending on tool utilized.

Internet Address: http://www.fs.fed.us/climatechange/advisor/scorecard/carbon-assessment-stewardship.html

COLE and GCOLE

Applicability: This tool can generate data at the county level. There's also an easy-to-use new version called GCOLE. GCOLE has the capacity to do a forest level filter, but it only works for large forests.

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Summary: COLE v2.0 retrieves Forest Inventory and Analysis data for a user-selected area (within the continental United States), converts these data to ecosystem carbon and produces basic carbon inventory and growth and yield estimates. Using this program, a user can generate an acceptable baseline assessment of carbon stocks for the purpose of partially fulfilling element requirements. COLE requires fairly minimal investment to learn and use. A more detailed and/or accurate baseline assessment of carbon stocks can also potentially be generated through a science-management partnership that use other tools or by completing an on-the-ground carbon inventory (see "What are other forests doing?"); however, these methods are usually more time- and resource-intensive.

Scope / Scale: State and county level, some forests

Internet Address: http://www.ncasi2.org/GCOLE/gcole.shtml

Carbon stocks on forestland of the United States, with emphasis on USDA Forest Service ownership. Ecosphere.

Applicability: This publication gives regional information regarding carbon stocks for the USFS. It also has a map of forest carbon stocks by National Forest, utilizing FIA data. The narrative is also useful in defining different types of carbon pools.

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Authors: Linda S. Heath, James E. Smith, Christopher W. Woodall, David L. Azuma, and Karen L. Waddell.

Year: 2011

Summary: The U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USFS) manages one-fifth of the area of forestland in the United States. The Forest Service Roadmap for responding to climate change identified assessing and managing carbon stocks and change as a major element of its plan. This study presents methods and results of estimating current forest carbon stocks and change in the United States for public and private owners, consistent with the official 2010 U.S. greenhouse gas inventory, but with improved data sources for three states. Results are presented by National Forest System region, a major organizational management unit within the Forest Service, and by individual national forest. USFS forestland in the United States is estimated to contain an average of 192 Mg C/ha (megagrams carbon per hectare) on 60.4 million ha, for a total of 11,604 Tg C (teragrams C) in the year 2005. Privately-owned forestland averages 150 Mg C/ha on 173.8 million ha, with forestland of other public owners averaging 169 Mg C/ha on 43.1 million ha. In terms of change, private and USFS ownerships each sequester about a net 150 Tg CO2/yr, but an additional 92 Tg CO2/yr is stored in products from private harvests compared to about 3 Tg CO2/yr from harvest on USFS land. Emissions from other disturbances such as fires, as well as corresponding area estimates of disturbance are also important, but the needed datasets are not yet available. Recommendations are given for improving the estimates.

Scope / Scale: National, regional, and forest level.

Internet Address: http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/37285

Climate Change Resource Center tools

Applicability: Before using any of these tools, individuals should read the carbon estimations primer located at http://www.fs.fed.us/ccrc/tools/carbon-primer/

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Summary: This web resource page includes a list of carbon estimation tools with one-sentence describers.

Scope / Scale: Variable depending on tool used.

Internet Address: http://www.fs.fed.us/ccrc/tools/

Except where noted, definitions are taken from §219.19 "Definitions" of the 2012 Planning Rule.

Carbon pool

Any natural region or zone, or any artificial holding area, containing an accumulation of carbon or carbon-bearing compounds or having the potential to accumulate such substances. Carbon pools may include live and dead above ground carbon, soil carbon including coarse roots, and harvested wood products. (From Forest Service Handbook draft directives)

Carbon stocks

The amount or quantity contained in the inventory of a carbon pool. For purposes of carbon assessment for National Forest System (NFS) land management planning, carbon pools do not include carbon in fossil fuel resources, lakes or rivers, emissions from agency operations, or public use of NFS lands (such as emissions from vehicles and facilities). (From Forest Service Handbook draft directives)

5. Threatened, endangered, proposed and candidate species, and potential species of conservation concern present in the plan area

Wolverine in the snow

National Forest System lands provide valuable habitat for a wide-range of species. These publications and tools provide information regarding individual species and their habitats. The information here should be supplemented by information specific to the individual planning unit.

The Rocky Mountain Research Station has developed expertise in each of these species that are commonly described in planning documents. The following information regarding these species should be valuable in the assessment phase.

* Some of the following links are only available to Forest Service employees utilizing Forest Service computers. If you cannot access a link, we suggest you contact a university library.

A System for Assessing Vulnerability of Species (SAVS) to Climate Change

Applicability: This publication introduces the SAVS framework and explains how to utilize and apply it. It is also useful for assessment area 3. Case studies have been done for Fort Huachuca, AZ, (GTR-302); the Barry M. Goldwater Range, AZ, (GTR-284), and the Sky Islands of the Southwest (GTR-273).

Read More...

Author: Bagne, Karen E.; Friggens, Megan M.; and Finch, Deborah M.

Publication Number: GTR-257

Year: 2011

Summary: Sustained conservation of species requires integration of future climate change effects, but few tools exist to assist managers. The System for Assessing Vulnerability of Species (SAVS) identifies the relative vulnerability or resilience of vertebrate species to climate change. Designed for managers, the SAVS is an easily applied tool that uses a questionnaire of 22 predictive criteria to create vulnerability scores. The user scores species' attributes relating to potential vulnerability or resilience associated with projections for their region. Six scores are produced: an overall score denoting level of vulnerability or resilience, four categorical scores (habitat, physiology, phenology, and biotic interactions) indicating source of vulnerability, and an uncertainty score, which reflects user confidence in the predicted response. The SAVS provides a framework for integrating new information into the climate change assessment process.

Scope / Scale: species-specific

Internet Address: http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs/rmrs_gtr257.html

SAVS: A System for Assessing Vulnerability of Species

Applicability: Plugging species-specific data into this tool can help planners determine which species should be considered as potential species of conservation concern due to climate change. The case studies from Arizona can help explain how to utilize the tool.

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Summary: RMRS has developed a System for Assessing Vulnerability of Species (SAVS) (view the research project) that quantifies the relative impact of expected climate change effects for terrestrial vertebrate species. The SAVS uses 22 criteria related to expected response or vulnerability of species in a questionnaire to provide a framework for assessing vulnerability to climate change. The questionnaire is completed using information gathered from published materials, personal knowledge, or expert consultation. The SAVS Climate Change Tool focuses solely on the effects of climate change for terrestrial vertebrate species. This tool aids managers by identifying specific traits and issues related to individual species vulnerabilities. Scores generated by completing a questionnaire are meant to be used to inform management planning. A comprehensive discussion of the development and application of this tool will be available from the RMRS General Technical Report [A System for Assessing Vulnerability of Species (SAVS) to Climate Change, in press]. Information regarding specific criteria for each question are provided as information pop-ups with the scoring template. Users may also find it helpful to review assessments conducted for species in New Mexico and Arizona and legacy project briefs for Fort Huachuca, AZ and Barry M Goldwater Range, AZ. We assume users will familiarize themselves with these documents before proceeding with the scoring process.

Scope / Scale: species-specific

Internet Address: http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/grassland-shrubland-desert/products/species-vulnerability/

A Range-Wide Restoration Strategy for Whitebark Pine (Pinus albicaulis)

Applicability: This paper discusses the various threats to whitebark pine and considers their potential decline over the next 50 years. It draws connections between whitebark pine and grizzly bears. It could also be useful in the terrestrial ecosystem assessment section and at the planning stage.

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Author: Keane, Robert E.; Tomback, D.F.; Aubry, C.A.; Bower, A.D.; Campbell, E.M.; Cripps, C.L.; Jenkins, M.B.; Mahalovich, M.F.; Manning, M.; McKinney, S.T.; Murray, M.P.; Perkins, D.L.; Reinhart, D.P.; Ryan, C.; Schoettle, A.W.; Smith, C.M.

Publication Number: GTR-279

Year: 2012

Summary: Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), an important component of western high-elevation forests, has been declining in both the United States and Canada since the early Twentieth Century from the combined effects of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreaks, fire exclusion policies, and the spread of the exotic disease white pine blister rust (caused by the pathogen Cronartium ribicola). The pine is now a candidate species for listing under the Endangered Species Act. Within the last decade, with major surges of pine beetle and increasing damage and mortality from blister rust, the cumulative whitebark pine losses have altered high-elevation community composition and ecosystem processes in many regions. Whitebark pine is a keystone species because of its various roles in supporting community diversity and a foundation species for its roles in promoting community development and stability. Since more than 90 percent of whitebark pine forests occur on public lands in the United States and Canada, maintaining whitebark pine communities requires a coordinated and trans - boundary effort across Federal and provincial land management agencies to develop a comprehensive strategy for restoration of this declining ecosystem. We outline a range - wide strategy for maintaining whitebark pine populations in high mountain areas based on the most current knowledge of the efficacy of techniques and differences in their application across communities. The strategy is written as a general guide for planning, designing, implementing, and evaluating fine - scale restoration activities for whitebark pine by public land management agencies, and to encourage agency and inter - agency coordination for greater efficiency. The strategy is organized into six scales of implementation, and each scale is described by assessment factors, restoration techniques, management concerns, and examples.

Scope / Scale: Regional, ecosystem - specific with examples from the Northern Rockies

Internet Address: http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs/rmrs_gtr279.html

Wildlife population and harvest trends in the United States: A technical document supporting the Forest Service 2010 RPA Assessment

Applicability: Gives both national and regional status and trends for wildlife by category. Uses the phrase "species of conservation concern," but not with the policy meaning it carries in the context of the planning rule. Includes consideration of at - risk species based on NatureServe rankings. With its focus on game species categories, it could also be useful for assessment areas 8 and 9. Also includes information on pollinators, which could be useful for assessment area 7 (ecosystem services).

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Author: Flather, Curtis H.; Knowles, Michael S.; Jones, Martin F.; Schilli, Carol

Publication Number: GTR-296

Year: 2013

Summary: The Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act (RPA) of 1974 requires periodic assessments of the condition and trends of the nation's renewable natural resources. Data from many sources were used to document recent historical trends in big game, small game, migratory game birds, furbearers, nongame, and imperiled species. Big game and waterfowl have generally increased in population and harvest trends. Many small upland and webless migratory game bird species have declined notably in population or harvest. Considerable declines in fur harvest since the 2000 RPA Assessment have occurred. Among the 426 breeding bird species with sufficient data to estimate nationwide trends, 45 percent had stable abundance since the mid - 1960s; however, more species declined (31 percent) than increased (24 percent). A total of 1,368 bird species were formally listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act a net gain of 278 species since the 2000 RPA Assessment. Most forest bird communities are expected to support a lower variety of species. America's wildlife resources will continue to be pressured by diverse demands for ecosystem services from humans. Collaborative planning and management among private and public land owners, and which spans the research and management branches of the Forest Service, will be vital to conserving and sustaining the nation's wildlife resources.

Scope / Scale: National and regional information.

Internet Address: http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs/rmrs_gtr296.html

Rocky Mountain Research Station Focal Species

Applicability: The Rocky Mountain Research Station has developed expertise in each of these species. The high quality information regarding these species should be invaluable in the assessment phase.

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Summary: Information on Forest Carnivores, Canada Lynx, Wolverine, Northern Goshawk, Black - backed woodpecker, Mexican spotted owl, Bald eagle

Scope / Scale: Species-specific

Internet Address: http://www.rmrs.nau.edu/wildlife/species_at_risk/focal_species.php

Regional Sensitive Species Lists

Applicability: These lists could be useful in determining potential species of conservation concern in the assessment phase.

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Summary: Each region has developed a list of regionally designated species including breakdowns by state and classification.

Scope / Scale: Region-specific resources

Internet Address: http://www.fs.usda.gov/detail/r1/plants-animals/?cid=stelprdb5130525 | http://www.fs.usda.gov/wps/portal/fsinternet/detail/r2/plants-animals/?cid=stelprdb5350842 | http://www.fs.usda.gov/detail/r3/plants-animals/?cid=FSBDEV3_022105 | http://www.fs.usda.gov/main/r4/plants-animals

Forest Inventory Assessment

Applicability: Using data from FIA can assist planners in determining available habitat in a planning unit.

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Summary: Determining which species and ecosystems are thriving and which are rare or declining is crucial for targeting conservation towards elements of biodiversity in greatest need.

Scope / Scale: Variable depending on the report generated.

Internet Address: http://www.fia.fs.fed.us/tools-data/default.asp

NatureServe Rankings

Applicability: This non-profit database includes information on species and their status. The information can be given at a global scale down to a local scale for certain species.

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Summary: Determining which species and ecosystems are thriving and which are rare or declining is crucial for targeting conservation towards elements of biodiversity in greatest need. NatureServe and its member programs and collaborators use a suite of factors to assess the conservation status of plant, animal, and fungal species, as well as ecosystems (ecological communities and systems). The outcome of researching and recording information on the conservation status factors is the assignment of a conservation status rank with supporting documentation. For species these ranks provide an estimate of extinction risk, while ecosystems they provide an estimate of the risk of elimination.

Scope / Scale: Global to local populations, species-specific.

Internet Address: http://www.natureserve.org/explorer/ranking.htm

Arc Habitat Suitability Index (ArcHSI)

Applicability: GIS tool to use site-specific information in assessing habitat conditions for different species.

