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RMRS-P-63: The future of high-elevation, five-needle white pines in Western North America: Proceedings of the High Five Symposium

Keane, Robert E.; Tomback, Diana F.; Murray, Michael P.; and Smith, Cyndi M., eds. 2011. The future of high-elevation, five-needle white pines in Western North America: Proceedings of the High Five Symposium. 28-30 June 2010; Missoula, MT. Proceedings RMRS-P-63. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 376 p. Online at

High elevation five-needle pines are rapidly declining throughout North America. The six species, whitebark (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.), limber (P. flexilis James), southwestern white (P. strobiformis Engelm.), foxtail (P. balfouriana Grev. & Balf.), Great Basin bristlecone (P. longaeva D.K. Bailey), and Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (P. aristata Engelm.), have limited timber value but are of great ecological and symbolic importance to both the U.S. and Canadian West. A comprehensive International symposium, called the High Five symposium, was held June 28-30, 2010, in Missoula, Montana to: (1) bring together scientists, managers, and concerned citizens to exchange information on the ecology, threats, and management of these pines; (2) learn about the threats and current status of pine populations; (3) describe efforts to mitigate threats through restoration techniques and action plans; and, (4) build a foundation for the synthesis of research efforts and management approaches. These proceedings present reports of some of the presentations given at the conference in the form of abstracts, extended abstracts, papers, and plenary papers in the areas of ecology, disturbance dynamics, genetics, climate change, and restoration techniques.

Keywords: high elevation five-needle pines, threats, whitebark, Pinus albicaulis, limber, Pinus flexilis, southwestern white, Pinus strobiformis, foxtail, Pinus balfouriana, Great Basin bristlecone, Pinus longaeva, Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine, Pinus aristata

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Plenary Paper: The Magnificent High-Elevation Five-Needle White Pines: Ecological Roles and Future Outlook
Diana F. Tomback, Peter Achuff, Anna W. Schoettle, John W. Schwandt, Ron J. Mastrogiuseppe
PDF File Size: 2.3 MB


Synthesis of Lower Treeline Limber Pine (Pinus flexilis) Woodland Knowledge, Research Needs, and Management Considerations
Robert E. Means
PDF File Size: 985 K

Native Ectomycorrhizal Fungi of Limber and Whitebark Pine: Necessary for Forest Sustainability?
Cathy L. Cripps, Robert K. Antibus
PDF File Size: 880 K

Extended Abstracts

The Relationship Between Whitebark Pine Health, Cone Production, and Nutcracker Occurrence Across Four National Parks
Lauren E. Barringer, Diana F. Tomback, Michael B. Wunder
PDF File Size: 165 K

Monitoring Limber Pine Health in the Rocky Mountains and North Dakota
Kelly Burns, Jim Blodgett, Marcus Jackson, Brian Howell, William Jacobi, Anna Schoettle, Anne Marie Casper, Jennifer Klutsch
PDF File Size: 600 K

Long-Term Monitoring of High-Elevation White Pine Communities in Pacific West Region National Parks
Shawn T. McKinney, Tom Rodhouse, Les Chow, Penelope Latham, Daniel Sarr, Lisa Garrett, Linda Mutch
PDF File Size: 440 K

Altered Species Interactions and Implications for Natural Regeneration in Whitebark Pine Communities
Shawn T. McKinney, Diana F. Tomback, Carl E. Fiedler
PDF File Size: - K

Determining Clark's Nutcracker Use of Whitebark Pine Communities in Regard to Stand Health in Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park
Jennifer D. Scott, Diana F. Tomback, Michael B. Wunder
PDF File Size: 165 K

Limber Pine Health in the Canadian Rockies
Cyndi M. Smith, David Langor, Colin Myrholm, Jim Weber, Cameron Gillies, Jon Stuart-Smith
PDF File Size: 250 K

Regeneration and Survival of Whitebark Pine After the 1988 Yellowstone Fires
Diana F. Tomback, Anna W. Schoettle, Mario J. Perez, Kristen M. Grompone, Sabine Mellmann-Brown
PDF File Size: 175 K

