CHAPTER 10 - TREE DATA

This chapter describes the tree data to be recorded on individual trees and seedling/sapling tree counts and covers instructions for measuring various tree attributes. These instructions apply to trees in forest land condition classes. Refer to appendix A.5 for the Tree Data record. For specific items to record, refer to appendix E.

The number preceding each variable name below refers to the Item Number of the variable used on the Tree Data record. Some items reference only the individual tree tally, some items reference only the seedling counts, and other items reference both. Use the column at the right margin of the data form (comments column), the line immediately beneath a data record, or in the notes on the data recorder, to record any comments or changes pertaining to an individual tree. For example, if a tree diameter on a timber species is taken at a place other than DBH, include a note explaining at what height the diameter was taken.

ITEM

401 Subplot Number.

MQO: No errors 100% of the time.

Record for every line of data. Subplot Number refers to a specific place on the field location layout (refer to chapter 5 for location layout procedures).

402 Tree Number.

MQO: No errors 100% of the time.

Record Tree Number for all tally trees and nontallied site trees. Repeat the numbering procedure, described below, for each subplot.

Remeasurement locations (including Forest Health plots): Number all remeasurement trees using the past tree numbers listed on the old data. For Forest Health plots, locate the "next available tree number" message on the preprinted form to continue numbering new subplot and microplot trees.

a. Subplot tally. Standing over the subplot center stake, start at 1° azimuth and rotate clockwise numbering sequentially all tally trees 5.0-inches and greater, beginning with 01. For example, the first tally tree is coded 01, the second tree is 02, and so on.

b. Microplot tally. Next, begin at 1° azimuth again and rotate clockwise to number the tallied saplings; begin numbering where the subplot tally tree numbers left off.

Assign nontallied site trees to the nearest subplot and give the tree the next available tree number following the tally tree numbers.

404 Azimuth and

405 Horizontal Distance.

MQO: Azimuth ±5 degrees, 95% of the time. Horizontal distance ±1 foot for 0-22.9 feet, and ±0.2 foot 23-24 feet 90%, of the time.

Record an azimuth, to the nearest degree, and a horizontal distance, to the nearest 0.1 foot, for all tally trees and all nontallied site trees. Set compass declination to 0. Do not record 0° (record 360° for due north).

Stand over the subplot center stake and take an azimuth and a horizontal distance from the top of the stake to the geographic center of the stem(s) or bole at the base of the tree:

a. Standing tally trees - geographic center at the base (pith of single stem/bole).

b. Downed tally trees - the point of tree origin (e.g., center of the base of tree stem or bole, root system depression).

c. Nontallied site trees - measure directly as in a. above, or if necessary, estimate an azimuth and distance from the nearest subplot center stake (i.e., if the tree is not within view of the stake). For distances greater than 99.9 feet, record 999.

Forest Health plots: use the same azimuths and distances as previously recorded. If the previous crew made an obvious error, record the correct azimuth or distance and make a note on the preprinted form.

406 Condition Class Number .

MQO: No errors 95% of the time.

Record the appropriate Condition Class Number for the condition class where the tree or tree count occurs. For locations with no condition class boundaries, record 1 for all tally trees and tree counts.

411Current Tree History.

MQO: No errors 100% of the time

For each tally tree and nontallied site tree, record one of the following codes:

Code

Tree History

0

Nontallied site trees

1

Live tally tree

2

Dead tally tree

412 Tree Lean Angle.

MQO: No errors 100% of the time

For each tally tree and nontally site tree, record one of the following codes:

Code

Tree Angle

00

Standing tree -- for timber species 1.0-inch DBH and larger, the main tree stem/bole must be at least 6.0 feet tall and be self-supporting (i.e., a standing timber species cannot be broken below 6.0 feet and cannot be leaning against another tree for support); for woodland species 1.0-inch DRC and larger, there must be at least one standing stem 1.0-inch DRC or larger.

90

Down tree -- for timber species 1.0-inch DBH and larger, the main stem/bole is broken off below 6.0 feet or not attached for support at the base (e.g., an upright tree broken at the base, but leaning against another tree for support). For a down dead timber species to be tallied, the center of the stem at DBH must be above the duff layer. For trees that are severely decayed and no longer have the cylindrical form, do not tally but note in comments. For woodland species 1.0-inch DRC and larger, no stem 1.0-inch DRC and larger is standing.

414 Site Tree.

MQO: Selected as required by the condition class tally, 90% of the time.

Collect and record site tree data only for those species listed as timber species trees (refer to species list page 10-9 and 10).

Site trees are selected as indicators of site productivity.Site tree requirements and selection methods are described below.

If a site tree is selected from one condition class, and can be used for additional condition classes, list these additional classes in the Site Tree Condition List on the data recorder or in the tree notes on the field form.

Record one of the following codes for each live tally tree 5.0-inches DBH/DRC and larger:

Code

Site Tree

0

Not selected as a site tree

1

Suitable site tree

2

Unsuitable site tree

a. Site tree requirements

1) Suitable site trees:

· live sound tree;

· 5.0-inches DBH or larger;

· open grown, dominant, or codominant throughout most of its life;

· minimum of 35 years (DBH age) for softwoods or minimum of 45 years (DBH age) for hardwoods;

· under rotation age (80 years for aspen and paper birch, 120 years for all other timber species);

· undamaged top (not dead or broken);

· vigorous, having a crown ratio of at least 50 percent, if possible, and have the best height/age ratio of all the trees on the site.

