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Ecology and management of yellow toadflax [Linaria vulgaris (L.) Mill.]

Jacobs, Jim; Sing, Sharlene. 2006. Ecology and management of yellow toadflax [Linaria vulgaris (L.) Mill.]. Invasive Species Technical Note No. MT-6. Bozeman, MT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. 9 p.

Yellow toadflax is a short-lived perennial herb native to the steppes of southeastern Europe and southwestern Asia (Eurasia). This species spreads by both seeds and vegetative buds on its roots and creeping rhizomes (see Figure 1). Yellow toadflax was intentionally introduced in North America but has escaped cultivation as an ornamental, a source of fabric dye, and as a folk remedy to become an opportunistic invader associated with natural and anthropogenic disturbances throughout the continental United States, in all Canadian provinces and territories, and in parts of Mexico. In Montana, yellow toadflax was first reported in Flathead County in 1899 and by 2006 was reported from 32 Montana counties, mostly west of the continental divide ( Yellow toadflax is typically found on sites with higher moisture resources than those supporting Dalmatian toadflax infestations. Despite being designated a Montana noxious weed, it is still sold as an ornamental by nurseries and seed companies under the common name "butter-and-eggs."

Keywords: yellow toadflax, Linaria vulgaris

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Title: RMRS Other Publications: Ecology and management of yellow toadflax [Linaria vulgaris (L.) Mill.]
Electronic Publish Date: October 3, 2011
Last Update:
October 3, 2011

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