Seed Dispersal in Limber and Southwestern White Pine: Comparing Core and Peripheral Populations
Diana F. Tomback, Sheridan Samano, Elizabeth L. Pruett, Anna W. Schoettle
PDF File Size: 200 K

Sugar Pine Seed Harvest by Clark's Nutcracker: Annual Use of a Transient Resource in Crater Lake National Park, Oregon
Taylor J. Turner, Diana F. Tomback, Bradley Van Anderson, Michael Murray
PDF File Size: 170 K


Pre-Dispersal Seed Predator Dynamics at the Northern Limits of Limber Pine Distribution
Vernon S. Peters
PDF File Size: 160 K

Clark's Nutcracker Demography and Habitat Use in Bridger-Teton National Forest-Preliminary Analyses
Taza Schaming
PDF File Size: 160 K

Mountain Pine Beetle Dynamics

Plenary Paper: Mountain Pine Beetle in High-Elevation Five-Needle White Pine Ecosystems
Barbara Bentz, Elizabeth Campbell, Ken Gibson, Sandra Kegley, Jesse Logan, Diana Six
PDF File Size: 440 K

Extended Abstracts

Health of Whitebark Pine Forests After Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreaks
Sandra Kegley, John Schwandt, Ken Gibson, Dana Perkins
PDF File Size: 1.8 MB

Protecting Whitebark Pines Through a Mountain Pine Beetle Epidemic With Verbenone-Is It Working?
Dana L.Perkins, Carl L. Jorgensen, Matt Rinella
PDF File Size: 245 K


The Use of Verbenone to Protect Whitebark Pine From Mountain Pine Beetle
Sandra Kegley, Ken Gibson
PDF File Size: 160 K


Plenary Paper: Conservation Genetics of High Elevation Five-Needle White Pines
Andrew D. Bower, Sierra C. McLane, Andrew Eckert, Stacy Jorgensen, Anna Schoettle, Sally Aitken
PDF File Size: 500 K


Molecular Genetic Variation in Whitebark Pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) in the Inland West
Mary F. Mahalovich, Valerie D. Hipkins
PDF File Size: 780 K

Extended Abstracts

Genetic Variation of Whitebark Pine (Pinus albicaulis) Provenances and Families From Oregon and Washington in Juvenile Height Growth and Needle Color
Jim Hamlin, Angelia Kegley, Richard Sniezko
PDF File Size: 1.3 MB

A Sugar Pine Consensus Map: Comparative Mapping Between the Pinus Subgenus Pinus and the Subgenus Strobus
Kathleen D. Jermstad, Andrew J. Eckert, Bohun B. Kinloch Jr., Dean A. Davis, Deems C. Burton, Annette D. Mix, Jill L. Wegrzyn, David B. Neale
PDF File Size: 730 K

A Population Genetic Model for High-Elevation Five-Needle Pines: Projecting Population Outcomes in the Presence of White Pine Blister Rust
A.W.Schoettle, J.G. Klutsch,, M.F. Antolin, S. Field
PDF File Size: 365 K

Ex Situ Gene Conservation in High Elevation White Pine Species in the United States-A Beginning
Richard A. Sniezko, Anna Schoettle, Joan Dunlap, Detlev Vogler, David Conklin, Andrew Bower, Chris Jensen, Rob Mangold, Doug Daoust, Gary Man
PDF File Size: 245 K


Comparison of Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Pacific Coast Whitebark Pine Across Multiple Markers
Andrew D. Bower, Bryce A. Richardson, Valerie Hipkins, Regina Rochefort, Carol Aubry
PDF File Size: 145 K

The U.S. Forest Service's Renewed Focus on Gene Conservation of Five-Needle Pine Species
Robert D. Mangold
PDF File Size: 160 K

Geographic Patterns of Genetic Variation, Population Structure and Adaptive Traits in Pinus aristata, Rocky Mountain Bristlecone Pine
Anna W. Schoettle, Betsy A. Goodrich, Valerie Hipkins, Christopher Richards, Julie Kray
PDF File Size: 160 K