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Summary: Arc Habitat Suitability Index (ArcHSI) is a geographical information system (GIS) model that estimates the ability of an area to meet the food and cover requirements of an animal species. The components and parameters of the model occur in tables and can be easily edited or otherwise modified. ArcHSI runs on personal computers with the full installation of ArcGIS (Version 8.2+). ArcHSI is a tool intended to inform planners of the probable impacts on wildlife for the alternatives they develop, and it augments, rather than supplants, the expertise of resource specialists with site-specific knowledge. System requirements are platform specific, but a typical system requires 512 megabytes RAM and a 1 gHz CPU. A Unix ArcINFO version is also available. We have included a demonstration that provides a step-by-step tour of the software, including setting up the first run; interpreting, formatting, and analyzing output; and identifying and solving the most common problems experienced by new users.

Scope / Scale: Site-specific

Internet Address: http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/forest-grassland-lab/products/arc-habitat-suitability/

Stream Temperature Modeling and Monitoring

Applicability: Boise lab tool that provides dynamic information regarding aquatic ecosystems and habitat suitability. Focused on stream temperatures, which can affect a range of different fish species. Also useful for assessment area 1.

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Summary: Thermal regimes are important to aquatic ecosystems because they strongly dictate species distributions, productivity, and abundance. Inexpensive digital temperature loggers, geographic information systems (GIS), remote sensing technologies, and new spatial analyses are facilitating the development of temperature models and monitoring networks applicable at broad spatial scales. This web site provides a mapping tool to help those in the western US organize temperature monitoring efforts, describes techniques for measuring stream temperatures, and describes several statistical models for predicting stream temperatures and thermally suitable fish habitats from temperature data. The web site also provides links to other stream temperature resources such as publications, videos, and presentations on topics relating to thermal regimes in streams.

Scope / Scale: Site-specific

Internet Address: http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/boise/AWAE/projects/stream_temperature.shtml

Also see:

Funk, W. Chris; Forsman, Eric D.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Haig, Susan M. 2008. Introgression and dispersal among spotted owl (Strix occidentalis) subspecies. Evolutionary Applications. 1(1): 161-171.

Ganey, Joseph L.; Ward, James P. Jr.; Willey, David W. 2011. Status and ecology of Mexican spotted owls in the Upper Gila Mountains recovery unit, Arizona and New Mexico. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-256. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 94 p.           

Ganey, Joseph L.; White, Gary C.; Ward, James P., Jr.; Kyle, Sean C.; Apprill, Darrell L.; Rawlinson, Todd A.; Jonnes, Ryan S. 2014. Demography of Mexican spotted Owls in the Sacramento Mountains, New Mexico. Journal of Wildlife Management. 78(1): 42-49.

Ganey, Joseph L.; Apprill, Darrell L.; Rawlinson, Todd A.; Kyle, Sean C.; Jonnes, Ryan S.; Ward, James P., Jr. 2013. Nesting habitat of Mexican spotted owls in the Sacramento Mountains, New Mexico. Journal of Wildlife Management. 77(7): 1426-1435.

Haig, Susan M.; Wagner, Steven R.; Forsman, Eric D.; Mullins, Thomas D. 2001. Geographic variation and genetic structure in spotted owls. Conservation Genetics. 2(1): 25-40.

Hathcock, Charles D.; Haarmann, Timothy K. 2008. Development of a predictive model for habitat of the Mexican spotted owl in Northern New Mexico. Southwestern Naturalist. 53(1): 34-38.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2013. Mexican spotted owl website. Last updated November 13, 2013.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2012. Final Recovery Plan for the Mexican spotted owl (Strix occidentalis lucida), First Revision. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. 413 pp. Accessed April 14, 2014.

Willey, David W. 2013. Diet of Mexican spotted owls in Utah and Arizona. Wilson Journal of Ornithology. 125(4): 775-781.

USFS Wildlife and Terrestrial Ecosystems webpage. This site contains links to additional lynx publications.

Alexander, Shelley M. 2008. Snow-tracking and GIS: using multiple species-environment models to determine optimal wildlife crossing sites and evaluate highway mitigation plans on the Trans-Canada Highway. Canadian Geographer. 52(2):169-187.

Apps, Clayton D. 2000. Space-use, diet, demographics, and topographic associations of lynx in the southern Canadian Rocky Mountains: a study. Pages 351-371 in Ruggiero et al., Ecology and Conservation of Lynx in the United States. University Press of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado. 

Apps, Clayton D.; Dibb, Alan; Fontana, Anna J. 2000. Lynx ecology in the southern Canadian Rocky Mountains: Preliminary results and conservation implications. In: Darling, L.N. ed. Proceedings of a conference on the Biology and Management of Species and Habitats at Risk, Volume Two. February 15-19, 1999; Kamloops, B.C. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, Victoria, B. C. and University College of the Cariboo. 520p. 

Berg, Nathan D., Gese, Eric M.; Squires, John R.; Aubry, Lise M. 2012. Influence of forest structure on the abundance of snowshoe hares in western Wyoming. Journal of Wildlife Management 76(7): 1480-1488.

Berg, Nathan D. 2009. Snowshoe hare and frost structure relationships in western Wyoming. Logan, UT: Utah State University. 86p. Thesis.   

Bunnell, Kevin D.; Flinders, Jerran T.; Michael Wolfe. 2006. Potential impacts of coyotes and snowmobiles on lynx conservation in the intermountain west. Wildlife Society Bulletin. 34(3): 828-838.

Bunnell, Kevin D.  2005. Factors potentially limiting Canada lynx conservation in the Uinta Mountains and the intermountain west. Logan, UT: Utah State University. 117p. Ph.D. ABSTRACT ONLY.

Burdett, Christopher L.; Moen, Ron A.; Niemi, Gerald J.; Mech, L. David. 2007. Defining space use and movements of Canada lynx with global positioning system telemetry. Journal of Mammalogy. 88(2): 457-467.

Buskirk, Steven W., Ruggiero, Leonard F.; Krebs, Charles J. 2000. Habitat fragmentation and interspecific competition: Implications for lynx conservation. Pages 83-100 in Ruggiero et al., Ecology and Conservation of Lynx in the United States. University Press of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado.

Carroll, Carlos. 2007. Interacting effects of climate change, landscape conversion, and harvest on carnivore populations at the range margin: marten and lynx in the Northern Appalachians. Conservation Biology. 21(4): 1092-1104.

Carroll, Carlos; Noss, Reed F.; Paquet, Paul C. 2001. Carnivores as focal species for conservation planning in the Rocky Mountain region. Ecological Applications. 11(4): 961-980.

DeCesare, Nicholas J., Squires, John R.; Kolbe, Jay A. 2005. Effect of forest canopy on GPS-based movement data. Wildlife Society Bulletin 33:935-941.

Devineau, Oliver; Shenk, Tanya M.; Doherty, Paul F.; White, Gary C.; Kahn, Richard H. 2011. Assessing release protocols for Canada lynx reintroduction in Colorado. Journal of Wildlife Management. 75(3): 623-630.

Devineau, Oliver; Shenk, Tanya M.; Doherty, Paul F.; Lukacs, Paul M.; Kahn, Richard H. 2010. Evaluating the Canada lynx reintroduction program in Colorado: patterns in mortality. Journal of Applied Ecology. 47(3): 524-531.

Fuller, Angela K.; Harrison, Daniel J. 2010. Movement paths reveal scale-dependent habitat decisions by Canada lynx. Journal of Mammalogy. 91(5): 1269-1279.

Gaines, William L.; Singleton, Peter. 2000. Conservation of rare carnivores in the North Cascades Ecosystem, western North America. Natural Areas Journal. 20(4): 366-375.

Gniadek, Steve; Edmonds, Amy; Yates, Rick; Kendall, Katherine C. 2001. Detecting Canada lynx in Glacier National Park, Montana. Intermountain Journal of Sciences. 7(4): 126-127.

Griffin, Paul C.; Mills, L. Scott  2007. Precommercial thinning reduces snowshoe hare abundance in the short term. Journal of Wildlife Management. 71(2): 559-564.

Griffin, Paul C.; Mills, L. Scott. 2009. Sinks without borders: snowshoe hare dynamics in a complex landscape. Oikos. 118(10): 1487-1498.

Halfpenny, Jim; Murphy, Kerry; Reinhart, Dan; 1999. Lynx: their ecology and biology and how winter recreation effects them. In: T. Olliff, K. Legg and B. Kaeding, ed., Effects of winter recreation on wildlife of the Greater Yellowstone Area: Literature review and assessment. Greater Yellowstone Coordinating Committee, Greater Yellowstone Winter Wildlife Working Group. 49-64p.  

Hodges, Karen E. 2000a. The ecology of snowshoe hares in northern boreal forests. Pages 117-161 in Ruggiero et al., Ecology and Conservation of Lynx in the United States. University Press of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado.

Hodges, Karen E. 2000b. Ecology of snowshoe hares in southern boreal and montane forests. Pages 163-206 in Ruggiero et al., Ecology and Conservation of Lynx in the United States. University Press of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado.

Hoving, Christopher L.; Harrison, Daniel J.; Krohn, William B.; Jakubas, Walter J.; McCollough, Mark K. 2004. Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) habitat and forest succession in northern Maine, USA. Wildlife Biology. 10(4): 285-294.

Hoving, Christopher L.; Harrison, Daniel J.; Krohn, William B.; Joseph, Ronald A.; O'Brien, Michael. 2005. Broad-scale predictors of Canada lynx occurrence in Eastern North America. Journal of Wildlife Management. 69(2): 739-751.

Ivan, Jacob, S. 2011a. Assessing the efficacy of monitoring wolverine on a regional scale using occupancy and abundance estimation. In: Wildlife Research Report: Mammals: July 2010-June 2011. Colorado Division of Wildlife. Fort Collins, CO. p.1-10.

Ivan, Jacob, S. 2011. Predicted lynx habitat in Colorado. In: Wildlife Research Report: Mammals: July 2010-June 2011. Colorado Division of Wildlife. Fort Collins, CO. p. 22-35.

Jacobs, J.  2001. Canada lynx: why they need cross-boundary forest management. Northwestern Naturalist. 82(2): 71-72.  ABSTRACT ONLY.

Keim, Jonah L.; DeWitt, Philip D.; Lele, Subhash R. 2011. Predators choose prey over prey habitats: evidence from a lynx-hare system. Ecological Applications. 21(4): 1011-1016.

Koehler, Gary M.; Maletzke, Benjamin T.; Von Kienast, Jeff A.; Aubry, Keith A.; Wielgus, Robert B.; Naney, Robert H. 2008. Habitat fragmentation and the persistence of lynx populations in Washington State. Journal of Wildlife Management. 72(7): 1518-1524.

Koehler, Gary M.; Aubry, Keith B. 1994. Lynx. In:L. F. Ruggiero, K. B. Aubry, S. W. Buskirk, L. J. Lyon, and W. J. Zielinski, eds. The scientific basis for conserving forest carnivores: American marten, fisher, lynx, and wolverine in the western United States. Fort Collins, CO. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-254. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 74-98 p.

Kolbe, Jay A.; and Squires, John R. 2006. A longevity record for Canada lynx, Lynx canadensis, in western Montana. Western North American Naturalist. 

Kolbe, Jay A.; Squires, John R. In press. Circadian activity patterns of Canada lynx in western Montana. Journal of Wildlife Management

Kolbe, Jay A.; Squires, John R.; and T. W. Parker. 2003. An effective box trap for capturing lynx. Wildlife Society Bulletin 31:980-985

Kolbe, Jay A.; Squires, John R.; Pletscher, Daniel H.; Ruggiero, Larry F. 2007. The effect of snowmobile trails on coyote movements within lynx home ranges. Journal of Wildlife Management. 

Maletzke, Benjamin T.; Koehler, Gary M.; Wielgus, Robert B.; Aubry, Keith B.; Evans, Marc A.

2008. Habitat conditions associated with Lynx hunting behavior during winter in northern Washington. Journal of Wildlife Management. 72(7): 1473-1478.

McCann, Nicholas P.; Moen, Ron A. 2011. Mapping potential core areas for lynx (Lynx canadensis) using pellet counts from snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) and satellite imagery. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 89(6): 509-516.

McDonald Jr., John E. 2008. Special section on Canada lynx-habitat relations in the contiguous United States. Journal of Wildlife Management. 72(7): 1461-1462.

McKelvey, Kevin S.; Kienast, Von J.;  Aubry, Keith B.; Koehler, Gary M.;  Maletzke, Benjamin K.; Squires, John R., Lindquist, Edward L.; Loch, Steve; Schwartz, Michael K. 2006. DNA analysis of hair and scat collected along snow tracks to document the presence of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis). Wildlife Society Bulletin 34:451.

McKelvey, Kevin S.; Ortega, Yvette K.; Koehler, Gary M.; Aubry, Keith B.; Brittell, J.David. 2000. Canada lynx habitat and topographic use patterns in north central Washington: a reanalysis. In: L. F. Ruggiero, K. B.Aubry, S. W. Buskirk, G. M. Koehler, C. J. Krebs, K. S. McKelvey, and J. R.Squires, editors. Ecology and conservation of lynx in the United States. University Press of Colorado, Boulder, USA. Pp. 307-366.

McKelvey, Kevin S.; Aubry, Keith B.; Ortega, Yvette K. 2000. History and distribution of lynx in the contiguous United States. In: Ruggiero, L.F., K.B. Aubry, S.W. Buskirk [and others], eds. Ecology and Conservation of Lynx in the United States. University Pressof Colorado, Boulder, CO. pp. 207-264.