2) Unsuitable site trees:

· relicts;

· intermediate crown class;

· over rotation age but less than 200 years (DBH age);

· rough trees.

b.Site tree selection. Select a minimum of two site trees that represent the species of the condition class Forest Type. Also, select at least two site trees for each additional timber species representing 20 percent or more of the live timber trees tallied or counted, and select at least one site tree for each species representing less than 20 percent. Select no more than 6 site trees per condition class. If more than three timber species are tallied (each representing 20 percent or more tally) within a condition class, select site trees from the three most dominant tallied species.

Note: If only dead trees of a particular species are tallied, and no seedlings of that species were counted, and that species does not represent the Forest Type, it is not necessary to obtain site trees for that species.

If not enough suitable trees can be selected from the subplot tally, then select nontallied suitable site trees (Tree History 00) off the subplots from a nearby site of similar slope, aspect, elevation, and soils. Assign each nontallied site tree selected to the nearest subplot. Obtain only suitable site trees where possible; however, if no suitable site trees are present within 60 feet of the subplots, select an unsuitable site tree. If no site trees are available within 60 feet, do not obtain the site trees except for those species representing the Forest Type. For burned or cut stands, go to an adjacent stand to obtain site trees representing the Forest Type if possible.

Note: Do not select aspen site trees from the subplot tally; instead, when aspen site trees are required, select nontallied site trees.

415 Mortality.

MQO: no errors, 85% of the time.

A mortality tree is a dead timber or woodland tally tree, standing or down, 1.0-inch DBH/DRC or larger, that was live at the time of previous inventory, or within the past 5 years on a new location, but has died.

Record one of the following one-digit codes for each dead tree. If code 1 is recorded, also record a Cause of Death code (refer to Item 455, page 10-44) and a Past Tree Class code (refer to Item 463, page 10-50).

Code

Mortality

0

No - tree does not qualify as mortality

1

Yes - tree does qualify as mortality

Refer to the following as a guide to time since death for various tree species:

5-needle pines:

Within past 5 years - some foliage remaining, >75% twigs and > 30% branches left; bark intact.

More than 5 years - no foliage remaining, <75% of twigs left, many large limbs gone, much bark sloughing (except small trees).

Ponderosa pine:

Within past 5 years - some foliage remaining, >50% twigs and most branches left; most bark intact.

More than 5 years - no foliage remaining, <50% of twigs left or branches left, most large limbs gone, much bark sloughing (except small trees).

Spruce:

Within past 5 years - some foliage remaining, >30% twigs and >50% of branches left; little bark sloughing.

More than 5 years - no foliage remaining, <30% of twigs left or >50% branches left, most large limbs gone, bark sloughing (except small trees).

Lodgepole pine:

Within past 5 years - some foliage remaining, >75% twigs and most branches left.

More than 5 years - no foliage remaining, <75% of twigs left or branches left, bark sloughing.

Douglas-fir:

Within past 5 years - some foliage remaining, >50% twigs and > 75% of branches left; bark intact.

More than 5 years - no foliage remaining, <50% of twigs and 75% or less branches left, most large limbs gone, bark sloughing.

True firs:

Within past 5 years - some foliage remaining, >50% twigs and > 70% of branches left; bark unbroken, not curled away from bole.

More than 5 years - no foliage remaining, <50% of twigs and <75% branches left, most large limbs gone, bark heavily checked and curled, much sloughing.

Aspen:

Within past 5 years - >50% of bark attached to some degree.

More than 5 years - no foliage remaining, bark <50% attached.

Pinyon

Within past 5 years - some foliage remaining,

More than 5 years - no foliage remaining.

In all cases, the presence of sporophore of sapwood rotting fungi such as Polyporus volvatus, Fomes pinicola , etc., is accepted as evidence that the tree has been dead more than 5 years.

416 Species.

MQO: No errors genus 95% of the time, species 90% of the time.

Below is a species list for all timber and woodland tally tree species. Record one of the following species codes for all trees (tallied trees and nontallied site trees) and seedling counts.

