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Rocky Mountain Research Station
240 West Prospect Road
Fort Collins, CO 80526-2098

Switchboard: 970-498-1100
Fax: 970-498-1010

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Electronic Publishing: Look Before You Leap

When publishing through electronic media instead of print, below are some helpful hints to help our readers access and absorb our research electronically.

New considerations

Bullet ArrowPeople read text on a screen 20-40% slower than on paper (due to screen format, text characteristics, backgrounds, ambient light and glare, etc.).

Bullet ArrowResearch has shown that people usually do not read documents word-for-word on the screen -- they scan and search for key information. On-screen reading is not linear. Tight writing becomes more important. (Tight writing is important for print, too: According to Forest Science, it returns 50% of authors' submissions with a requirement to edit the language.)

Bullet ArrowUsers need to be targeted according to their content knowledge, reading skills, media used, and media skills.

Bullet ArrowTo maintain readability of electronic documents, according to the latest research: use a 12-point sans serif typeface (Arial, Helvetica); use a single-column format; limit paragraphs to 5 lines; limit line length to 200-400 pixels; use black type on a white background; and avoid caps and italics.

Bullet ArrowProvide navigational aids: internal links, table of contents, and other "breadcrumbs." To speed downloading time, use 4 megs maximum per file (result: may have to break chapters and separate figures/tables from text).

Bullet ArrowDocuments longer than about 30 pages: Readers won't automatically print them out due to the length. Journals can't publish longer documents, so hard-copy GTRs may still be the medium of choice. Another factor: Reproduction quality on personal printers is poor for photos, color, and some figures.

Bullet ArrowAdobe PDF is the industry standard.

Bullet ArrowStill in transition: many journals are not online yet (paper copy is still dominant); a simple hit count on a website is not an accurate indicator of how many people have actually read a document.

Bullet ArrowIt's no less labor-intensive to publish online than to publish on paper. Cost shifts (such as less paper but more computer support) can be misinterpreted as cost savings.


Bullet ArrowStation policy and FSM 1630 applies to both print and electronic publications. Also see USDA Departmental Regulation: Web Site Development and Maintenance and Guidelines for Forest Service Electronic Information Providers.

Bullet ArrowPaperwork Elimination Act: Initial Forest Service efforts are on business processes, brochures, maps, forest plans. The Act also states that all publications available to the public must be available electronically. WO has asked us to make publications available electronically whenever possible, realizing that implementation will occur over the long term.

Bullet ArrowAmericans With Disabilities Act: all new web content is required to be compliant.

Bullet ArrowPermanency and archiving of electronic documents and the holding of CDs in libraries are still issues. GPO calls the problem "pervasive" and has convened a Permanent Public Access working group to develop "best practices" for digital archiving.

More resources

Bullet ArrowPublishing Services staff and FSWeb page

Bullet ArrowGovernment Printing Office

Bullet ArrowThe Institute at GPO


Bullet ArrowThe World Wide Web for Scientists & Engineers by Brian J. Thomas (SPIE Press, 1998)

USDA Forest Service - Rocky Mountain Research Station Publications
Last Modified:  Tuesday, 03 November 2015 at 08:31:20 CST

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