Moen, Ron; Windels, Steven K.; Hansen, Brice. 2012. Lynx habitat suitability in and near Voyageurs National Park. Natural Areas Journal. 32(4): 348-355.

Moen, Ron, Terwilliger, Lauren; Dohmen, Alan R.; Catton, Susan C. 2010. Habitat and road use by Canada lynx making long-distance movements. Natural Resource Research Institute, NRRI TR-2010/02 University of Minnesota, Duluth, USA. 26 pp.

Moen, Ron; Burdett, Christopher L. 2009. Den sites of radiocollared Canada lynx in Minnesota 2004-2007. Natural Resource Research Institute, NRRI Technical Report No. NRRI/TR-2009/07. 19 p.

Moen, Ron A.; Burdett, Christopher L.; Niemi, Gerald J. 2008. Movement and habitat use of Canada lynx during Denning in Minnesota. Journal of Wildlife Management. 72(7): 1507-1513.

Mowat, Garth; Slough, Brian. 2003. Habitat preference of Canada lynx through a cycle in snowshoe hare abundance. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 81(10): 1736-1745.

Murray, Dennis L.; Steury, Todd D.; Roth, James D. 2008. Assessment of Canada lynx research and conservation needs in the southern range: another kick at the cat. Journal of Wildlife Management. 72(7): 1463-1472.

Murray, Dennis L.; Boutin, Stanley; O'Donoghue, Mark. 1994. Winter habitat selection by lynx and coyotes in relation to snowshoe hare abundance. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 72(8): 1444-1451.

O'Donoghue, Mark; Slough, Brian G.; Poole, Kim G.; Boutin, Stan; Hofer, Elizabeth J.; Mowat, Garth; Krebs, Charles J. 2010. Cyclical dynamics and behaviour of Canada lynx in northern Canada. In:  Macdonald, David W.; Loveridge, Andrew J. [Eds]. Biology and conservation of wild felids. Oxford University Press, Oxford, New York etc. 2010: i-xix, 1-762. Chapter pagination: 521-536.

O'Donoghue Mark; Boutin, Stan.; Krebs, Charles J.; Hofer, Elizabeth J. 1997. Numerical responses of coyotes and lynx to the snowshoe hare cycle. Oikos. 80(1): 150-162.

Olson, Lucretia E.; Squires, John R.; DeCesare, Nicholas J.; Kolbe, Jay A. 2011. Den use and activity patterns in female Canada lynx (Lynx Canadensis) in the northern Rocky Mountains. Northwest Science. 85(3): 455-462.

Organ, John F.; Vashon, Jennifer H.; McDonald Jr., John E.; Vashon, Adam E.; Crowley, Shannon M.; Jakubas, Walter J.; Matula Jr., George G.; Meehan, Amy L. 2008. Within-stand selection of Canada lynx natal dens in Northwest Maine, USA. Journal of Wildlife Management. 72(7): 1514-1517.          

Quade, C. A., et al. 2006. Lynx habitat management plan for DNR managed lands.
Olympia, WA: Washington State Department of Natural Resources. April 2006. 

Ray, Justina C.; Organ, John F.; O'Brien, Michael S. 2002. Canada Lynx (Lynx canadensis) in the Northern Appalachians: Current knowledge, research priorities, and a call for regional cooperation and action. Wildlife Conservation Society; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; IAFWA: 24p. 

Ruggiero, Leonard F.; Aubry, Keith B.; Buskirk, Steven W.; Koehler, Gary M.; Krebs, Charles J.; McKelvey, Kevin S.; Squires, John R. 1999. Ecology and conservation of lynx in the United States. General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-30WWW. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station.

Schwartz, Michael K.; Mills, L. Scott; McKelvey, Kevin S.; Ruggiero, Leonard F.; Allendorf, Fred. 2002. DNA reveals high dispersal synchronizing the population dynamics of Canada lynx. Nature 415(6871): 520-522.

Simons, Erin M. 2009. Influences of past and future forest management on the spatiotemporal dynamics of habitat supply for Canada lynx and American martens in northern Maine. University of Maine: Orono, ME. 247p. Dissertation.

Simons-Legaard, Erin M.; Harrison, Daniel J.; Krohn, William B.; Vashon, Jennifer H.  2013. Canada lynx occurrence and forest management in the Acadian Forest. Journal of Wildlife Management 77(3): 567-578. 

Singleton, Peter H.; Gaines, William L.; Lehmkuhl, John F. 2002. Landscape permeability for large carnivores in Washington: a geographic information system weighted-distance and least-cost corridor assessment. Res. Pap. PNW-RP-549. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 89 p.

Squires, John R.; DeCesare, Nicholas J.; Olson, Lucretia E.; Kolbe, Jay A.; Hebblewhite, Mark; Parks, Sean A.  2013. Combining resource selection and movement behavior to predict corridors for Canada lynx at their southern range periphery. Biological Conservation 157: 187-195.

Squires, John R.; Decesare, Nicholas J.; Kolbe, Jay A.; Ruggiero, Leonard F. 2010. Seasonal resource selection of Canada lynx in managed forests of the northern Rocky Mountains. Journal of Wildlife Management. 74(8): 1648-1660.

Squires, John R.; Ruggiero, Leonard F. 2002. Lynx ecology in northwestern Montana: an ongoing field study at Seeley Lake. Intermountain Journal of Sciences. 8(4): 265-265.

Stenseth, Nils C.; Shabbar, Amir; Chan, Kung-Sik; Boutin, Stan; Knispel-Rueness, Eli; Ehrich, Dorothee; Hurrell, James W.; Lingjærde,Ole C. Jakcobsen, Kjetill S. 2004. Snow conditions may create an invisible barrier for lynx. National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Proceedings 101(29): 10632-10634.

Steury, Todd D.; Murray, Dennis L. 2004. Modeling the reintroduction of lynx to the southern portion of its range. Biological Conservation. 117(2): 127-141.

Strohm, Shaun; Tyson, Rebecca.  2009. The effect of habitat fragmentation on cyclic population dynamics: a numerical study. Bulletin of Mathematical Biology. 71(6): 1323-1348.

Ulev, Elena 2007. Lynx canadensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). 

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. February 2009. Environmental Assessment. designation of critical habitat for the contiguous United States distinct population segment of the Canada lynx. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Region 6 Denver, Colorado. 56 p.

U.S. Forest Service. [2007] Lynx Management Direction for the Northern Rockies
Northern Region. USDA Forest Service.    

Vashon, Jennifer H.; McLellan, Scott; Crowley, Shannon; Meehan, Amy; Laustsen, Ken. 2012.  Canada lynx assessment. Maine Department of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife Research and Assessment Section Bangor, ME 04401.

Vashon, Jennifer H.; Meehan, Amy L. 2008. Spatial ecology of a Canada lynx population in northern Maine. Journal of Wildlife Management. 72(7): 1479-1487.

Von Kienast, Jeff A. 2003. Winter habitat selection and food habits of lynx on the Okanogan Plateau, Washington. Seattle: University of Washington, Seattle. Thesis.

Walpole, Aaron; Bowman, Jeff; Murray, Dennis L.; Wilson, Paul J. 2012. Functional connectivity of lynx at their southern range periphery in Ontario, Canada. Landscape Ecology. 27(5): 761-773.

Waples, Robin S.; Adams, Peter B.; Bohnsack, James; Taylor, Barbara L. 2007. A biological framework for evaluating whether a species is threatened or endangered in a significant portion of its range. Conservation Biology. 21(4): 964-974.

Also see: Information about the wolverine's Threatened listing status: http://www.fws.gov/mountain-prairie/species/mammals/wolverine/79FR6874.pdf

Wolverine Recreation Study. Lead Scientists: John R. Squires, Rocky Mountain Research Station and Kim Heinemeyer of the Round River Conservation Studies.

Aubry, Keith B.; McKelvey, Kevin S.; Copeland, Jerry P. 2007. Distribution and broadscale habitat relations of the wolverine in the contiguous United States. Journal of Wildlife Management. 71: 2147–2158.

Bull, Evelyn L.; Aubry, Keith B.; Wales, Barbara C. 2001. Effects of disturbance on forest carnivores of conservation concern in eastern Oregon and Washington. Northwest Science. 75(Special issue): 180-184.

Carroll, Carlos; Noss, Reed  F.; Paquet, Paul C. 2001. Carnivores as focal species for conservation planning in the rocky mountain region. Ecological Applications. 11(4): 961-980.

Copeland, Jeffrey P.; Peek, James M.; Groves, Craig R.; Melquist, Wayne E.; McKelvey, Kevin S.; McDaniel, Gregory W.; Long, Clinton D.; Harris, Charles E. 2007. Seasonal habitat associations of the wolverine in central Idaho. Journal of Wildlife Management. 71(7): 2201-2212.  

Dawson, F. Neil; Magoun, Audrey J.; Bowman, Jeffrey; Ray, Justina C. 2010. Wolverine, Gulo gulo, home range size and denning habitat in lowland boreal forest in Ontario. Canadian Field-Naturalist. 124(2): 139-144.

Heinemeyer, Kim; Squires, John R.  2012. Idaho wolverine – Winter recreation research project:
investigating the interactions between wolverines and winter recreation. 2011-2012 Progress Report. Missoula, MT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station.

Heinemeyer, Kim; Squires, John R.; Copeland, Jeffrey P. 2010. Investigating the interactions between wolverines and winter recreation use. Annual Report. Missoula, MT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station.

Hiller, Tim L.; McFadden-Hiller, Jamie E. 2013. Wolverine-forest carnivore research in the northern Cascades of Oregon: mid-season progress report for field season 1. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Salem, Oregon, USA. 7 p.

Johnson, Chris J.; Boyce, Mark S.; Case, Ray L.; Cluff, H. Dean; Gau, Robert J.; Gunn, Ann; Mulders, Robert. July 2005. Cumulative effects of human developments on arctic wildlife.
Wildlife Monographs , No. 160, Cumulative Effects of Human Developments on Arctic Wildlife. p. 1-36.

Krebs, John; Lofroth, Eric C.; Parfitt, Ian. 2007. Multiscale habitat use by wolverines in British Columbia, Canada. The Journal of Wildlife Management. 71(7):2180-2192.

Krebs, John; Lofroth, Eric C.; Copeland, Jeffrey P.; Banci, Vivian; Cooley, Dorothy; Golden, Howard; Magoun, Audrey J.; Mulders, Robert; Shults, Brad. 2004. Synthesis of survival rates and causes of mortality in North American wolverines. Journal of Wildlife Management, 68(3): 493-502.

McKelvey, Kevin S.; Copeland, Jeffrey P.; Schwartz, Michael K.; Littell, Jeremy S.; Aubry, Keith B.; Squires, John R.; Parks, Sean A.; Elsner, Marketa M.; Mauger, Guillaume S. 2011. Climate change predicted to shift wolverine distributions, connectivity, and dispersal corridors. Ecological Applications. 21(8): 2882-2897.

Moriarty, Katie M.; Zielinski, William J.; Gonzales, Armand G; Dawson, Todd E.; Boatner, Kristie M.; Wilson, Craig A; Schlexer, Frederick V.; Pilgrim, Kristine L.; Copeland, Jeffrey P.; Schwartz, Michael K. 2009. Wolverine confirmation in California after nearly a century: native or long-distance immigrant? Northwest Science. 83(2): p. 154-162.

Parks, Noreen. 2009. On the track of the elusive wolverine. Science Findings 114. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 5 p.

The wolverine is one of the rarest and least-known mammals in North America. A lack of understanding regarding its historical distribution in the contiguous United States and its broad-scale habitat needs has hampered conservation efforts. Using a suite of research methods, including the assemblage of historical data on wolverine occurrence, analyses of habitat factors, GIS mapping, radio-telemetry tracking, and genetic studies, researchers were able to address these information gaps.

Persson, Jens. 2005. Female wolverine (Gulo gulo) reproduction: reproductive costs and winter food availability. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 83(11): 1453-1459.

Rowland, Mary M.; Wisdom, Michael J.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Wales, Barbara C.; Copeland, Jeffrey P.; Edelmann, Frank B. 2003. Evaluation of landscape models for wolverines in the interior Northwest, United States of America. Journal Of Mammalogy. 84(1): 92-105.

Ruediger, Bill C. 2007. Management considerations for designing carnivore highway crossings. In: Proceedings of the 2007 International Conference on Ecology and Transportation. Ed. C. Leroy Irwin, Debra Nelson, K.P. McDermott. Raleigh NC: Center for Transportation and the Environment. North Carolina State University. Pp. 546-555.

Ruggiero, Leonard F.; McKelvey, KevinS.; Aubry, Keith B.; Copeland, Jeffrey P.; Pletscher, Daniel H.; Hornocker, Maurice G. Wolverine conservation and management. 2007. Journal of Wildlife Management. 71(7): 2145-2146.

Schwartz, Michael K.; Copeland, Jeffrey P.; Anderson, Neil J.; Squires, John R.; Inman, Robert M.; McKelvey, Kevin S.; Pilgrim Kristy L.; Waits, Lizette P.; Cushman, Samuel A. 2009. Wolverine gene flow across a narrow climatic niche. Ecology. 90(11): 3222-3232.

Singleton, Peter H.; Gaines, William L.; Lehmkuhl, John F. 2002. Landscape permeability for large carnivores in Washington: a geographic information system weighted-distance and least-cost corridor assessment. Res. Pap. PNW-RP-549. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 89 p.