Timber/

Code

Common name

Scientific name

Woodland

015

White fir

Abies concolor

T

017

Grand fir

Abies grandis

T

018

Corkbark fir

Abies lasiocarpa var. arizonica

T

019

Subalpine fir

Abies lasiocarpa

T

020

California red fir

Abies magnifica

T

051

Arizona cypress

Cupressus arizonica

T

058

Pinchot juniper

Juniperus pinchotii

W

059

Redberry juniper

Juniperus erythrocarpa

W

062

California juniper

Juniperus californica

W

063

Alligator juniper

Juniperus deppeana

W

064

Western juniper

Juniperus occidentalis

T**

065

Utah juniper

Juniperus osteosperma

W

066

Rocky Mountain juniper

Juniperus scopulorum

W

069

Oneseed juniper

Juniperus monosperma

W

072

Subalpine larch

Larix lyallii

T

073

Western larch

Larix occidentalis

T

081

Incense-cedar

Calocedrus decurrens

T

093

Engelmann spruce

Picea engelmannii

T

094

White spruce

Picea glauca

T

096

Blue spruce

Picea pungens

T

101

Whitebark pine

Pinus albicaulis

T

102

Bristlecone pine

Pinus aristata

T

106

Common pinyon or

Pinus edulis

W

108

Lodgepole pine

Pinus contorta

T

112

Apache pine

Pinus engelmannii

T

113

Limber pine

Pinus flexilis

T

114

Southwestern white pine

Pinus strobiformis

T

116

Jeffrey pine

Pinus jeffreyi

T

117

Sugar pine

Pinus lambertiana

T

118

Chihuahua pine

Pinus leiophylla

T

119

Western white pine

Pinus monticola

T

122

Ponderosa pine

Pinus ponderosa

T

133

Singleleaf pinyon

Pinus monophylla

W

134

Border pinyon

Pinus discolor

W

140

Mexican pinyon pine

Pinus cembroides

W

143

Arizona pinyon pine

Pinus edulis var. fallax

W

202

Douglas-fir

Pseudotsuga menziesii

T

231

Pacific yew

Taxus brevifolia

W

242

Western redcedar

Thuja plicata

T

263

Western hemlock

Tsuga heterophylla

T

264

Mountain hemlock

Tsuga mertensiana

T

313

Boxelder

Acer negundo

T

321

Rocky Mountain maple

Acer glabrum

W

322

Bigtooth maple

Acer grandidentatum

W

375

Paper birch

Betula papyrifera

T

475

Curlleaf mountain-mahogany

Cercocarpus ledifolius

W

*740

Cottonwood and poplar

Populus spp.

T

741

Balsam poplar

Populus balsamifera

T

745

Eastern cottonwood

Populus deltoides

T

746

Quaking aspen

Populus tremuloides

T

747

Black cottonwood

Populus balsamifera ssp tricocarpa

T

748

Fremont's cottonwood

Populus fremontii

T

749

Narrowleaf cottonwood

Populus angustifolia

T

755

Mesquite

Prosopis spp.

W

756

W. honey mesquite

Prosopis glandulosa var. torreyana

W

757

Velvet mesquite

Prosopis velutina

W

758

Screwbean mesquite

Prosopis pubescens

W

*800

Oak--deciduous

Quercus spp.

W

803

Arizona white oak

Quercus arizonica

W

or Gray oak

Quercus grisea

W

810

Emory oak

Quercus emoryi

W

814

Gambel oak

Quercus gambelii

W

823

Bur oak

Quercus macrocarpa

W

826

Chinkapin oak

Quercus muehlenbergii

W

829

Mexican blue oak

Quercus oblongifolia

W

843

Silverleaf oak

Quercus hypoleucoides

W

*850

Oak--evergreen

Quercus spp.

W

902

New Mexico locust

Robinia neomexicana var. neomexicana

W

990

Desert ironwood

Olneya tesota

W

*These codes are only to be used when the individual code by genus and species is not listed.

**Woodland measured at DBH to match PNW.

421 Current DBH/DRC.

MQO: Standing trees ±0.1 inch per 20 inches of diameter, down trees ±1 inch per 20 inches of diameter, 95% of the time.

The following provides instructions for measuring and recording tree diameter for (a) timber species and (b) woodland species (page 10-9 and 10). Record diameter for all tally trees, 1.0-inch and larger in diameter, and nontallied site trees.

Diameter at Breast Height (DBH) -- timber species:

a. Measuring DBH. Tree diameter for timber species,1.0 inch and larger in diameter, is measured at a point 4.5 feet above ground level (referred to as diameter at breast height or DBH) on the uphill side of the tree as shown in figure 13. When measuring 4.5 feet above the ground, it is not necessary to remove litter; however, measure below any large woody debris (e.g., down logs or branches) that may be at the base of the tree. For diameter measurement techniques for timber species, refer to appendix C.1.

In case of a bole irregularity at breast height (e.g., swelling, bumps, branches), measure diameter where there is normal stem form, as close to 4.5 feet above the ground as possible (on the uphill side of the tree). Describe the diameter height and the nature of the bole irregularity on the Tree Data record. Some examples of how to measure bole irregularities are as follows (figure 13):

· Trees with butt-swell -- Measure these trees 1.5 feet above the end of the swell or bottleneck, if the bottleneck is more than 3.0 feet high.

· Forked trees -- If the point of bole separation (crotch) is at or above 4.5 feet, consider the tree as one. Measure the diameter below the swell, as near to 4.5 feet as possible, above ground level on the uphill side. Measure limiting distance to the center of the bole at the base. If the point of bole separation (crotch) is below 4.5 feet , consider each fork as a separate tree. For diameter measurement, measure each fork at 3.5 feet above the point of separation, or as near as possible to this height.

Figure 13. Points of diameter measurement on timber species.

1. Tree on a slope

2. Tree on level ground

3. Leaning tree

5. bottleneck tree (butt-swell)

4. Tree deformed at 4.5 feet

6. Tree with branch at 4.5 feet

Figure 13 (contd). Points of diameter measurement on timber species.

7. Down tree.

8.

Tree forked at 4.5 feet or higher;

9.

Tree forked below 4.5 feet;

record as one tree and measure

record each fork as a

only the main bole

separate tree

· Leaning trees -- Consider these trees as tally trees if the center of the tree (pith) at the base is within the limiting distance of the subplot. Measure the diameter at 4.5 feet from ground level along the lean, on the uphill or underside side of the tree.

b. Marking timber species.

