RMRS Program Areas
Sharlene E. Sing
1648 South 7th Avenue, MSU Campus
Bozeman, MT 59717-2780
Contact Sharlene E. Sing
I am involved in a range of collaborative studies with the overall objective of assessing and improving the efficacy and safety of classical weed biological control. One of my ongoing studies to further understand shortfalls in realized biological control of exotic toadflax will determine if toadflax biocontrol agents exhibit differential responses to yellow x Dalmatian toadflax hybrids vs. either of the parental toadflax species. The recently confirmed hybridization of these exotic weeds under field conditions potentially affects agents both behaviorally (in terms of host location and acceptance) and biologically (in terms of reproductive success). I am developing a host plant test list and participating in host selectivity testing with members of the North American Toadflax Consortium to identify and gain approval for the release of one or more new yellow toadflax biocontrol agents. Much of my research is undertaken to parameterize comparative ecological risk assessments for selecting optimally safe and effective invasive weed management strategies. I am also involved in long-term monitoring projects, including ecological and biocontrol studies on saltcedar, and evaluating the potential for integrating herbicide treatments and biological control of Dalmation toadflax on prescribed burn treated rangeland. New studies will focus on potential effects of climate change on weed biocontrol efficacy, identifying and evaluating biocontrol agents for Russian olive and oxeye daisy, and surveying and evaluating the ecological impacts of aquatic weeds to assess their potential as classical biological control targets.
Insect-plant interactions influencing and influenced by invasive species is the common theme running through my research.
Classical weed biological control can be a cost-effective, sustainable and ecologically sound way to manage exotic invasive weeds. Unqualified weed biocontrol success stories are, however, altogether too rare. Developing, using and teaching methods for quantitatively evaluating the impact of biocontrol treatments will increase the documentation of successful releases when it does occur, and will satisfy currently unmet planning needs. Post-release monitoring is ethically critical to ensuring accountable management of public lands and resources; monitoring is truly the only way to detect negative outcomes such as treatment failures and shortfalls, and nontarget impacts. Coordinating and participating in the search for and testing of new weed biocontrol agents based on stakeholder needs will increase weed biocontrol implementation. Basic research focused on insect-plant interactions will continue to improve the safety of this management tool, and identify biological and ecological impediments when control shortfalls occur.
Why This Research is Important
1. Co-investigator on a collaborative project confirming naturally-occuring hybridization of yellow and Dalmatian toadflax; many ongoing and planned studies have built on this discovery. 2. Ecological risk assessment: collaborator on a number of studies that will be used for evaluating risks associated with invasive weeds and management approaches for those weeds. 3. Co-author of several technology transfer publications on the management or biological control of specific weeds: yellow toadflax, Dalmatian toadflax, houndstongue, tansy ragwort, and saltcedar.
- Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, BA English, 1984
- McGill University, Montreal, QC, MSc Natural Resource Sciences -Entomology, 1997
- Montana State University, Bozeman, MT, Ph.D. Land Resources and Environmental Sciences (Agroecology), 2002
Featured Publications & Products
- Schat, Marjolein; Sing, Sharlene E.; Peterson, Robert K. D.; Menalled, Fabian D.; Weaver, David K. 2011. Growth inhibition of Dalmatian toadflax, Linaria dalmatica (L.) Miller, in response to herbivory by the biological control agent Meeinus janthinus Germar.
- Sing, Sharlene E.; Peterson, Robert K. D. 2011. Assessing environmental risks for established invasive weeds: Dalmatian (Linaria dalmatica) and yellow (L. vulgaris) toadflax in North America.
- Sherman, J. D.; Weaver, D. K.; Hofland, M. L.; Sing, S. E.; Buteler, M.; Lanning, S. P.; Naruoka, Y.; Crutcher, F.; Blake, N. K.; Martin, J. M.; Lamb, P. F.; Carlson, G. R.; Talbert, L. E. 2010. Identification of novel QTL for sawfly resistance in wheat.
- Ward, Sarah M.; Fleischmann, Caren E.; Turner, Marie F.; Sing, Sharlene E. 2009. Hybridization between invasive populations of Dalmatian toadflax (Linaria dalmatica) and yellow toadflax (Linaria vulgaris).
- Jacobs, Jim; Sing, Sharlene. 2009. Ecology and management of tansy ragwort (Senecio jacobaea L.).
Publications & Products
- Gassmann, Andre; De Clerck-Floate, Rosemarie; Sing, Sharlene; Tosevski, Ivo; Mitrovic, Milana; Krstic, Olivier. 2014. Biology and host specificity of Rhinusa pilosa, a recommended biological control agent of Linaria vulgaris.
- Matonis, Megan; Sing, Sharlene E.; Ward, Sarah; Turner, Marie F. S.; Weaver, David; Tosevski, Ivo; Gassmann, Andre; Bouchard, Patrice. 2014. Toadflax stem miners and gallers: The original weed whackers.
- Sing, S. E.; Weaver, D. K.; Ward, S. M.; Milan, J.; Jorgensen, C. L.; Progar, R. A.; Gassmann, A.; Tooevski, I. 2013. Hybrid weeds! Agent biotypes!: Montana's ever-evolving toadflax biological control soap opera.