Squires, John R.; Copeland, Jeffrey P.; Ulizio, Todd J.; Schwartz, Michael K.; Ruggiero, Leonard F. 2007. Sources and patterns of wolverine mortality in western Montana. The Journal of Wildlife Management. Vol. 71(7): 2213-2220.

Thompson, Jonathan. 2006. Highways and habitat: managing habitat connectivity and landscape permeability for wildlife. Science Findings. 79(79): 1-5.

Tomson, S.; Squires, John S. 2001. Distribution of forest carnivores in the Pioneer Mountains, Montana. Intermountain Journal of Sciences. 7(4): 130.

Ulizio, Todd J.; Squires, John S. 2002. Distribution of forest carnivores in the Pioneer, Flint, and Anaconda-Pintler mountains, Montana. Intermountain Journal of Sciences. 8(4): 267.

Wright, Jonathan D.; Ernst, Jessica. 2004. Effects of mid-winter snow depth on stand selection by wolverines, (Gulo gulo luscus), in the boreal forest. The Canadian Field-Naturalist. 118(1): 56-60.

Andersen, David E.; DeStefano, Stephen; Goldstein, Michael; Titus, Kimberly; Crocker-Bedford, D. Coleman; Keane, John J.; Anthony, Robert G.; Rosenfeld, Robert N. 2005. Technical review of the status of Northern Goshawks in the western United States. Journal of Raptor Research. 39(3): 192-209.

Beck, Jeffrey L.; Skorkowsky, Robert C.; Hayward, Gregory D. 2011. Estimating occupancy to monitor northern goshawk in the central Rocky Mountains. Journal of Wildlife Management. 75(3): 513-524.

Beier, Paul; Rogan, Eric C.; Ingraldi, Michael F.; Rosenstock, Steven S. 2008. Does forest structure affect reproduction of Northern Goshawks in ponderosa pine forests? Journal of Applied Ecology. 45(1): 342-350.

Boal, Clint W.; Andersen, David E.; Kennedy, Patricia L. 2005. Foraging and nesting habitat of breeding male northern goshawks in the Laurentian Mixed Forest Province, Minnesota. Journal of Wildlife Management. 69:1516-1527.

Boal, Clint W. 2005. Preface: Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Ecology and Management of Northern Goshawks. Journal of Raptor Research. 39(3): 189.

Boal, Clint W., Andersen, David E. 2006. Northern Goshawk ecology in the western Great Lakes region. Studies in Avian Biology. Issue 31: 126-134.

Bruggeman, Jason E.,  Andersen, David E.; Woodford, James E. 2009. Northern Goshawk monitoring in the western Great Lakes bioregion. Journal of Raptor Research, 45(4):290-303.

Byholm, Patrick; Kekkonen, Mari. 2008. Food regulates reproduction differently in different habitats: experimental evidence in the goshawk. Ecology. 89(6): 1696-1702.

Curnutt, John. 2007. Conservation Assessment for Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) Linnaeus in the western Great Lakes. [Draft] Western Great Lakes Northern Goshawk Conservation Assessment. USDA Forest Service, Eastern Region, August 10, 2007. 105p.

Doyle, Frank.  2009. Breeding success of the goshawk (A. g. laingi) on Haida Gwaii/Queen

Charlotte Islands. 2008. Wildlife Dynamics Consulting, Telkwa, British Columbia.

Greenwald, D. Noah; Crocker-Bedford, D. Coleman; Broberg, Len; Suckling, Kieran F.; Tibbitts, Timothy. 2005. A review of Northern Goshawk habitat selection in the home range and implications for forest management in the western United States. Wildlife Society Bulletin 33(1): 120-128.

Hanley, Thomas A.; Smith, Winston P.; Gende, Scott M. 2005. Maintaining wildlife habitat in southeastern Alaska: implications of new knowledge for forest management and research. Landscape and Urban Planning. Landscape and Urban Planning. 72: 113-133.

Harrower, William L.; Stuart-Smith, Kari; Larsen, Karl W. 2007. The importance of forest structure around northern Goshawk nest sites. Northwestern Naturalist. 88(2): 112-112.

Hasselblad, Kristin; Bechard, Marc J. 2007. Male Northern Goshawk home ranges in the Great Basin of south-central Idaho. Journal of Raptor Research. 41(2): 150-155.

Jiménez-Franco, Maria V.; Martínez, Jose E.; Calvo, Jose F.  2011. Territorial occupancy dynamics in a forest raptor community. Oecologia. 166(2): 507-516.

Johnson, Kim M. 2008. Hayes Creek fuel reduction project: a success story. In: Deal, Robert L., tech. ed. Integrated restoration of forested ecosystems to achieve multiresource benefits: proceedings of the 2007 National Silviculture Workshop. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-733. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 257-270.         

Lewis, Stephen B.; Titus, Kimberly; Fuller, Mark R. 2006. Northern Goshawk diet during the nesting season in southeast Alaska. Journal of Wildlife Management. 70(4): 1151-1160.

Mahon, Todd.; Doyle, Frank. 2005. Effect of timber harvesting near nest sites on the reproductive success of Northern Goshawks. Journal of Raptor Research. 39(3): 335-341.

Mahon, Todd. 2009. Northern Goshawks in west-central British Columbia, 10-Year project summary.  Wild Forest Consultants, Ltd.    

McClaren, Erica L.; Smith, Winston P. 2007. Habitat suitability & supply modeling for northern goshawks in coastal British Columbia. Northwestern Naturalist. 88(2): 118-119.

McClaren, Erica L; Mahon, Todd; Doyle, Frank. 2009. Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis laingi).  In: Horn, H., P. Arcese, et al. "Knowledge Base for Focal Species and their Habitats in Coastal BC."  EBM Working Group Focal Species Project, Part 3. March 2009. Section 8.0. 72-84 p.

Morrison, Michael L.; Young, Richard J.; Ramsos, Shane; Golightly, Richard. 2011. Restoring forest raptors: influence of human disturbance and forest condition on Northern Goshawks. Restoration Ecology. 19(2): 273-279.

Moser, Brian W. 2008. Space use and ecology of goshawks in northern Idaho.
Phd Dissertation - University of Idaho. 113 p.

Moser, Brian W.; Garton, Edward O. 2009. Short-Term Effects of Timber Harvest and Weather on Northern Goshawk Reproduction in Northern Idaho. Journal of Raptor Research. 43(1): 1-10.

Reynolds, Richard T.; Graham, Russell T.; Reiser, M. Hildegard. 1992. Management recommendations for the Northern Goshawk in the southwestern United States. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-217. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 90 p.

Rutz, Christian. 2006. Home range size, habitat use, activity patterns and hunting behaviour of urban-breeding Northern Goshawks (Accipiter gentilis). Ardea. 94(2): 185-202.

Squires, John R.; Kennedy, Patricia L. 2006. Northern Goshawk ecology: an assessment of current knowledge and information needs for conservation and management. Studies in Avian Biology 31:8. 

Thayer, Theodore C., Ramsos, Shane; Lyon, Victor. 2008. Northern Goshawk population monitoring in the Lake Tahoe Basin. Monitoring Plan Development and Protocol Final Report, 24 October 2008. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Redwood Sciences Laboratory, Arcata, CA. 

Underwood, Jared; White, Clayton M.; Rodriguez, Ronald. 2006. Winter movement and habitat use of Northern Goshawks breeding in Utah. Studies in Avian Biology. Issue 31(14 June): 228-238.  

Woodbridge, Brian; Hargis, Christina D. 2006. Northern goshawk inventory and monitoring technical guide. Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-71. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 80 p.

Zarnetske, Phoebe L.; Edwards, Thomas C.; Moisen, Gretchen G. 2007. Habitat classification modeling with incomplete data: pushing the habitat envelope. Ecological Applications. 17(6): 1714-1726.

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Bull Evelyn L.; Peterson,Steven R.; Thomas, Jack Ward. 1986. Resource partitioning among woodpeckers in northeastern Oregon. Res. Note PNW-RN-444. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 20 p.

Bull, Evelyn L.; Wales, Barbara C. 2001. Effects of disturbance on birds of conservation concern in Eastern Oregon and Washington. Northwest Science. 75(Special issue): 166-173.

Bonnot, Thomas W.; Rumble, Mark A.; Millspaugh, Joshua J.  2008.  Nest success of black-backed woodpeckers in forests with mountain pine beetle outbreaks in the Black Hills, South Dakota.  The Condor. 110(3): 450-457.

Cahall, Rebecca E.; Hayes, John  P. 2009. Influences of postfire salvage logging on forest birds in the Eastern Cascades, Oregon, USA. Forest Ecology and Management. 257(3): 1119-1128.

Cilimburg, Amy; Smucker, Kristina; Hutto, Richard. 2006. Northern region landbird monitoring program, 2006 Final Report: black­backed woodpeckers and the bird community in beetle outbreak areas. Avian Science Center, Division of Biological Sciences. University of Montana, Missoula, MT.

Drapeau, Pierre; Nappi, Antoine; Imbeau, Louis. 2009. Standing deadwood for keystone bird species in the eastern boreal forest: managing for snag dynamics. Forestry Chronicle 85(2): 227-234.

Dixon, Rita D.; Saab, Victoria A. 2000. Black-backed Woodpecker (Picoides arcticus). In: (A. Poole, Ed.) The Birds of North America Online. Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online.

Elder, David H. 2004. Feeding strategies of American three-toed and black-backed woodpeckers. Ontario Birds. 22(2): 75-78.

Goggans, Rebecca; Dixon, Rita D.; Seminara, Claire. 1989. Habitat use by three-toed and black-backed woodpeckers, Deschutes National Forest, Oregon. Oreg. Dep. Fish Wildl. Tech. Rep. No. 87-3-02.

Hannon, Susan J.; Drapeau, Pierre. 2005. Bird responses to burning and logging in the boreal forest of Canada. Studies in Avian Biology. 30: 97-115.

Hanson, Chad T.; North, Malcolm P. 2008. Postfire woodpecker foraging in salvage-logged and unlogged forests of the Sierra Nevada. Condor. 110(4): 777-782.

Hoffman, Nancy J. 1997. Distribution of Picoides woodpeckers in relation to habitat disturbance within the Yellowstone area. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. Thesis (M.S.). 148 p.

Hoyt, Jeff S.; Hannon, Susan J. 2002. Habitat associations of black-backed and three-toed woodpeckers in the boreal forest of Alberta. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 32(10): 1881-1888.

Huot, Matthieu; Ibarzabal, Jacques. 2006. A comparison of the age-class structure of black-backed woodpeckers found in recently burned and unburned boreal coniferous forests in eastern Canada. Annales Zoologici Fennici. 43(2): 131-136.

Hutto, Richard L. 2006. Toward meaningful snag-management guidelines for postfire salvage logging in North American conifer forests. Conservation Biology 20(4): 984-993.

Hutto, Richard L.; Gallo, Susan M. 2006. The effects of postfire salvage logging on cavity-nesting birds. Condor 108(4): 817-831.

Hutto, Richard L. 2008. The ecological importance of severe wildfires: some like it hot. Ecological applications: a publication of the Ecological Society of America 18(8): 1827-1834.

Hutto, Richard L.; Conway, Courtney J.; Saab, Victoria A.; Walters, Jeffrey R.  2008.  

What constitutes a natural fire regime? Insight from the ecology and distribution of coniferous forest birds in North America. Fire Ecology. 4(2): 115-132.

Ibarzabal, Jacques; Desmeules, Patrice. 2006. Black-backed woodpecker (Picoides arcticus) detectability in unburned and recently burned mature conifer forests in north-eastern North America. Annales Zoologici Fennici. 43(2): 228-234.

Ibarzabal, Jacques; Tremblay, Junior A. 2006. The hole saw method for accessing woodpecker nestlings during developmental studies. Annales Zoologici Fennici 43(2): 235-238.

Koivula, Matti J.; Schmiegelow, Fiona K. A.  2007. Boreal woodpecker assemblages in recently burned forested landscapes in Alberta, Canada: Effects of post-fire harvesting and burn severity. Forest Ecology and Management. 242(2-3): 606-618.

Lewis, Jeffrey C.; Rodrick, Elizabeth A.; Azerrad, Jeffrey M.  2003. Black-backed Woodpecker, Picoides arcticus. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife. Volume IV: Birds., p. 27-1 -- 27-4.

Mahon, C. Lisa; Steventon, J. Douglas; Martin, Kathy. 2008. Cavity and bark nesting bird response to partial cutting in northern conifer forests. Forest Ecology and Management. 256(12): 2145-2153.

We investigated whether partial cutting used to mimic small-scale natural disturbances could maintain cavity and bark nesting breeding birds. We assessed changes in the relative abundance of cavity nesting birds in two intensities of partial cutting, compared to uncut and clearcut stands, 9 years post-treatment. We then examined the relationship between forest structure and nesting abundance (stand scale) and compared characteristics of used nest and forage trees to unused trees (tree scale). The relative abundance of most species was highest in either heavy removal or light removal treatments 9 years post-harvest. Brown creepers were most abundant in uncut, and red-breasted sapsuckers were most abundant in clearcut and heavy removal treatments. The proportion of deciduous trees and the density of dead trees were the best predictors of nest abundance. Individual nest tree use was predicted by the presence of large deciduous trees with broken tops and early to advanced stages of decay. Forage tree use was predicted by the presence of large conifer trees in advanced stages of decay. To maintain breeding habitat for cavity nesters, we suggest that forest managers retain the specific structural attributes required for nesting, but also the diverse forest conditions required for foraging.