1) Standing tally trees. Mark trees 3.0-inches DBH and larger with an aluminum nail at 4.5 feet above the ground on the uphill side of the tree, except aspen or trees with a bole irregularity at breast height (BH). Place the nail first, then measure DBH directly above the nail. Place the nail perpendicular to the tree bole, and etch the tree number in pencil on the nail head. Leave at least 1 inch of the nail exposed to allow for tree growth.

Mark aspen 3.0-inches DBH and larger with a finely scribed horizontal line, approximately 1 to 2 inches in length, at BH.

Mark trees with bole irregularities at the point of diameter measurement.

2) Down tally trees. Place a nail on top of the tree bole at the place of diameter measurement; etch the tree number on the head of the nail.

Forest Health plots: Do not nail or etch the point of diameter measurement on tally trees. Instead, use a marker to indicate the measurement point.

c. Recording diameter. Record diameter as a three-digit code to the last whole 0.1 inch. Always round down. For example, record a 9.18-inch diameter as 091, and record a 38.23-inch diameter as 382.

Diameter at root collar (DRC) -- Woodland species

a. Measuring DRC. Tree diameter, or DRC, for woodland species is measured at the ground line or at stem root collar, whichever is higher (figure 14).

Unlike timber species, woodland species commonly have multiple stems and are often extremely variable in form. Treat all woodland species (except maple and deciduous oak species) that have several stems clumped together, with a unified crown, and appearing to be from the same root origin, as a single tree. Treat maple and deciduous oak species stems that fork underground as individual trees.

Additional instructions for woodland species DRC measurements are illustrated in figure 15.

Figure 14. Points of diameter measurement on woodland species.

1. Measure at ground line whenreasonable

3. Measure below multi-stems atnormal stem form

5. Measure missing stem and compute DRC

2. Measure above root collar

4. Excessive diameter below stems; measure individualstems and compute DRC

6. Forks are at or below ground line. Compute DRC. If tree is oak/maple, each stem is a tree

Figure 15. Additional woodland species diameter measurement instructions.

1. Measure the diameter of a dead stem if it is essentially intact, the volume is sound, and the stem represents a portion of the main tree form. Include the stem diameter in the DRC computation and record the appropriate percent of dead volume.

2. Ignore stem stubs that are deteriorated. Do not deduct missing volume for stems not measured for DRC computation.

3. Measure diameter on recently cut stems and include them in DRC computation. Record the missing volume. Evidence of a recent cut would be a clean stump, an obvious gap in the crown, and lack of sprouting.

4. When any main stem has been cut and replaced with new growth, measure the stem diameters at the point of new growth; if all stems were cut, measure height from the point of new growth. Measure any uncut stem at the usual point of measurement. If the stem is replaced with new growth, do not deduct missing volume.

Record DRC for woodland tally trees, 1.0-inch and larger in diameter, as specified below. Before measuring the diameter on a stem, remove the loose material on the ground (e.g., litter), but not mineral soil. Measure just above any swells present, and in a location so that the diameter measurements are reflective of the volume above the stems (especially when trees are extremely deformed at the base). For example, when a single diameter measurement for a tree -- taken below several main stems originating near the root collar -- would grossly over estimate the volume for the tree, individually measure the stems qualifying for diameter measurement above the single diameter location.

Stems must be at least 1.0 foot in length to qualify for measurement; or stems missing due to cutting or damage must have previously been at least 1.0 foot in length. Refer to figure 15, page 10-17.

Woodland species diameter groupings.

· Saplings (microplot) -- single-stemmed trees between 1.0 inch and 4.9 inches in diameter, and multistemmed trees with a cumulative DRC between 1.0 inch and 4.9 inches in diameter. For multistemmed trees, measure all stems 1.0 inch in diameter and larger, and at least 1 foot in length, to compute DRC (see formula on next page).

· Trees (subplot) -- single-stemmed trees 5.0 inches in diameter or larger and multistemmed trees with a cumulative DRC of at least 5.0-inches or larger. For multistemmed trees, measure all stems 1.0 inches in diameter and larger, and at least 1 foot in length, to compute DRC (see formula on page 10-19).

For trees with several small stems, use the following guidelines to help determine possible trees to tally on the subplot:

Stem Size

Approx. No. Stems Needed

(inches)

to Total 5.0 inches DRC

4

2

3

2-3

2

4-6

1

15-18

b. Marking woodland species. For woodland species 1.0-inch DRC and larger, mark the exact location of stem diameter measurement with a lumber crayon. Draw a small line (at least 1.0-inch long and parallel to the diameter tape placement on the stem) on each stem measured for DRC.

In addition, for all standing woodland trees, 5.0-inches DRC and larger, nail a small tag on one stem, preferably the largest or main stem, facing subplot center and approximately 1 foot above ground level. Etch the tree number on the tag. For down woodland trees, nail a tag on top of the largest or main stem. Note: The purpose of the tag is to aid in tree relocation and not to mark the exact location of a stem diameter measurement.

Forest Health plots: Do not nail a tag to the tally trees.

Reserved lands: use low gloss gray tags or paint tags gray or brown.

c. Computing DRC. For all woodland species tally trees with at least one stem 1.0 inch in diameter or larger at the root collar, DRC is computed as the square root of the sum of the squared stem diameters. For a single-stemmed woodland tree, the computed DRC is equal to the single diameter measured.

The field data recorders calculate DRC using the individual stem diameters entered. Otherwise, use the following formula to compute DRC:

d. Recording DRC. Record the calculated DRC for item 421 as a three-digit code to the last whole 0.1 inch. Note: If a calculator is not available, use appendix C.2 to compute DRC.

