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Dwarf mistletoes: Biology, pathology, and systematics


Hawksworth, Frank G.; Wiens, Delbert. 1996. Dwarf mistletoes: Biology, pathology, and systematics. Agricultural Handbook 709. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service. 410 p.

Arceuthobium (dwarf mistletoes), a well defined but morphologically reduced genus of the family Viscaceae, is parasitic on Pinaceae in the Old and New Worlds and on Cupressaceae in the Old World. Although conifer forests in many parts of the Northern Hemisphere are infested with dwarf mistletoes, those most commonly infested are in western North America and Mexico. In North America, Arceuthobium ranges from central Canada and southeastern Alaska to Honduras. Only A. pusillum occurs in eastern North America, and only A. juniperi-procerae is found in the Southern Hemisphere. Arceuthobium bicarinatum and A. azoricum are restricted to islands (Hispaniola and the Azores, respectively).

In this taxonomic revision, the 46 recognized taxa comprise 42 species - 4 with 2 subspecies each, and 1 with 2 formae speciales. Eight species are known in the Old World and thirty-four species occur in the New. Natural hybridization and polyploidy are unknown and have resulted in a relatively clear, dendritic line of evolution. The genus is probably of early Tertiary origin and its closest relative is the genus Notothixos, which has tropical Asian and Australasian distribution. Arceuthobium presumably migrated to the New World before the Miocene Epoch. Intensive adaptive radiation occurred into the Pinacea. Some of the species of Abies, Picea, Tsuga, Larix, and Pseudotsuga and 95% of the species of Pinus are parasitized.

Keywords: Dwarf Mistletoe, Arceuthobium, morphological characteristics


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http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs_other/rmrs_1996_hawksworth_f001.pdf

PDF File Size: 60.2 MB

Also available in HTML format: http://www.rms.nau.edu/publications/ah_709/

Download AH 709 by Chapters

Front Work (Front Cover, In Memory, Dedication, Preface, Abstract, Disclaimers, Acknowledgments)
PDF File Size: 1.2 MB

Contents
PDF File Size: 235 K

Chapter 1-Introduction
PDF File Size: 525 K

Chapter 2-Generalized Life Cycle
PDF File Size: 1.4 MB

Chapter 3-Sexual Reproductive Biology
PDF File Size: 1.7 MB

Chapter 4-Mechanism and Trends of Evolution
PDF File Size: 455 K

Chapter 5-Biogeography and Paleogeographic History
PDF File Size: 1.4 MB

Chapter 6-Host Relationships
PDF File Size: 1.4 MB

Chapter 7-Ecological Relationships
PDF File Size: 710 K

Chapter 8-Biotic Associates
Frank G. Hawksworth and Brian W Geils
PDF File Size: 1.7 MB

Chapter 9-Host-Parasite Physiology
PDF File Size: 410 K

Chapter 10-Anatomy of the Dwarf Mistletoe Shoot System
Carol A. Wilson and Clyde L. Calvin
PDF File Size: 9.6 MB

Chapter 11-Endophytic System
Clyde L. Calvin and Carol A. Wilson
PDF File Size: 3.2 MB

Chapter 12-Pathogenic Effects
PDF File Size: 895 K

Chapter 13-Control
PDF File Size: 765 K

Chapter 14-Systematics: Philosophy, Problems, and Criteria for Classification
PDF File Size: 1.9 MB

Chapter 15-Molecular Systematics
Daniel L. Nickrent
PDF File Size: 2.8 MB

Chapter 16-Formal Taxonomy
PDF File Size: 16.2 MB

Chapter 17-Summary
PDF File Size: 185 K


Title: RMRS Other Publications: Dwarf mistletoes: Biology, pathology, and systematics
Electronic Publish Date: February 25, 2010
Last Update:
June 3, 2010

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