Nappi, Antoine; Drapeau, Pierre; Gireau, Jean-Francois; Savard, Jean-Pierre. 2003. Snag use by foraging Black-backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) in a recently burned eastern boreal forest. Auk. 120(2): 505-511.

We studied snag use for foraging by Black-backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) one year after a fire in an eastern black spruce (Picea mariana) boreal forest in Quebec, Canada. We searched for signs of foraging (bark flaking and excavation holes) by Black-backed Woodpeckers on 6,536 snags sampled in 56 plots located in portions of the burned forest that had not been salvage logged. A logistic regression model was developed based on the presence or absence of foraging signs. Results showed that Black-backed Woodpeckers used larger snags that were less deteriorated by fire (qualified as high-quality snags). Direct field observations of individuals foraging on 119 snags also indicated that used snags corresponded to those of high predicted quality. Finally, we assessed the relationship between food availability and snag characteristics by measuring the density of wood-boring beetle larvae holes on 30 snags of different size and deterioration classes. High-quality snags contained higher prey densities (wood-boring beetle holes) than smaller and more deteriorated snags. We recommend that forest blocks characterized by large and less deteriorated trees be preserved from salvage logging in recently burned boreal forests in northeastern North America.

Nappi, Antoine; Drapeau, Pierre. 2009. Reproductive success of the black-backed woodpecker (Picoides arcticus) in burned boreal forests: Are burns source habitats? Biological Conservation. 142(7): 1381-1391.

The black-backed woodpecker (Picoides arcticus) is considered a fire specialist throughout its breeding range. Given its high abundance in recent burns, it has been hypothesized that post-fire forests are source habitats for this species. We conducted a 3-year post-fire study to evaluate the temporal occupancy and reproductive success of black-backed woodpeckers in high-severity burned black spruce forests of central Quebec, Canada. We examined how reproductive success varied temporally and spatially within a burned landscape and investigated the potential source or sink status of this woodpecker population over time. Woodpecker nest density was high in the year after fire but declined significantly over the 3-year period. Based on 106 nests, nest success declined from 84% the first year after fire to 73% and 25%, respectively, for the second and third years after fire. Nest density and reproductive success were higher in areas with high proportions of burned mature forests than in areas dominated by burned young forests. Reproductive success was also higher in proximity to unburned forests. Comparison of annual productivity with a range of survival estimates indicated that these burned forests likely functioned as source habitats for the first 2 years following fire, although this status varied as a function of pre-fire forest age. Our results suggest that post-fire forests may contribute significantly to population levels in fire-prone ecosystems. Forest management practices that reduce the amount of mature and over-mature forests can affect the quality of post-fire habitats important to the black-backed woodpecker and other fire-associated species.

Nielsen-Pincus, Nicole; Garton, Edward O. 2005. Nest selection of cavity-nesting birds in response to habitat changes in northwest Oregon. Northwestern Naturalist. 86(2):110.

Forests in the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon have changed substantially due to outbreaks of western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis). To understand how cavity-nesting birds have adapted to these changes, we assessed nest site selection of four species: pileated woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus), black-backed woodpecker, (Picoides arcticus), Williamson's sapsucker (Sphyrapicus hyroideus), and pygmy nuthatch (Sitta pygmaea). Data for three of these species were compared to previous studies in the same study area to identify changes in patterns of selection. Although available resources in the current study differed greatly from the 1970s, all three species exhibited nearly identical patterns of nest selection.

Nielsen-Pincus, Nicole; Garton, Edward O. 2007. Responses of cavity-nesting birds to changes in available habitat reveal underlying determinants of nest selection. Northwestern Naturalist 88(3): 135-146.

Despite an abundance of studies describing nest selection in cavity-nesting birds, few account for the variation in habitat availability across the geographic range of a species and through time. Changes in the frequency of disturbances such as fires, timber harvests, and insect outbreaks can dramatically alter habitat. Responses by cavity-nesting birds to these changes provide an opportunity to evaluate underlying determinants of nest selection. We compared nest site attributes to available resources for three species of cavity-nesting birds: the Pileated Woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus), Williamson's Sapsucker (Sphyrapicus thyroideus), and Black-backed Woodpecker (Picoides arcticus). Data collected in 2003-2004 were compared to data collected in the 1970s in the same study area to identify changes in patterns of selection. Due to severe insect outbreaks, available resources differed greatly between the two time periods. In studies separated by 30 y, Pileated Woodpeckers and Black-backed Woodpeckers exhibited remarkable consistency in patterns of nest site selection. Both species still selected Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa) snags preferentially for nesting despite their decline in availability. Williamson's Sapsuckers were less selective and nested in the most abundant snag species during both time periods. Selection for factors such as tree size and degree of decay remained consistent regardless of differences in habitat availability for the three species. By identifying these general patterns of nest site selection, our conclusions are applicable to a wider variety of habitat conditions. 

Pechacek, Peter. 2004. Spacing behavior of eurasian three-toed woodpeckers (Picoides tridactylus) during the breeding season in Germany. Auk 121(1): 58-67.

Powell, Hugh D. W. 2000. The Influence of Prey Density on Post-Fire Habitat Use of the Black-Backed Woodpecker. Missoula MT: University of Montana. Thesis (M.S.).

Samson, Fred B. 2006. A Conservation assessment of the northern goshawk, blacked-backed woodpecker, flammulated owl, and pileated woodpecker in the Northern Region, US Forest Service. Unpublished report on file, Northern Region, Missoula, Montana, USA.

Stone, Katharine R. 2011. Picoides arcticus. In: Fire Effects Information System. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).

Thompson, Ian D.; Baker, John A.; Ter-Mikaelian, Michael. 2003. A review of the long-term effects of post-harvest silviculture on vertebrate wildlife, and predictive models, with an emphasis on boreal forests in Ontario, Canada. Forest Ecology and Management 177(1-3): 441-469.

Vaillancourt, Marie-Anne; Drapeau, Pierre; Gauthier, Sylvie; Robert, Michel. 2008. Availability of standing trees for large cavity-nesting birds in the eastern boreal forest of Quebec, Canada. Forest Ecology and Management. 255(7): 2272-2285.

Villard, Marc-Andre; Schieck, Jim. 1997. Immediate post-fire nesting by Black-backed Woodpeckers, Picoides arcticus, in Northern Alberta. Canadian Field-Naturalist 111(3): 478-479.

Venier, Lisa A.; Pearce, Jenni L. 2007. Boreal forest landbirds in relation to forest composition, structure, and landscape: Implications for forest management. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 37(7): 1214-1226.

Vierling, Kerri T. 2003. The influence of pre-burn canopy coverage on post-fire use by black-backed woodpeckers in the Jasper Fire. South Dakota Academy of Science. Proceedings 82: 247. [link only available for abstract]

Youngman, Joseph A.; Gayk, Zach G. 2011. High density nesting of black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) in a post-fire Great Lakes jack pine forest. Wilson Journal of Ornithology. 123(2): 381-386.

Wildlife & Ecology Studies Worldwide, Web of Science, Scopus, JSTOR, FSINFO, CAB Abstracts, BIOSIS Previews, GreenFILE, Ecology Abstracts, BioOne, Biological abstracts, Zoological Record, Georef, Agricola, Google Scholar 

Anthony, Robert G. 2001. Low productivity of bald eagles on Prince of Wales Island, southeast Alaska. Journal of Raptor Research. 35:1-8.

Anthony, Robert G.,  Frenzel, Richard W.; Isaacs, Frank B.; Garrett, Monty G. 1994. Probable causes of nesting failures in Oregon’s bald eagle population. Wildlife Society Bulletin 22:576-582.

Bangs, Edward E., Spraker, Ted. H.; Bailey, Theodore N.; Berns, Vernon D. 1982. Effects of increased human populations on wildlife resources of the Kenai peninsula, Alaska. Trans. N. Am. Wildl. Nat. Resour. Conf. 47:605-616. 

In this paper, we will discuss what has occurred to several wildlife populations on the Kenai Peninsula as the human population increased. By discussing historical impacts, management techniques, and potential human impacts, we intend to show the significance of what occurred and may occur as human populations expand, both on the Kenai and in Alaska.

Baril, Lisa M.; Smith, Douglas W.; Drummer, Thomas; Cool, Todd M. 2013. Implications of cutthroat trout declines for breeding ospreys and bald eagles at Yellowstone Lake. Journal of Raptor Research. 47(3): 234-245.

Becker, James M. 2002. Response of wintering bald eagles to industrial construction in southeastern Washington. Wildlife Society Bulletin. 30(3): 875-878. 

Wintering bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) use night roost trees located along the Columbia River shoreline at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington state for daytime perching. The Hanford Bald Eagle Site Management Plan requires evaluation of nonroutine human activities that occur within an 800-m line of sight of roost trees. We monitored the effects of construction of a large industrial facility on eagle daytime use of roost trees located 460 m distant and in direct line of sight. No evidence indicated that construction activity negatively affected eagle use of roost trees, as measured by time spent perching, presence or absence, and flush response. The 800-m line-of-sight guideline might in some cases be overly protective of wintering bald eagles exposed to acute human activity, particularly if eagles are already habituated to less severe types of disturbance. 

Benítez-López, Ana; Alkemade, Robert; Verweij, Pita A. 2010. The impacts of roads and other infrastructure on mammal and bird populations: a meta-analysis. Biological Conservation. 143(6): 1307-1316. 

Biodiversity is being lost at an increased rate as a result of human activities. One of the major threats to biodiversity is infrastructural development. We used meta-analyses to study the effects of infrastructure proximity on mammal and bird populations. Data were gathered from 49 studies on 234 mammal and bird species. The main response by mammals and birds in the vicinity of infrastructure was either avoidance or a reduced population density. The mean species abundance, relative to non-disturbed distances (MSA), was used as the effect size measure. The impact of infrastructure distance on MSA was studied using meta-analyses. Possible sources of heterogeneity in the results of the meta-analysis were explored with meta-regression. Mammal and bird population densities declined with their proximity to infrastructure. The effect of infrastructure on bird populations extended over distances up to about 1 km, and for mammal populations up to about 5 km. Mammals and birds seemed to avoid infrastructure in open areas over larger distances compared to forested areas, which could be related to the reduced visibility of the infrastructure in forested areas. We did not find a significant effect of traffic intensity on the MSA of birds. Species varied in their response to infrastructure. Raptors were found to be more abundant in the proximity of infrastructure whereas other bird taxa tended to avoid it. Abundances were affected at variable distances from infrastructure: within a few meters for small-sized mammals and up to several hundred meters for large-sized mammals. Our findings show the importance of minimizing infrastructure development for wildlife conservation in relatively undisturbed areas. By combining actual species distributions with the effect distance functions we developed, regions sensitive to infrastructure development may be identified. Additionally, the effect distance functions can be used in models in support of decision making on infrastructure planning.

Bowerman, William W., Grubb, Teryl G.; Bath, Allen J.; G. A. Dawson, K. R. Ennis, D. A. Best; Giesy, John P. 2003. Analyses, designation, and management of Bald Eagle habitat in relation to hydroelectric operations: a case study in Michigan, USA. pp 379-385.  In: Sea eagle 2000: proceedings from the International Sea Eagle Conference in Björkö, Sweden, 13-17 September 2000 (B. Helander, Ed.). Proceedings of the Swedish Society for Nature Conservation, SNF, Stockholm, Sweden. 

Brown, Bryan T.; Stevens, Lawrence E. 1997. Winter bald eagle distribution is inversely correlated with human activity along the Colorado River, Arizona. Journal of Raptor Research. 31(1): 7-10.  

Helicopter surveys for Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) were conducted along the Colorado River through Glen Canyon National Recreation Area and Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, U.S.A., during winter 1990-91. Eagle abundance and distribution were examined for a possible correlation with human activity levels as documented in National Park Service recreational use reports. Twenty-two times more eagles were detected in river reaches with low human use compared to river reaches with high to moderate human use. Eagle distribution did not correspond to prey abundance, biomass patterns, or habitat conditions frequently associated with eagle foraging habitat. Moderate to high levels of human activity may have been responsible for lower eagle abundance in some reaches of the river, reinforcing the need for continued management of some areas as refugia where species sensitive to human disturbance can be protected from higher levels of human activity.

Brown, Bryan T.; Mills, G.Scott; Powels, Cornelius; Russell, William A.; Therres, Glen D.; Pottie, James J. 1999. The influence of weapons-testing noise on bald eagle behavior. Journal of Raptor Research. 33(3): 227-232.

Buehler, David A., T. J. Mersmann;  Fraser, James D.; Seegar, Janis K.D. 1991. Effects of human activity on bald eagle distribution on the northern Chesapeake Bay. Journal of Wildlife Management. 55(2): 282-290. 

We determined the relationship between bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) distribution and human activity on the northern Chesapeake Bay shoreline during 1985-89. Only 55 of 1,117 locations of radio-tagged eagles (4.9%) occurred in the developed land-cover type (greater-than-or-equal-to 4 buildings/4 ha), although 18.2% of potential eagle habitat was developed (chi-2 = 428.9, 4 df, P < 0.001). Eagle use of the shoreline was inversely related to building density (chi-2 = 22.1, P < 0.001) and directly related to the development set-back distance (chi-2 = 5.3, P = 0.02). Few eagles used shoreline segments with boats or pedestrians nearby (P < 0.001). Only 360 of 2,532 segments (14.2%) had neither human activity nor shoreline development. Eagle flush distances because of approaching boats were greater in winter than in summer (xBAR = 264.9 vs. 175.5 m, respectively, P = 0.001), but were similar for adult and immature eagles (xBAR = 203.7 vs. 228.6 m, respectively, P = 0.38). Of 2,472 km of shoreline on the northern Chesapeake, 894 km (36.2%) appears to be too developed to be suitable for eagle use, and an additional 996 km (40.3%) had buildings within 500 m, thereby reducing eagle use. The projected increase in developed land in Maryland (74%) and Virginia (80%) from 1978 to 2020 is likely to determine the future of the bald eagle population on the northern Chesapeake Bay.