If using field forms, record individual stem diameters for multistemmed woodland trees on the "Multistemmed Woodland Species Tally" supplemental form (appendix A.8). Note: If a multistemmed woodland tree has dead stems, place a small "d" on the "Multistemmed Woodland Species Tally" form next to the individual diameter measurement of the dead stem.

Whenever DRC is impossible or extremely difficult to measure with a diameter tape (e.g., due to thorns, extreme limbiness, packrat's nest, large down stem) the stem(s) may be measured or estimated to the last whole inch with the measurement poles. Note which stems were estimated on the "Multistemmed Woodland Species Tally" supplemental form (appendix A.8).

422 Tree Count.

MQO: ±10%, 90% of the time.

Record the number of live tally species seedlings counted on the microplot. If there is a large number of seedlings (e.g., more than 20 per species), record an estimate.

423 DBH/DRC/Count Check.

MQO: No errors, 100% of the time.

For each diameter measurement or seedling count, record a 0 for DBH and DRC measured normally or for seedlings counted and not estimated. Record a 1 if any of the following apply:

·DBH was estimated, or DBH not measured at 4.5 feet (e.g., diameter taken above 4.5 feet due to fork).

·DRC was estimated.

·A seedling count was estimated due to a large number of trees.

If 1 is coded, explain in the notes.

424 Number of Stems.

MQO: No errors 95% of the time.

Record this item only for tallied woodland species with at least one stem 1.0 inches in diameter or larger. Record the total number of stems that were measured for DRC, as a two-digit code (e.g., record 1 stem as 01; record 12 stems as 12).

430 Radial Growth and

431 Tree Age.

MQO: Radial growth ±1/20-inch 80% of the time Age ±5%, 90% of the time.

Collect tree age and radial growth information for specified tally trees, and timber species site trees. In addition, collect age information for timber species seedling counts. Refer to appendix C.3 for instructions on boring trees for radial growth and age.

Forest Health plots: Do not bore tally trees for age and radial growth measurements. Instead, select trees outside the subplot for boring, within the same species and diameter class as required for the tally. Record the age and radial growth as estimates, and make a note in the general comments. If similar trees cannot be found within 60 feet of the subplots, do not collect the data but make a note in the tree comments.

Remeasurement plots: If trees have been remeasured, use the previously recorded age and adjust for the years since the previous inventory (preprinted forms may be pre-adjusted).

a. Radial growth and age tree selection .

1) Timber species (excluding w. juniper) .

Radial growth information is required for a minimum of two trees in each diameter class (starting with the 4-inch class) for each species.

Age information is required for a minimum of one tree in each diameter class and species, and for one timber species seedling count per species (i.e., one count for each group for the entire condition class).

For both radial growth and age, if rough or rotten trees are bored, select additional sound trees if tallied. Ranges of diameters for each diameter class are as follows:

Diam. Class

Class Range (DBH, inches)

Seedling

0.0 - 0.9 (count whorls/scars): age only

2"

1.0 - 2.9 (age at base): age only

4"

3.0 - 4.9 (age at BH): age and radial

6"

5.0 - 6.9 |

etc.

(2-inch classes)

Note: Do not bore tally aspen trees on the subplot area; these trees are highly susceptible to rot and damage. Instead, locate an aspen tree of the same diameter class to bore for age and radial growth measurements within 60 feet of the subplot, if possible. Record this age and radial in the tally tree data.

Select age and radial-growth trees as they are tallied across the subplots, regardless of what order the subplots are sampled:

(a) Select the first timber species tallied by diameter class and species type across the subplots. Obtain age for all trees selected, and radial growth for trees in the 4-inch diameter class and larger. For the seedling class, select the first seedling group counted in each species on the location and obtain age only.

(b) For trees in the 4-inch diameter class and larger, also select the second timber species tallied across the subplots, by diameter class and species type, and obtain radial growth only. To help distribute trees, always select the radial growth tree from a different subplot than the age/growth tree selected in (a) above. Note: If a second tree is not tallied on a different subplot, the second radial growth measurement is not required.

For example (subplot 1 measured first, and subplot 2 measured second):

Diam.

Bore for

Subplot 1:

DBH

Species

Class

Age | Radial Growth

8.1

Douglas-fir

8"

X

X

7.2

Douglas-fir

8"

5.1

Douglas-fir

6"

X

X

5.2

White pine

6"

X

X

6.9

White pine

6"

4.1

White pine

4"

X

X

3.2

White pine

4"

White pine

seedling

X

Subplot 2:

9.3

Douglas-fir

10"

X

X

8.6

Douglas-fir

8"

X

7.2

Douglas-fir

8"

6.1

White pine

6"

X

3.8

White pine

4"

X

2.2

White pine

2"

X

White pine

seedling

In this example, the trees indicated with an "X" are selected to bore for age/radial growth. After measuring two subplots, all of the requirements are met for the 8-inch Douglas-fir class and the 6-inch, 4-inch, and seedling white pine classes. In addition, the age requirements are met for the 10-inch and 6-inch Douglas-fir classes, and the 2-inch pine class. However, given the types of species and diameter classes tallied so far, one more live sound Douglas-fir in the 10-inch class, and one in the 6-inch class, if tallied on subplots 3 or 4, need to be bored for radial growth.