- Wu, Yun; Johnson, Tracy; Sing, Sharlene; Raghu, S.; Wheeler, Greg; Pratt, Paul; Warner, Keith; Center, Ted; Goolsby, John; Reardon, Richard. 2013. Proceedings of the XIII International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds; September 11-16, 2011; Waikoloa, Hawaii, USA.
- Delaney, K.; Espeland, E.; Norton, A.; Sing, S.; Keever, K.; Baker, J. L.; Cristofaro, M.; Jashenko, R.; Gaskin, J.; Schaffner, U. 2013. Russian olive - a suitable target for classical biological control in North America? In: Wu, Yun; Johnson, Tracy; Sing, Sharlene; Raghu, S.; Wheeler, Greg; Pratt, Paul; Warner, Keith; Center, Ted; Goolsby, John; Reardon, Richard, eds.
- Andreas, J.; Wax, T.; Coombs, E.; Gaskin, J.; Markin, G.; Sing, S. 2013. The Scotch Broom gall mite: Accidental introduction to classical biological control agent?.
- Runyon, Justin B.; Butler, Jack L.; Friggens, Megan M.; Meyer, Susan E.; Sing, Sharlene E. 2012. Invasive species and climate change (Chapter 7).
- Jacobs, Jim; Sing, Sharlene. 2008. Ecology and management of diffuse knapweed (Centaurea diffusa Lam.).
- Sing, Sharlene; Weaver, D. K.; Nowierski, R. M.; Markin, G. P. 2008. Long-term field evaluation of Mecinus janthinus releases against Dalmatian toadflax in Montana (USA).
- Sing, Sharlene E.; Arbogast, Richard T. 2008. Optimal Xylocoris flavipes (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) density and time of introduction for suppression of bruchid progeny in stored legumes.
- Sing, Sharlene E.; Arbogast, Richard T. 2008. Predatory response of Xylocoris flavipes to bruchid pests of stored food legumes.
- Dinkins, Courtney L. Pariera; Brumfield, Sue K.; Peterson, Robert K. D.; Grey, William E.; Sing, Sharlene E. 2007. Dalmatian toadflax (Linaria dalmatica): New host for cucumber mosaic virus.
- Jacobs, Jim; Sing, Sharlene. 2007. Ecology and management of houndstongue (Cynoglossum officinale L.).
- Jacobs, Jim; Sing, Sharlene. 2007. Ecology and management of saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima, T. chinensis and T. ramosissima x T. chinensis hybrids).
- Schat, Marjolein; Sing, Sharlene E.; Peterson, Robert K. D. 2007. External rostral characters for differentiation of sexes in the biological control agent Mecinus janthinus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).
- Sing, Sharlene E.; Peterson, Robert K. D.; Maxwell, Bruce D. 2007. Invasive species management: Ensuring the 'cure' is not worse than the condition.
- Peterson, Bob; Sing, Sharlene. 2007. Releasing biocontrol agents: Risk assessment and overdue reform.
- Jacobs, Jim; Sing, Sharlene. 2006. Ecology and management of Dalmatian toadflax (Linaria dalmatica (L.) Mill.).
- Jacobs, Jim; Sing, Sharlene. 2006. Ecology and management of yellow toadflax [Linaria vulgaris (L.) Mill.].
- Jacobs, James S.; Sing, Sharlene E.; Martin, John M. 2006. Influence of herbivory and competition on invasive weed fitness: Observed effects of Cyphocleonus achates (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and grass-seeding treatments on spotted knapweed performance.
- Sing, Sharlene E.; Peterson, Robert K. D.; Weaver, David K.; Hansen, Richard W.; Markin, George P. 2005. A retrospective analysis of known and potential risks associated with exotic toadflax-feeding insects.
- Wilson, Linda M.; Sing, Sharlene E.; Piper, Gary L.; Hansen, Richard W.; De Clerck-Floate, Rosemarie; MacKinnon, Daniel K.; Randall, Carol Bell. 2005. Biology and biological control of Dalmatian and yellow toadflax.
- Peterson, Robert K. D.; Sing, Sharlene E.; Weaver, David K. 2005. Differential physiological responses of dalmatian toadflax, Linaria dalmatica L. Miller, to injury from two insect biological control agents: Implications for decision-making in biological control.
- Weaver, David K.; Nansen, Christian; Runyon, Justin B.; Sing, Sharlene E.; Morrill, Wendell L. 2005. Spatial distributions of Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae) and its braconid parasitoids in Montana wheat fields.
- Nansen, Christian; Weaver, David K.; Sing, Sharlene E.; Runyon, Justin B.; Morrill, Wendell L.; Grieshop, Matthew J.; Shannon, Courtney L.; Johnson, Megan L. 2005. Within-field spatial distribution of Cephus cinctus (Hymenoptera: Cephidae) larvae in Montana wheat fields.
- Sing, Sharlene E. 1997. Suppression of bruchids infesting stored grain legumes with the predatory bug Xylocoris flavipes (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae).
- Weaver, David K.; Wells, Carl D.; Dunkel, Florence V.; Bertsch, Wolfgang; Sing, Sharlene E.; Sriharan, Shobha. 1994. Insecticidal activity of floral, foliar, and root extracts of Tagetes minuta (Asterales: Asteraceae) against adult mexican bean weevils (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).