Bull, Evelyn L; Wales, Barbara C. 2001. Effects of disturbance on birds of conservation concern in Eastern Oregon and Washington. Northwest-Science. 75(Special issue): 166-173.

The effects on birds of forest insects, tree diseases, wildfire, and management strategies designed to improve forest health (e.g., thinning, prescribed burns, road removal, and spraying with pesticides or biological microbial agents) are discussed. Those bird species of concern that occur in forested habitats in eastern Oregon and Washington, USA include the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), harlequin duck (Histrionicus histrionicus), upland sandpiper (Bartramia longicauda), northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), ferruginous hawk (Buteo regalis), and black rosy finch (Leucosticta arctoa). In addition, seven species of woodpeckers (Picoides albolarvatus, P. arcticus, P. tridactylus, Melanerpes lewis and Dryocopus pileatus) and nuthatches (Sitta pygmaea and S. carolinensis) were considered because of their rare status. Forest disturbances that create dead trees and logs are critical to cavity-nesting birds because the dead trees with their subsequent decay provide nesting and roosting habitat. The insects associated with outbreaks or dead trees provide prey for the woodpeckers and nuthatches. The loss of nest or roost trees as a result of disturbance could be detrimental to bald eagles, goshawks, or ferruginous hawks, while the loss of canopy cover could be detrimental to harlequin ducks and goshawks or to prey of some of the raptors. The more open canopies created by thinning may be beneficial to a species like the black rosy finch, yet detrimental to some woodpeckers due to a decrease in cover. Prescribed burning may be beneficial to those woodpeckers primarily associated with ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) stands and detrimental to other woodpeckers because of the loss of coarse woody debris. Removal of roads is likely to benefit most of these species because of the subsequent decrease in human activity. Recovery plans for bald eagles and peregrine falcons are available for managers to use in managing habitat for these species.

Carlson, Jason T.; Harmata, Alan R.; Restani, Marco. 2012. Environmental contaminants in nestling bald eagles produced in Montana and Wyoming. Journal of Raptor Research. 46(3): 274-282.

DeLap, Jack H.; Knight, Richard L. 2003. Response of an avian scavenging guild to construction activity. Natural Areas Journal 23(3): 274-277. 

Construction activities, on the increase across the United States, often occur either in or adjacent to protected areas. Managers require tools that allow for coexistence of sensitive species while the construction occurs. Buffering sensitive species through visual shielding or spatial distancing are two viable management responses. We examined the response of an avian scavenging guild to activities associated with dam construction along the North Fork of the Toutle River in southwestern Washington, USA. Specifically, we investigated the winter foraging ecology of three species: American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos C. L. Brehm), common raven (Corvus corax L.), and bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus L.) at feeding sites that were near and far, and visible and hidden, from the construction site. American crow tended to use the foraging sites close to and not visually shielded from construction activity. Common raven foraged in places that were close but hidden from the construction activity. Finally, bald eagle tended to use sites that were both farther away and hidden from construction activity.

Fletcher, Robert J.; McKinney, Shawn T.; Bock, Carl E. 1999. Effects of recreational trails on wintering diurnal raptors along riparian corridors in a colorado grassland. Journal of Raptor Research. 33(3): 233-239.

Different types of human activity may influence raptors in various ways, potentially affecting their abundance, distribution, habitat use and productivity We studied the effects of recreational trails on wintering raptor populations in grasslands of eastern Boulder County, Colorado, from December 1995-March 1996. We conducted strip transacts to survey raptor populations at six study sites. All sites consisted of short and/or tallgrass prairie, and all contained a riparian corridor. Three sites contained recreational trails running adjacent to the riparian corridor (trail), while three sites contained no trails (control). Species richness, abundance and perch use were compared between control and trail sites. Species richness was consistently greater in control sites. Abundance of total raptors observed was greater in control sites. Abundance of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) was greater in control sites, while abundance of Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) was similar for control and trail sites. Perching distances from riparian corridors were greater in trail sites than in control sites. In addition, raptors perched along riparian corridors more frequently in control sites. Results of this study suggest that recreational trails may have affected habitat selection of some raptor species in this grassland ecosystem.

Elliott, Kyle H.; Elliott, John E.; Wilson, Laurie K.; Jones, Iain; Stenerson, Ken. 2011. Density-dependence in the survival and reproduction of bald eagles: linkages to chum salmon. Journal of Wildlife Management. 75(8): 1688-1699.

Elliott, Kyle H., Cesh, Lillian S.; Dooley Jessica A.; Letcher; Elliot, John E. 2009. PCBs and DDE, but not PBDEs, increase with trophic level and marine input in nestling bald eagles. Science of the Total Environment. 407(12): 3867-3875.

Estes, James A.; Doak, Daniel F.; Springer, Alan M.; Williams, T.M. 2009. Causes and consequences of marine mammal population declines in southwest Alaska: A food-web perspective. Royal Society of London. Philosophical Transactions. Biological Sciences. 364(1524): 1647-1658.

Populations of sea otters, seals and sea lions have collapsed across much of southwest Alaska over the past several decades. The sea otter decline set off a trophic cascade in which the coastal marine ecosystem underwent a phase shift from kelp forests to deforested sea urchin barrens. This interaction in turn affected the distribution, abundance and productivity of numerous other species. Ecological consequences of the pinniped declines are largely unknown. Increased predation by transient (marine mammal-eating) killer whales probably caused the sea otter declines and may have caused the pinniped declines as well. Springer et al. proposed that killer whales, which purportedly fed extensively on great whales, expanded their diets to include a higher percentage of sea otters and pinnipeds following a sharp reduction in great whale numbers from post World War II industrial whaling. Critics of this hypothesis claim that great whales are not now and probably never were an important nutritional resource for killer whales. We used demographic/energetic analyses to evaluate whether or not a predator-prey system involving killer whales and the smaller marine mammals would be sustainable without some nutritional contribution from the great whales. Our results indicate that while such a system is possible, it could only exist under a narrow range of extreme conditions and is therefore highly unlikely.

Fraser, James D. 1983. The impact of human activities on bald eagle populations - a review.

In: Gerrard, J. M. and T. N. Ingram, eds. The bald eagle in Canada. White Horse Plains Publishers, Headingley, Manitoba. pp. 68-84. 

Fraser, James D.; Anthony, Robert B. 2008. Human disturbance and bald eagles. In: Wright, B. A,. and P. F. Schempf, eds. Bald Eagles in Alaska. Bald Eagle Research Institute. Bald Eagle Research Institute, University of Alaska Southeast. Juneau, AK. pp.306-314.

Fraser, James  D.; Frenzel, L.D.; Mathisen, John E. 1985. The impact of human activities on breeding bald eagles in north-central Minnesota.The Journal of wildlife management. 49(3):585-592. 

The impacts of human activities and eagle management practices on bald eagle (H. leucocephalus) nesting biology were studied on Chippewa National Forest in north-central Minnesota. Nests built on developed shoreline were farther from water than nest built on undeveloped shoreline (P < 0.05). Nests were farther from houses than random shoreline points (P < 0.02). Breeding eagles flushed at 57-991 m (.chi. = 476 m) at the approach of a pedestrian. A multiple regression model including number of previous disturbances, date, and time of day explained 82% of the variability in flush distance and predicted a maximum flush distance at the first disturbance of 503 m (SE = 131). Unsuccessful nests had no greater frequency of known human activity within 500 m than successful nests (P = 0.27). Fixed-wing aircraft passing 20-200 m from nests did not flush incubating or brooding eagles. Banding young in 1 yr did not reduce the probability of successful nesting the following year (P = 0.35). There was no evidence that, under current management policies, human activities have an important impact on bald eagle reproductive success on the Chippewa National Forest.  

Garrett, Monte G; Watson, James W.; Anthony, Robert G. 1993. Bald eagle home range and habitat use in the Columbia River estuary. Journal of Wildlife Management 57(1):19-27. 

Little information is available on how areas heavily impacted by humans affect habitat use and home range size of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). Thus, we studied home range and seasonal habitat use of bald eagles in the Columbia River estuary (CRE), Oregon and Washington, 1984-86. Aerial and boat surveys of the entire population and intensive observations of 9 breeding pairs were conducted. Most resident pairs were present near their nests year-round. Home range size of resident pairs averaged approximately 22 km super(2) for both breeding and nonbreeding periods, and ranged from 6 to 47 km super(2) among pairs. Areas of highest use within home ranges averaged < 0.5 km super(2) (range = 0.1-1.0 km super(2)), and their locations within home ranges varied between breeding and nonbreeding periods. Resident and nonresident migrant bald eagles in the CRE generally selected remnant stands of old-growth forest near the shoreline for nesting habitat, hunted from perches in mixed-mature conifers and bottomland hardwoods on river islands, and primarily used tidal flats as foraging habitat. We recommend a nesting region approach for managing bald eagles in large geographical areas heavily impacted by humans. This addresses the needs of a number of resident nesting pairs and transient wintering eagles, including the identification of high-use areas and key habitat features important to year-round populations.

Gende, Scott M.; Willson, Mary F.; Jacobson, Michael. 1997. Reproductive success of bald eagles (haliaeetus leucocephalus) and its association with habitat or landscape features and weather in southeast Alaska. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 75(10): 1595-1604.

Gende, Scott M.; Willson, Mary F.; Marston, B.H.; Jacobson, Mike; Smith, Douglas W. 1998. Bald eagle nesting density and success in relation to distance from clearcut logging in southeast Alaska. Biological Conservation. 83(2): 121-126. 

Gende, Scott M. 2008. Perspectives on the Breeding Biology of Bald Eagles in Southeast Alaska. In: Wright, B. A. and P. F. Schempf, eds. Bald Eagles in Alaska. pp.95-105. 

Giesy, John P., Bowerman, William W.; Mora, Miguel A.; Verbrugge, Lori A. 1995. Contaminants in fishes from great lakes-influenced sections and above dams of three michigan rivers: Iii. Implications for health of bald eagles. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 29(3): 309-321. 

Recently, there have been discussions of the relative merits of passage of fishes around hydroelectric dams on three rivers (Au Sable, Manistee, and Muskegon) in Michigan. A hazard assessment was conducted to determine the potential for adverse effects on bald eagles that could consume such fishes from above and below dams on the three primary rivers. The hazard assessments were verified by comparing the reproductive productivities of eagles nesting in areas where they ate primarily fish from either above or below dams on the three primary rivers, as well as on two additional rivers in Michigan, the Menominee and Thunder Bay. Concentrations of organochlorine insecticides (OCI), polychlorinated biphenyls (total PCBs), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ), and total mercury (Hg) were measured in composite samples of fishes from above and below hydroelectric dams on the Manistee and Muskegon Rivers, which flow into Lake Michigan, and the Au Sable River, which flows into Lake Huron. Mean concentrations of OCI, total PCBs, and TCDD-EQ were all greater in fishes from below the dams than in those from above. The hazard assessment indicated that current concentrations of Hg and OCI other than DDT (DDT + DDE + DDD) in fish from neither above nor below dams would present a significant hazard to bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). Both total PCBs and TCDD-EQ in fishes from below the dams currently present a significant hazard to bald eagles, since their mean hazard quotients (HQ) were all greater than one.

Grubb, Teryl 2004. Case study: Evolving research into effects of recreational activity on wildlife. In: Proceedings: The challenge of providing recreation opportunities while protecting ecosystems. Joint USDA Forest Service Southwestern Region/Urban National Forest Coalition Workshop. 2004. Tempe, AZ. p. 31-32. 

Grubb, Teryl G. 2003. Wintering bald eagle trends in northern Arizona, 1975-2000. Southwestern Naturalist. 48(2): 223-230.

Between 1975 and 2000, 4,525 sightings of wintering bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) were recorded at Mormon Lake in northern Arizona. Numbers of wintering eagles fluctuated little in the 20 years from 1975 through 1994 (5.5 ± 3.0 mean sightings per day). However, during the winters of 1995 through 1997 local record highs of 59 to 118 eagles increased mean sightings per day to 22.4 ± 9.6. This dramatic population increase led to a major change in social behavior favoring consistent communal roosting; maximum roost counts of 2 to 8 eagles scattered among 11 roosts in prior years shifted to maximums of 33 to 45 eagles regularly using 2 roosts during 1996 and 1997. Winter population averaged 58% adults and 42% immatures, but during 5 recent years of greatest numbers (=40 eagles in 1989, 1995 through 1997, and 2000), the proportion of immatures increased to 58%. Local increases in the wintering eagle population at Mormon Lake were largely attributable to this greater proportion of immature bald eagles. Both age classes peaked in February, with adults more abundant during October through December and immatures more abundant from January through April. Weekly maximum counts for 1995 through 1997 indicated changing weather and prey conditions resulted in annual variation in local numbers and habitat use of wintering bald eagles.

Grubb, Teryl G.; Delaney, David K.; Bowerman, William W.; Wierda, Michael R. 2010. Golden eagle indifference to heli-skiing and military helicopters in northern Utah. Journal of Wildlife Management. 74(6): 1275-1285.