2) Woodland species. For each woodland genus group tallied across the subplots, select one representative live tally tree within each size class tallied (refer to Stand-size class). Because of the difficulty in reading annual rings on these species, the total-age and radial-growth measurement is determined and entered in the office.

For each of the selected trees, bore and collect one total age core; however, record 000 for age and 00 for radial growth for bored trees. Count whorls or estimate age if seedlings represent the seedling/sapling size class. Important: Do not bore dead trees, and do not bore cercocarpus species or desert ironwood.

Glue cores into a core holder; for pinyon cores, glue with the resin ducts up. On the side of the core holder, place arrows indicating the outside end (bark end) of the cores, and record the appropriate codes for items listed below. Note: Do not place age cores from more than one State or county on a single core holder. After the cores are glued, wrap the core holder in flagging to protect the cores, and record the State, County number, Location number(s) on the flagging.

(a) Species groups. Woodland genus groups for boring are as follows:

· oak (codes 800-850)

· maple (codes 321-322)

· juniper (codes 058-069)

· pinyon (codes 106, 133, 134, 140, 143)

· mesquite (codes 755-758)

· New Mexico locust (code 902)

· Pacific yew (code 231)

(b) Saving cores. Glue the cores into a core holder and label the core holder with the following:

· State

· County

· Location Number

· Subplot Number

· Tree Number

· Species

· Total DBH/DRC of tree

· DRC of stem

b. Radial-growth measurement (timber species, 4-inch diameter class and larger). Measure the last 10 years of radial growth from an increment core taken immediately below the point of diameter measurement and at a right angle to the bole. To reduce bias, bore on the side of the tree facing the subplot center, where reasonable. Using a ruler with a 1/20-inch scale, measure the length of the core from the inner edge of the last (most recent) complete summer wood ring to the inner edge of the summer wood ring 10 years previous (figure 16).

c. Age tree measurement (timber species).

· Seedling age group: For the first timber species seedling group counted (by species) on the location, record an average total age. It is not necessary to age seedlings species groups for each condition class. Use the same methods for determining total tree age as for small saplings; however, do not bore seedlings.

· 2-inch diameter class (1.0- to 2.9-inches DBH) age trees: Measure and record total tree age. Use the following methods:

For small coniferous saplings, determine total age by counting the terminal bud scars or the whorls of branches. The terminal bud scars are those that completely encircle the stem of the tree. The scar is left on the stem where the terminal bud lay dormant during the winter.

For larger coniferous saplings, or if an accurate tree age cannot be determined for smaller saplings by counting whorls, bore the tree as close to the base as possible to obtain total age. Be careful not to bore all the way through the tree. Count the growth rings on the increment core from the bark end to the pith (center of the tree).

For aspen and cottonwood saplings, determine tree age by counting the intervals between scars left on the stem by the terminal bud.

If age cannot be accurately determined by the above methods, estimate total age and note in the comments column.

·4-inch diameter class and larger age trees: Measure and record breast height (BH) age. Count the growth rings from an increment core taken immediately below the point of diameter measurement and at a right angle to the bole. Bore on the side of the tree facing the subplot center, where reasonable. Count every growth ring from the bark end to the pith (center of the tree). If the age is difficult to determine (e.g., due to indistinct rings, presence of rot), or if the pith was not reached (e.g., diameter too big to bore to center) estimate the age and note in the comments column.

d. Radial-growth and age tree coding.

(1) Radial growth. Record the radial-growth measurement as a two-digit code; for example, record 6/20 as 06, and record 23/20 as 23.

(2) Age tree coding. Record Tree Age as a three-digit number. For example, record 29 years as 029, and record 195 years as 195.

432 Tree Age Check.

MQO: No errors 100% of the time.

Record a 0 for age trees with an accurate age count; record a 1 if any of the following apply:

· Age was estimated due to rot.

· Age was estimated because rings were difficult to count (old suppressed trees).

· Age was estimated because the increment bore could not reach the tree center.

· Age was based on a similar tree off the subplot.

If 1 is coded, explain in the notes.

441 Current Tree Height.

MQO: Trees >20-feet, ±5%, 90% of the time Trees <20 feet, ±1 foot, 90% of the time.

Determine and record total tree height (from ground level to the top of the main stem) to the nearest foot, for all tally trees and nontallied site trees 1.0-inch DBH/DRC and larger. On multistemmed woodland trees, measure height along the main or largest stem. For measurement examples, refer to appendix C.4.

For a standing tree with a missing top, measure the height of the standing portion and add on the estimated height of the missing top (i.e., record the total estimated height). Note the standing height, and that total height was estimated, in the comments column.

For all standing trees that lean, go out perpendicular to the lean to determine tree height. For standing trees with excessive lean (more than 15° from vertical, or 27 percent), go out perpendicular to the lean, and visually "up-right" the tree to a vertical position before determining height with a clinometer; also, in the comments column, note that tree height was estimated due to lean.

For a downed tree, measure total tree height directly along the ground, or if necessary, estimate the previous total height. If total height is estimated, record a note in the comments column.

If a tree bole or stem(s) is growing on an old tree stump, measure tree height from the point of new growth to the top of the tree.

442 Tree Height Check.

MQO: No errors 100% of the time.

Record a 0 for normal height measurements; record a 1 if the height was estimated due to a missing top, severe tree lean, or other reasons.

If 1 is coded, explain in the notes; if the tree had a broken top, record standing height in the notes.