Disturbance Ecology and Climate Change

Plenary Paper: Disturbance Ecology of High-Elevation Five-Needle Pine Ecosystems in Western North America
Elizabeth M. Campbell, Robert E. Keane, Evan R. Larson, Michael P. Murray, Anna W. Schoettle, Carmen Wong
PDF File Size: 835 K


Fire and High-Elevation, Five-Needle Pine (Pinus aristata & P. flexilis) Ecosystems in the Southern Rocky Mountains: What Do We Know?
Jonathan D. Coop, Anna W. Schoettle
PDF File Size: 785 K

Modeling Climate Changes and Wildfire Interactions: Effects on Whitebark Pine (Pinus albicaulis) and Implications for Restoration, Glacier National Park, Montana, USA
Rachel A. Loehman, Allissa Corrow, Robert E. Keane
PDF File Size: 1.3 MB

Extended Abstracts

Fuel and Fire Behavior in High-Elevation Five-Needle Pines Affected by Mountain Pine Beetle
Michael J. Jenkins
PDF File Size: 1.7 MB

Influence of Fire on Mycorrhizal Colonization of Planted and Natural Whitebark Pine Seedlings: Ecology and Management Implications
Paul E. Trusty, Cathy L. Cripps
PDF File Size: 305 K


Climate Change Response of Great Basin Bristlecone Pine in the Nevada NSF-EPSCoR Project (
Franco Biondi, Scotty Strachan
PDF File Size: 220 K

Whitebark Pine (Pinus albicaulis) Assisted Migration Trial
Sierra C. McLane, Sally N. Aitken
PDF File Size: 180 K

Whitebark Pine (Pinus albicaulis) In Cascadia: A Climate Change Prognosis
Sierra C. McLane
PDF File Size: 160 K

Establishment Patterns of Whitebark Pine Following Fire in the Canadian Rockies
Brendan Wilson
PDF File Size: 175 K

Blister Rust: Ecology and Assessment

Plenary Paper: A Natural History of Cronartium ribicola
Brian W. Geils, Detlev R. Vogler
PDF File Size: 550 K

Extended Abstracts

Monitoring White Pine Blister Rust Infection and Mortality in Whitebark Pine in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem
Cathie Jean, Erin Shanahan, Rob Daley, Gregg DeNitto, Dan Reinhart, Chuck Schwartz
PDF File Size: 680 K

Limber Pine Forests on the Leading Edge of White Pine Blister Rust Distribution in Northern Colorado
Jennifer G. Klutsch, Betsy A. Goodrich, Anna W. Schoettle
PDF File Size: 445 K

Valuing the Forest for the Trees: Willingness to Pay for White Pine Blister Rust Management
James R. Meldrum, Patricia A. Champ, Craig A. Bond
PDF File Size: 340 K

Annual Observations of Conspicuous Canker Activity on Whitebark Pine (2003 to 2007)
Michael P. Murray
PDF File Size: 520 K

Re-measurement of Whitebark Pine Infection and Mortality in the Canadian Rockies
Cyndi M. Smith, Brenda Shepherd, Cameron Gillies, Jon Stuart-Smith
PDF File Size: 320 K


Can Microscale Meteorological Conditions Predict the Impact of White Pine Blister Rust in Colorado and Wyoming?
Jacobi, William R., Betsy A. Goodrich, Holly S.J. Kearns, Kelly S. Burns, Brian W. Geils
PDF File Size: 160 K

Histological Observations on Needle Colonization by Cronartium ribicola in Susceptible and Resistant Seedlings of Whitebark Pine and Limber Pine
Jeffrey Stone, Anna Schoettle, Richard Sniezko, Angelia Kegley
PDF File Size: 200 K

Genetic Resistance to Blister Rust

Plenary Paper: Past and Current Investigations of the Genetic Resistance to Cronartium ribicola in High-elevation Five-needle Pines
Richard A. Sniezko, Mary F. Mahalovich, Anna W. Schoettle, Detlev R. Vogler
PDF File Size: 3 MB