Grubb, Teryl G.; Bowerman, William W.; Bath, Allen J.; Giesy, John P.; Weseloh, D. V. Chip 2003. Evaluating Great Lakes bald eagle nesting habitat with Bayesian inference. Res. Pap. RMRS-RP-45. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 10 p.

Bayesian inference facilitated structured interpretation of a nonreplicated, experience-based survey of potential nesting habitat for bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) along the five Great Lakes shorelines. We developed a pattern recognition (PATREC) model of our aerial search image with six habitat attributes: (a) tree cover, (b) proximity and (c) type/amount of human disturbance, (d) potential foraging habitat/shoreline irregularity, and suitable trees for (e) perching and (f) nesting. Tree cover greater than 10 percent, human disturbance more than 0.8 km away, a ratio of total to linear shoreline distance greater than 2.0, and suitable perch and nest trees were prerequisite for good eagle habitat (having sufficient physical attributes for bald eagle nesting). The estimated probability of good habitat was high (96 percent) when all attributes were optimal, and nonexistent (0 percent) when none of the model attributes were present. Of the 117 active bald eagle nests along the Great Lakes shorelines in 1992, 82 percent were in habitat classified as good. While our PATREC model provides a method for consistent interpretation of subjective surveyor experience, it also facilitates future management of bald eagle nesting habitat along Great Lakes shorelines by providing insight into the number, type, and relative importance of key habitat attributes. This practical application of Bayesian inference demonstrates the technique's advantages for effectively incorporating available expertise, detailing model development processes, enabling exploratory simulations, and facilitating long-term ecosystem monitoring.

Grubb, Teryl G.; Robinson, William L.; Bowerman, William W. 2002. Effects of watercraft on bald eagles nesting in Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota. Wildlife Society Bulletin. 30(1): 156-161. 

Some activities of humans near bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nests during the breeding season have been related to reduced nesting success. We evaluated effects of watercraft on nesting bald eagles in Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, by observing eagles attending 9 active nests in 1995 and 1996. In 515.8 hours of observation, 2,431 watercraft passed within 800 m of these nests. Eagles responded by showing alert posture or flying 115 times (7/8 or 3.2% alert; 37 or 1.5% flight) for a 4.7% response frequency. Frequency of response varied between 2.4 and 16.7%) among nesting pairs of eagles and showed a curvilinear (quadratic) relationship with mean number of watercraft per hour (r(2) =0.666, P = 0.037). We used a classification and regression tree model (CART) to explore and quantify conditions leading to bald eagle response, despite the species' low overall response rate. Our model indicated that distance was the most critical component of any potential watercraft disturbance, with responses decreasing at distances of <85 m (82%), 86-172 m (61%), 173-335 m (44%), and 336-800 m (31%). Duration (>90 sec), number of watercraft/event (>1), and time of day (before 1800 h) also affected eagle response rates beyond 85 m. Overall accuracy for our CART model was 0.65, indicating that response to watercraft will be predicted correctly 2 times out of 3. 

Grubb, Teryl G.; Bowerman, William W. 1997. Variations in breeding bald eagle response to jets, light planes and helicopters. Journal of Raptor Research. 31:213-222.

Guinn, Jeremy E. 2013. Generational habituation and current bald eagle populations. Human-Wildlife Interactions. 7(1): 69-76.

Hansen, Andrew J. 1987. Regulation of bald eagle reproductive rates in southeast Alaska. Ecology. 68(5): 1387-1392. 

The author examined the influence of food abundance and habitat quality on reproduction of Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the Chilkat Valley, Alaska. The proportion of active nests was greatest and the timing of laying earliest in portions of the study area where food was most abundant. The findings suggest that variable productivity and a surplus of nonbreeders are the norm in the region as a result of high variability of annual food supplies and strong intraspecific competition. The results further suggest that the decline of this species in other parts of North America was at least partially due to alteration of eagle food sources and habitats by humans.

Harvey, Chris J.; Moriarty, Pamela E.; Salathé Jr, Eric P. 2012. Modeling climate change impacts on overwintering bald eagles. Ecology and Evolution. 2(3): 501-514.

Jacobson, Michael J. 2008. The status of the Bald Eagle in Southeast Alaska. In: Wright, B. A. and P. F. Schempf, eds. Bald Eagles in Alaska. Bald Eagle Research Institute. Bald Eagle Research Institute, University of Alaska Southeast. Juneau, AK. pp.151-156.

Liguori, S. and J. Smith 2003. Addressing threats to raptor populations. Raptor Watch. 17(3): 6-12.

The authors discuss threats to raptor populations. Raptors, as top-predators, serve as barometers of overall environmental health. Potential threats to species can be identified through population monitoring. Habitat loss and degradation, human disturbance and persecution, pesticides and contaminants, electrocutions, and collisions with man-made structures are the biggest threats faced by raptors. Red-tailed hawks and great horned owls are able to adapt to landscapes fragmented by human activity since they occupy diverse habitats. Species such as ferruginous hawks are sensitive to disturbances from human activities. Nest surveys in northwest Utah were completed by the HWI to document the distribution, abundance, and productivity of six species of raptors. Illegal killing of raptors still continues despite federal protection. The misconception of raptors being a threat to livestock and gamebird population has led to this killing. Education and proper outreach could reduce persecution of raptors. Use of DDT has resulted in severe population declines of bird species, in particular, bald eagles and peregrine falcons. Monocrotophos was known to kill thousands of wintering swainson's hawks in Argentina. Awareness of the dangers of contamination to raptors and other wildlife has to be spread. Construction of new power lines, with safe standards and retrofitting, in raptor use areas could be helpful in minimizing the threat of electrocutions. Migrating birds navigate through a myriad of man-made structures. Hawks often collide with windows and buildings while chasing songbird prey. Birds collide with power lines when low light reduces visibility. A rapid increase of wind turbines in the United States has led to many birds colliding with these structures. Collision risks and potential conflicts need further research.

Mandernack, Brent A.; Solensky, Matthew; Martell, Mark; Schmitz, Ryan T. 2012. Satellite tracking of bald eagles in the upper Midwest. Journal of Raptor Research. 46(3): 258-273.

Martínez-Abraín, A.; Oro, Daniel.; Jimenez, Juan; Stewart Gavin; Pullin, Andrew. 2010. A systematic review of the effects of recreational activities on nesting birds of prey. Basic and Applied Ecology. 11(4): 312-319. 

Human disturbance to wildlife is a growing topic of concern owing to increasing human access to the countryside. Here we use systematic review methodology to specifically synthesize available information on the impact of recreational activities on raptor breeding parameters. Presently there is insufficient information to quantitatively meta-analyze this topic. The most frequent effect turned out to be decreased time for nest attendance but information on effects on breeding parameters was inconclusive. The only outcome susceptible to quantitative meta-analysis was the influence on nest location of a number of anthropic structures. Out of these we chose distance to the closest paved road, because it was the metric recorded in the largest number of studies, and because it can be taken as a surrogate of recreational access to the countryside. We detected an overall statistically significant impact on the displacement of nests from roads from a total of 25 studies, compared to random points in unoccupied areas suitable for breeding. The magnitude of the displacement was probably a biologically relevant magnitude (back-transformed ln&#xa0;response ratio 1.28; 1.07–1.57 bootstrap 95% CI). Importantly, statistical modelling of effect sizes as a function of raptor body size and nesting site substrate (tree nesting vs. cliff nesting) identified an effect of both nesting habitat and body size on nest placement by raptors in relation to roads. Big raptors nesting in trees exhibited greater displacement distances from nests to roads than big raptors nesting in cliffs, and hence we suggest that conservation efforts should take special attention to this vulnerable raptor group which includes some threatened species.

Martínez-Abraín, A.; Oro, Daniel.; Jimenez, Juan; Stewart Gavin; Pullin, Andrew. 2008. What are the impacts of human recreational activity on the distribution, nest-occupancy rates and reproductive success of breeding raptors? Systematic Review (27). 56p.

Mathisen, John E. 1968. Effects of human disturbance on nesting bald eagles. Journal of Wildlife Management 32(1): 1-6.

McGarigal, Kevin; Anthony, Robert G.; Isaacs, Frank B. 1991. Interactions of humans and bald eagles on the Columbia River, Washington and Oregon, USA estuary. Wildlife Monographs. (115): 5-47. 

McKay, Kelly J.; Stravers, John W.;  B.R. Conklin, U. Konig, S. Hawks, C.J. Kohrt, J.S. Lundh and G.V. Swenson. 2001. Potential human impacts on bald eagle reproductive success along the Upper Mississippi River. In: Hawkwatching in the Americas. Bildstein, K.L. and D. Klem, Jr., eds. Hawk Migration Association of North America, North Wales, PA. pp. 235-243.

Montopoli, George J.; Anderson, Donald A. 1991. A logistic model for the cumulative effects of human intervention on bald eagle habitat. The Journal of Wildlife Management. 55(2): 290-293. 

A logistic model based on conjoint analysis was developed to evaluate the cumulative effects of disturbance associated with river recreation on bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in their natural habitat. The model is currently in use by managers in the Bridger-Teton National Forest and Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming.

Mougeot, Francois; Gerrard, Jon; Dzus, Elston; Arroyo, Beatrice; Gerrard, P. Naomi; Dzus, Connie; Bortolotti, Gary. 2013. Population trends and reproduction of bald eagles at Besnard Lake, Saskatchewan, Canada 1968-2012. Journal of Raptor Research. 47(2): 96-107.

Newbrey, Jennifer L.; Bozek, Michael A.; Niemuth, Neal D. 2005. Effects of lake characteristics and human disturbance on the presence of piscivorous birds in northern Wisconsin, USA. Waterbirds. 28(4): 478-486. 

Despite current anthropogenic alterations to riparian areas and littoral zones of lakes, little information is available on how human-induced alterations affect lacustrine habitat use by many piscivorous birds in northern Wisconsin, USA. The influence of lake characteristics and human disturbance on species richness and the presence of seven species of piscivorous birds was determined on 98 lakes located primarily in Vilas and Oneida counties, Wisconsin. Lakes were surveyed for species presence using shoreline perimeter surveys with total searching time standardized to two, one-hour surveys per lake. Piscivorous bird species richness was highest on large lakes with high pH levels. Using logistic regression, many species were found to be present on lakes possessing characteristics associated with high abundances of fish, including lake surface area, pH, and water clarity. At least one of these variables was included in the final models for species richness and presence of the Common Merganser (Mergus merganser), Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias), and Ring-billed Gull (Larus delawarensis). Three species avoided lakes possessing characteristics associated with high levels of human disturbance; the Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) was not found on lakes with low percentages of macrophytes, the Common Merganser was absent on lakes with low water clarity, and the Common Loon (Gavia immer) was not present on lakes with many cottages. Many species of piscivorous birds were widespread regardless of the degree of human development, indicating that habituation to humans may have occurred. In addition, density-dependent factors may have precluded identification of optimal lake characteristics for some species due to habitat saturation.

Pagel, Joel E.; Kritz, Kevin J.; Millsap, Brian A.; Murphy, Robert; Kershner, Eric; Covington, Scott. 2013. Bald Eagle and Golden Eagle mortalities at wind energy facilities in the contiguous United States. Journal of Raptor Research. 47(3): 311-315.

Pandolrno, E. R.; Herzog, Mark P.; Hooper, S. L.; Smith, Z. 2011. Winter habitat associations of diurnal raptors in Californias Central Valley. Western Birds. 42(2): 62-84.

The wintering raptors of California's Central Valley are abundant and diverse. Despite this, little information exists on the habitats used by these birds in winter. We recorded diurnal raptors along 19 roadside survey routes throughout the Central Valley for three consecutive winters between 2007 and 2010. We obtained data sufficient to determine significant positive and negative habitat associations for the White-tailed Kite (Elanus leucurus), Bald Eagle {Haliaeetus leucocephalus), Northern Harrier (Circus cyaneus), Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis), Rough-legged Hawk (Buteo lagopus), American Kestrel (Falco sparverius), and Prairie Falcon (Falco mexicanus). The Prairie Falcon and Ferruginous and Rough-legged hawks showed expected strong positive associations with grasslands. The Bald Eagle and Northern Harrier were positively associated not only with wetlands but also with rice. The strongest positive association for the White-tailed Kite was with wetlands. The Red-tailed Hawk was positively associated with a variety of habitat types but most strongly with wetlands and rice. The American Kestrel, Northern Harrier, and White-tailed Kite were positively associated with alfalfa. Nearly all species were negatively associated with urbanized landscapes, orchards, and other intensive forms of agriculture. The White-tailed Kite, Northern Harrier, Redtailed Hawk, Ferruginous Hawk, and American Kestrel showed significant negative associations with oak savanna. Given the rapid conversion of the Central Valley to urban and intensive agricultural uses over the past few decades, these results have important implications for conservation of these wintering raptors in this region.

Redig, Patrick T.; Goyal, Sagar M. 2012. Serologic evidence of exposure of raptors to influenza a virus. Avian Diseases. 56(2): 411-413.

Richardson, Cary T.; Miller, Clinton K. 1997. Recommendations for protecting raptors from human disturbance: a review. Wildlife Society Bulletin. 25(3): 634-638.   

Schirato, Greg; Parson, Wendy. 2006. Bald eagle management in urbanizing habitat of Puget Sound, Washington. Northwestern Naturalist. 87(2): 138-142. 