443 Uncompacted and

444 Compacted Crown Ratios .

MQO: ±10%, 85% of the time.

Record uncompacted and compacted crown ratios to the nearest percent for live tally timber species, 1.0-inch DBH or larger, and nontallied timber-species site trees. Crown ratio is related to vigor and growth of a tree; it is that portion of the tree bole supporting live, healthy foliage and is expressed as a percent of total tree height.

Calculate crown ratio by dividing the length of live crown by the total tree height. Examine and measure live crown from the lowest live branch (where it meets the stem) to the uppermost live leader.

In this assessment, ignore epicormic branches (small branches well below the main crown, usually less than 1-inch in diameter).

For trees with broken or missing tops, use the current length of live crown and the estimated total tree height.

a. Uncompacted crown ratio (71). To determine Uncompacted Crown Ratio (UCR), stand away from the tree about 1 to 1.5 times the tree height and use the crown ratio scale or measure the percent of total tree height supporting live crown, making no adjustment for openings or lopsided crown (figure 17).

b. Compacted crown ratio (72). To determine Compacted Crown Ratio, visually transfer lower branches to fill in large holes in the upper portion until a full, even crown is visualized (figure 18). However, do not compact branches to form an unnaturally dense crown.

Figure 17. Uncompacted crown ratio example.

Uncompacted Crown Ratio (69-12) / 69 = 83%

Figure 18. Comparison of uncompacted and compacted ratios.

445 Crown Class.

MQO: No errors, 80% of the time.

Record Crown Class for all live tally trees, 1.0-inch DBH and larger, and for nontallied timber-species site trees. Crown class is a categorization of a tree based on dominance in relation to adjacent trees in the stand. This dominance is indicated by crown development and amount of light received from above and the sides.

Each tree must be judged in the context of its immediate environment (that is, those trees affecting it or being affected by it in terms of crown competition). Note: For residual trees in recent thinnings or partial cuts, record the crown class that corresponds to the preharvest tree classification (figure 19).

Record Crown Class using one of the following one-digit codes (crown classes are defined below):

Code

Crown Class

1

Open grown -- trees with crowns receiving full light from above and from all sides.

2

Dominant -- trees with crowns extending above the general level of the canopy and receiving full light from above and partial light from the sides. These trees are generally larger than the average trees in the stand, and have well-developed crowns that may be somewhat crowded on the sides.

3

Codominant -- trees with crowns forming the general level of the canopy and receiving full light from above, but comparatively little from the sides. In stagnated stands, this class includes trees with small-sized crowns crowded on the sides.

4

Intermediate -- trees generally shorter than those in the two preceding classes, with crowns either below or extending into the canopy formed by codominant and dominant trees. The crowns of these trees receive little direct light from above and none from the sides, are usually small, and are considerably crowded on the sides.

5

Overtopped -- trees with crowns entirely below the general canopy level and receiving no direct light from above or the sides.

Crown Class definitions are most appropriate when considering a single-storied or clumpy/patchy canopy structure. However, in any type of canopy structure, classify each tree, as stated, in the context of its immediate environment. Therefore, a medium- or small-sized tree in a multistoried canopy structure that receives full light from above and partial light on the sides can be classified as a dominant tree.

Figure 19. Crown class as related to preharvest tree classifications.

447 Cone Serotiny.

MQO: No errors 80% of the time.

Record the condition of the viable cones for all live lodgepole pine tally trees, 5.0-inches DBH or larger. Serotinous cones are those that mature but remain on the tree without opening for one or more years.

Code

Cone Serotiny

0

No cones

1

Open cones (less than 50% of the mature cones are closed)

2

Closed cones (more than 50% of the mature cones are closed)

450 Damage.

MQO: No errors 2 of 3, 80% of the time.

Record a primary, secondary, and tertiary damage code for all live tally trees, 1.0-inch DBH/DRC and larger, and nontallied site trees. Only trees with serious damage, insect, or pathogen activity are to be given damage codes other than 00.

For each tallied tree and nontallied site tree, select the most significant damages present. Record the most significant damage as the primary, the next as secondary, etc. Avoid selecting one of the "other, unidentified, or unknown" categories unless a more specific category cannot be determined. For insect and disease damage, base the ordering of most significant, second most significant, etc., on the Regional priorities provided (refer to State Supplement).

A general rule is to only code a damage category when something is affecting the tree that will cause one of the following:

· Prevent it from living to maturity, or surviving 10 more years , if already mature.

· Prevent it from producing marketable products. For example, code any damage preventing a timber species from having a minimum of one merchantable bolt (see glossary).

· Reduce (or has seriously reduced) the quality of the tree's products (e.g., potentially resulting from lightning strike, excessive lean, tree rot).

Examine trees carefully. Sometimes serious internal tree damage can only be determined based on external indicators (e.g., small conks on the main bole can indicate serious volume loss that may affect the tree's chance of survival). On the other hand, a minor defect, such as a small fire scar that results in some cull, would not be serious enough to qualify as damage.

It is not necessary to code as damage any form defect items common to a particular species (such as forking on a cottonwood or juniper tree).

Note: General symptoms listed in the damage descriptions below (such as discolored foliage, dead branches or tops, or galls) may be indicative of several damaging agents. Refer to insect pest and disease field guides for damaging insect/disease agent identification and tree damage potential.