Extended Abstracts

Preliminary Overview of the First Extensive Rust Resistance Screening Tests of Pinus flexilis and Pinus aristata
Anna W. Schoettle, Richard A. Sniezko, Angelia Kegley, Kelly S. Burns
PDF File Size: 1.1 MB


Status of White Pine Blister Rust and Seed Collections in California's High-Elevation White Pine Species
J. Dunlap
PDF File Size: 160 K

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Applications in White Pine Blister Rust Resistance Screening
Sam Hendricks, Wendy Sutton, Jeffrey Stone, Richard Sniezko and Angelia Kegley, Anna Schoettle
PDF File Size: 200 K

Molecular Dissection of White Pine Genetic Resistance to Cronartium ribicola
Jun-Jun Liu, Richard Sniezko
PDF File Size: 160 K

Rust Resistance in Seedling Families of Pinus albicaulis and Pinus strobiformis and Implications for Restoration
R. A. Sniezko, A. Kegley, R. Danchok, J. Hamlin, J. Hill, D. Conklin
PDF File Size: 180 K

Restoration and Management

Plenary Paper: Strategies, Tools, and Challenges for Sustaining and Restoring High Elevation Five-Needle White Pine Forests in Western North America
Robert E. Keane, Anna W. Schoettle
PDF File Size: 1.8 MB


Investigating the Optimality of Proactive Management of an Invasive Forest Pest
Craig A. Bond, Patricia Champ, James Meldrum, Anna Schoettle
PDF File Size: 445 K

Exploring Whitebark Pine Resilience in the Crown of the Continent
Stacey A. Burke, Michael S. Quinn
PDF File Size: 560 K

Inoculation and Successful Colonization of Whitebark Pine Seedlings With Native Mycorrhizal Fungi Under Greenhouse Conditions
C. L. Cripps, E. Grimme
PDF File Size: 675 K

The Proactive Strategy for Sustaining Five-Needle Pine Populations: An Example of its Implementation in the Southern Rocky Mountains
A.W. Schoettle, B.A. Goodrich, J.G.Klutsch, K.S.Burns, S. Costello, R.A. Sniezko
PDF File Size: 1.2 MB

Extended Abstracts

Whitebark and Limber Pine Restoration and Monitoring in Glacier National Park
Jennifer M. Asebrook, Joyce Lapp, Tara Carolin
PDF File Size: 250 K

Restoration of Whitebark Pine Forests in the Northern Rocky Mountains, USA
Robert E. Keane
PDF File Size: 700 K

No Free Lunch: Observations on Seed Predation, Cone Collection, and Controlled Germination of Whitebark Pine from the Canadian Rockies
Adrian Leslie, Brendan Wilson
PDF File Size: 615 K

Highlights of the Forest Health Protection Whitebark Pine Restoration Program
John Schwandt
PDF File Size: 275 K

Whitebark Pine Direct Seeding Trials in the Pacific Northwest
John Schwandt, Kristen Chadwick, Holly Kearns, Chris Jensen
PDF File Size: 1.7 MB

Guidelines for Whitebark Pine Planting Prescriptions
Glenda L. Scott, Ward W. McCaughey, Kay Izlar
PDF File Size: 240 K

Limber Pine Seed and Seedling Planting Experiment in Waterton Lakes National Park, Canada
Cyndi M. Smith, Graeme Poll, Cameron Gillies, Celina Praymak, Eileen Miranda, Justin Hill
PDF File Size: 680 K


Restoration Planting Options for Limber Pines in the Southern Rocky Mountains
Anne Marie Casper, William R. Jacobi, Anna W. Schoettle, Kelly S. Burns
PDF File Size: 200 K

High Elevation White Pines Educational Website
Anna W. Schoettle, Michele Laskowski
PDF File Size: 180 K

Title: RMRS-P-63: The future of high-elevation, five-needle white pines in Western North America: Proceedings of the High Five Symposium
Electronic Publish Date: June 29, 2011
Last Update:
June 29, 2011

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