Snyder, S. A. 1993. Haliaeetus leucocephalus. In: Fire Effects Information System.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,  Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).

Stalmaster, Mark V.; Kaiser, James L. 1998. Effects of recreational activity on wintering bald eagles. Wildlife Monographs. 137: 1-46.

Stalmaster, Mark V.; Kaiser, James L. 1997. Flushing responses of wintering bald eagles to military activity. Journal of Wildlife Management. 61(4): 1307-1313.  

We studied flushing responses of wintering bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) to military firing activity, helicopter overflights, and boating on the Nisqually River and Muck Creek on the Fort Lewis Army Reservation, Washington, during 1991-94. Eight percent of 1,452 eagles monitored near Muck Creek Bushed during 373 firing events; 45% from ordnance explosions, 9% from automatic weapons fire, 6% from artillery impacts, 4% from mortar impacts, and 3% from small arms fire. Flushing by eagles decreased with increasing distance from firing events (16% flushed at 0.5-1.0 km, 9% at 1-2 km, 4% at 2-4 km, and < 1% at 4-6 km). Forty-seven percent of 919 eagles Bushed in response to 48 helicopter overflights, 37% on the Nisqually River and 53% on Muck Creek. Sixty-one percent of 1,825 eagles Bushed in response to 52 experimental boat disturbances on the Nisqually River. Subadults Bushed more often than adults, and eagles feeding or standing on the ground flushed more often than those perching in trees. Our data suggest that ordnance explosions, low-level helicopter overflights, and boating should be restricted near eagle foraging areas.

Steidl, Robert J.; Anthony, Robert G. 2000. Experimental effects of human activity on breeding bald eagles. Ecological Applications. 10(1): 258-268.  

To assess the consequences of increased recreational activity in wilderness areas, we studied the effects of human activity on breeding behavior of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in interior Alaska. Activity budgets of breeding eagles changed considerably when humans were camped fur 24 h at a distance of 100 m from nests (treatment) compared to when they were camped 500 m from nests (control) (P = 0.0036). With humans near nests, adult eagles decreased the time they preened (percentage change from control to treatment = -53%), slept (-56%), maintained nests (-50%), and fed themselves and their nestlings (-30%) and increased the time they brooded nestlings (+14%). Further, overall activity (total number of behaviors performed by adults at nests per day) decreased by 27% with humans near nests, as did the amount of prey adults consumed (-26%) and fed to nestlings (-29%). In contrast, nest attendance did not change with humans near nests (percentage change = 0.3%, P = 0.9); however, the time adults were absent from the nest area (greater than or equal to 200 m from nests) increased by 24% with humans near nests (P = 0.013). Throughout 24-h treatments, eagle responses to nearby humans diminished, suggesting that eagles habituated to the disturbance. During the last 4 h of treatment, however, adults still vocalized twice as frequently as controls, indicating continued agitation. Human activity near nests caused clear and consistent changes in behaviors of breeding eagles, suggesting that frequent human activities near nests could adversely affect nestling survival, and therefore reproductive success.

Steidl, Robert J.; Anthony, Robert G. 1996. Responses of bald eagles to human activity during the summer in interior Alaska. Ecological Applications. 6(2): 482-491.  

Along narrow rivers, spatial restriction of human use based on wildlife responses can effectively eliminate the entire river corridor from human use. Therefore, if river use by both wildlife and humans is a goal, an alternative management strategy is necessary. We measured flush response rate and flush distance of breeding and nonbreeding Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) to recreational boating along the Gulkana River in interior Alaska from 1989 to 1992. Eagle responses to our nonmotorized boat were governed by the context within which human-eagle encounters occurred. Flush response rate of nonbreeding eagles decreased as perch height and its distance from the river's edge increased, increased as the season progressed and as eagle group size increased, was lower for juveniles (20%) than other age classes (49-65%), and varied with the existing level of human activity in geographic location (P < 0.001 for all parameters). Flush distance of nonbreeding eagles increased as the distance a disturbance was first visible to a perched eagle increased, as perch height and its distance from the river's edge increased, and as the season progressed. In contrast to flush response, flush distance was strongly associated with age and was greatest for adults, least for juveniles, and intermediate for subadults. Breeding adults were much less likely to flush than nonbreeding adults, and flushed at lesser distances. We recommend that along narrow wilderness rivers, the impacts of human activity on Bald Eagle populations be regulated with temporal, rather than spatial, restrictions.

Thompson, Craig M.; Nye, Peter E.; Schmidt, Gregory A.; Garcelon, David K. 2005. Foraging ecology of bald eagles in a freshwater tidal system. Journal of Wildlife Management. 69(2): 609-617. 

We studied the summer foraging ecology of resident and migrant bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) along the lower Hudson River, New York, from 1998 to 2001. In this area the Hudson is a freshwater tidal river with 1- to 2-m tidal ranges. Eagles foraged most often in the open channel (35%), where success was lowest (68% capture rate). When compared to landscape availability, eagles foraged in tidal mudflats devoid of aquatic vegetation more often than expected, and they avoided areas of deep water (> 3 in). Eagles foraged more often during ebb tides with foraging activity peaking just before low tide. Eagles avoided areas of high human activity but also preferentially selected areas of low to moderate activity. Fish were the most important source of food and comprised 91% of prey identified. Over 50% of the observed prey captures consisted of 3 species: American eel (Anguilla rastrata), gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum), and white catfish (Ictalurus catus). Our data indicate that unvegetated tidal mudflats; that were isolated from intensive human activity provided the highest quality foraging habitat. Future loss of tidal mudflats through exotic plant invasions or shoreline development may limit eagle foraging opportunities and population growth.

Watson, James W. 2004. Responses of nesting Bald Eagles to experimental pedestrian activity.

The Journal of Raptor Research, 38(4), 295-303. 

Watson, James W.; Pierce, D. John; Cunningham, Brenda C. 1999. An active bald eagle nest associated with unusually close human activity. Northwestern Naturalist. 80(2): 71-74. 

Watson, James W. 1993. Responses of nesting bald eagles to helicopter surveys. Wildlife Society Bulletin. 21(2): 171-178. 

Watts, Bryan D.; Therres, Glen D.; Byrd, Mitchell A. 2008. Recovery of the Chesapeake Bay bald eagle nesting population. Journal of Wildlife Management. 72(1): 152-158.

We conducted annual aerial surveys throughout the tidal reach of the Chesapeake Bay, USA, between 1977 and 2001 to estimate population size and reproductive performance for bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). The population increased exponentially from 73 to 601 pairs with an average doubling time of 8.2 years. Annual population increase was highly variable and exhibited no indication of any systematic decline. A total of 7,590 chicks were produced from 5,685 breeding attempts during this period. The population has exhibited tremendous forward momentum such that >50% of young produced over the 25-year period were produced in the last 6 years. Rapid population growth may reflect the combined benefits of eliminating persistent biocides and active territory, management. Reproductive rate along with associated success rate and average brood size increased throughout the study period. Average reproductive rate (chicks/breeding attempt) increased from 0.82 during the first 5 years of the survey, to 1.50 during the last 5 years. Average success rate increased from 54.4% to >80.0% during the same time periods. The overall population will likely reach saturation within the next decade. The availability of undeveloped waterfront property has become the dominant limiting factor for bald eagles in the Chesapeake Bay. Maintaining the eagle population in the face of a rapidly expanding human population will continue to be the greatest challenge faced by wildlife biologists.

Weech, Shari A.; Scheuhammer, Anton M.; Elliott, John E. 2006. Mercury exposure and reproduction in fish-eating birds breeding in the Pinchi Lake region, British Columbia, Canada. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 25(5): 1433-1440.  

To determine whether Hg from geologic/mining-related sources at Pinchi Lake (BC, Canada) was causing elevated Hg exposure and/or adversely affecting reproduction in fish-eating birds, breeding bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) on Pinchi Lake and four nearby reference lakes were sampled for blood and feather Hg concentrations and monitored for reproductive success during the summers of 2000, 2001, and 2002. Eggs of red-necked grebes (Podiceps grisgena) also were collected and analyzed. Mercury levels in species at various trophic levels from Pinchi Lake averaged approximately twice those in the same species from nearby lakes combined, even in the absence of substantial new inputs of Hg to Pinchi Lake over several decades. In Pinchi Lake, Hg concentrations in blood and feathers of eagles and eggs of grebes were significantly higher than those in corresponding samples from reference lakes. However, the mean Hg concentration (0.25 mu g/g wet wt) in grebe eggs from Pinchi Lake was substantially lower than accepted threshold levels for reproductive toxicity in most avian species (0.5-1.0 mu g/g wet wt). Mercury concentrations in the blood of adult eagles and their chicks were highly correlated (r = 0.91, p = 0.004). Despite elevated Hg exposure in adult eagles nesting on Pinchi Lake (blood Hg concentration, 4.3-9.4 mu g/ml), birds appeared to be in good body condition, did not differ significantly in terms of weight from eagles nesting on reference takes, and exhibited no evidence of obvious abnormal behavior or lack of coordination. Eagle reproductive success and productivity on Pinchi Lake were not significantly different from those on all reference lakes combined (p = 0.483).

Whitney, Suzanne E. 2008. The effects of habitat alteration and human disturbance on nesting bald eagles in South Carolina. College of Charleston. Thesis. Charleston, GA.

Since European colonization of North America, bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) populations had been degraded by a variety of anthropogenic factors that reduced their populations to a fraction of historic numbers. Protection under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and the banning of DDT has helped bald eagles make a strong comeback. The bald eagle was delisted under the ESA in June of 2007, but still receives protection under the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act. These regulations are less stringent than the ESA, specifically in regards to habitat protection. This study documents some of the effects human disturbance and habitat alteration have on bald eagle nesting success in South Carolina. Historical nesting data collected over 31 nesting seasons was compared to levels of development documented in nesting sites. Factors examined included the distance from a nest site to the nearest road or structure and the intensity, proximity, and duration of various human disturbances to the nest. This included disturbance from housing, transportation, construction and recreation. Development near nest sites was not found to have a significant impact on mean chick productivity or the percentage of nests that successfully reproduced. Additionally, no specific type of disturbance or development was found to be a good predictor of nesting success using regression models.

Wright, Sandra E. 2007. Bald Eagles: a threatened species becomes a threat to aviation.

Presented at Bird Strike Committee-USA/Canada, Kingston, Ontario Canada, 10-13 Sep 2007.

Wright, Bruce  A.; Schempf, Phil F., eds. 2008. Bald Eagles in Alaska. Bald Eagle Research

Institute, University of Alaska Southeast. Juneau, AK.

99801. 

Yates, Richard E.; McClelland, B. Reilly; Key, Carl H. Graphic depiction of bald eagle habitat use patterns. In: Wright, B. A,. and P. F. Schempf, eds. Bald Eagles in Alaska. Bald Eagle Research

Institute, University of Alaska Southeast. Juneau, AK. Pp. 376-387.

Alaska Department of Natural Resources. 2002. Chilkat Bald Eagle Preserve management plan. Anchorage, AK.  http://dnr.alaska.gov/parks/plans/eaglpln/eaglepln.htm;

http://dnr.alaska.gov/parks/plans/eaglpln/cbepcomplete.pdf

Federal Register. 2007. Protection of Eagles; Definition of “Disturb.” Volume 72, No. 107, 50 CFR, Part 22. Department of the Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Washington, D.C.

http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2007-06-05/pdf/07-2694.pdf

US Fish & Wildlife Service

The Effects of Noise on Wildlife

http://www.fws.gov/windenergy/docs/Noise.pdf

US Fish & Wildlife Service

Draft Eagle Conservation Plan Guidance, January 2011

http://www.fws.gov/windenergy/eagle_guidance.html

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  February 2006.

[Draft] National Bald Eagle Management Guidelines, February 2006.

http://www.fs.fed.us/r1/clearwater/terra_org/wildlife_07/t_e/bald_eagle/National_%20Bald_Eagle_Management_Guidleines.pdf  (Accessed August 25, 2011)

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2007. National bald eagle management guidelines. Department of Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Washington, D.C., USA.

http://www.fws.gov/pacific/eagle/NationalBaldEagleManagementGuidelines.pdf

Except where noted, definitions are taken from §219.19 "Definitions" of the 2012 Planning Rule.

Focal Species

A small subset of species whose status permits inference to the integrity of the larger ecological system to which it belongs and provides meaningful information regarding the effectiveness of the plan in maintaining or restoring the ecological conditions to maintain the diversity of plant and animal communities in the plan area. Focal species would be commonly selected on the basis of their functional role in ecosystems.

Native Species

An organism that was historically or is present in a particular ecosystem as a result of natural migratory or evolutionary processes; and not as a result of an accidental or deliberate introduction into that ecosystem. An organism's presence and evolution (adaptation) in an area are determined by climate, soil, and other biotic and abiotic factors.

Plant and animal community

A naturally occurring assemblage of plant and animal species living within a defined area or habitat.

Recovery

For the purposes of this subpart, and with respect to threatened or endangered species: The improvement in the status of a listed species to the point at which listing as federally endangered or threatened is no longer appropriate.

Viable population

A population of a species that continues to persist over the long term with sufficient distribution to be resilient and adaptable to stressors and likely future environments.

Species of conservation concern (§219.9(c))

For purposes of this subpart, a species of conservation concern is a species, other than federally recognized threatened, endangered, proposed, or candidate species, that is known to occur in the plan area and for which the regional forester has determined that the best available scientific information indicates substantial concern about the species' capability to persist over the long-term in the plan area.