Code

Damage

00

No serious damage

Insects:

10

Other and unidentified insects

11

Bark beetles

12

Defoliators

14

Terminal weevils

15

Mountain pine beetle

16

Ips engraver beetle

Diseases:

20

Other and unidentified diseases

21

Stem rusts

22

Stem and butt rots

23

Cankers

24

True mistletoe

26

Dwarf mistletoe -- rating of 4 to 6

27

Broom rusts

28

Root diseases

29

Foliage diseases

Fire:

31

Fire

Animals:

40

Unidentified animal

41

Domestic animal

42

Porcupine girdling

43

Other wildlife

44

Big game

45

Hares and rabbits

46

Small rodents

47

Pocket gophers

48

Sapsuckers

Atmosphere:

50

Unidentified weather

51

Wind

52

Lightning

53

Snow break or bend

54

Frost crack

55

Drought

56

Sun scald

57

Winter drying or burn -- red belt

58

Air pollution

59

Flooding

Misc:

61

Suppression

70

Unidentified/unknown

71

Excessive lean -- more than 15° from

vertical

72

Forked below merchantable top; timber

spp. saplings with multiple stems

73

Broken top

74

Dead top

75

Wolf tree: excessively limby timber spp.

76

Unhealthy foliage

77

Heartwood scar on bole

78

Forked above merchantable top; timber

species, under rotation age

79

Excessive crook, sweep, or taper -- timber

Human:

80

Other human

81

Logging

82

Timber stand improvement (TSI)

83

Land clearing

84

Woodland cutting

85

Chemical

Definitions for Damage codes are described as follows:

No Serious Damage (code 00). Record this code when serious tree damage is not evident. Some minor damage may be evident, but it will not seriously reduce tree quality or prevent the tree from living to maturity.

Insect Damage (codes 10-12, 14-16). Record only serious insect damage. Nearly any tree in the woods will have insects on it at one time or another, but this presence does not necessarily indicate serious tree damage. Serious insect damaging agents are described below.

Other and Unidentified Insects (code 10): Use this code only for unidentified insect damage or for insect damage not specified in one of the categories below (e.g., wood borers). Describe in the comments column the damage and the type of insect causing the damage, if known.

Bark Beetles (codes 11, 15, 16): These are phloem-feeding insects that bore through the bark and create extensive galleries between the bark and the wood. Symptoms of beetle damage include fading or discolored tree crown (yellow or red), pitch tubes or pitch streaks on the bark, extensive egg galleries in the phloem, boring dust in the bark crevices or at the base of the tree. Bark chipping by woodpeckers may be conspicuous. Examples of tree damaging bark beetles include species of the genera Dendroctonous, Scolytus, and Phloesinus (in juniper), such as mountain pine beetle (code 15), Ips engraver beetle (code 16), and others (code 11) such as western pine beetle, Douglas-fir beetle, spruce beetle, and cedar bark beetles.

Defoliators (code 12): These are foliage-feeding insects that may reduce growth and weaken the tree causing it to be more susceptible to other damaging agents. General symptoms of defoliation damage include large amounts of missing foliage (greater than 75 percent defoliated in top 10 feet or 50 percent defoliated over the entire tree), browning foliage, extensive branch mortality, or dead tree tops. Examples include spruce budworm, pine sawflies, Douglas-fir tussock moth, and gypsy moth.

Terminal weevils (code 14): These are insects that feed on the meristematic portion of the tree (tips, terminal and lateral branches). Damage includes reduced tree growth, forking, and deformed crowns, particularly in saplings and seedlings. Symptoms include orange to red colored or dead terminal leaders, stunted or drooping terminal or lateral branches, or galls on branches. Examples are the western pine shoot borer, and the white pine and lodgepole pine terminal weevils.

Disease Damage (codes 20-24, 26-29). Record only serious disease damage. Serious disease damaging agents are described below.

Other and Unidentified Diseases (code 20): Use this code only for unidentified disease damage or for disease damage not specified in one of the categories below. Describe in the comments column the damage and the type of disease causing the damage, if known.

Stem rusts (code 21): A stem rust is a disease caused by fungi that kill or deform all or a portion of the stem or branches of a tree. Sometimes yellow or reddish-orange spores are present giving a "rusty" appearance. Damage occurs when the disease attacks the cambium of the host, girdling and eventually killing the stem above the attack. Symptoms of rusts include galls (an abnormal and pronounced swelling or deformation of plant tissue that forms on branches or stems) and cankers (a sunken lesion on the stem caused by death of the cambium which often results in the death of tree tops and branches). Examples of stem rusts include western gall rust and comandra blister rust (causing cankers and galls on lodgepole and ponderosa pines), and white pine blister rust on five-needle pines.

Stem and Butt Rots (code 22): A rot is a wood decay caused by fungi. Rots are characterized by a progression of symptoms in the effected wood. First, the wood stains and discolors, then it begins to lose its structural strength, and finally the wood starts to break down, forming cavities in the stem. Even early stages of wood decay can cause cull due to losses in wood strength and staining of the wood. Damage includes mortality, cull, increased susceptibility to other agents (such as insects), and wind throw and stem breakage. Any conk (a fruiting body of the causal fungus), or discoloration and decay in more than 1/2 the stem (examine increment core), is serious enough to code. Examples include Indian paint fungus on true firs (characterized by large conks with a rust colored interior), red belt fungus (characterized by a brown cubical decay and a conk-like shelf with a distinctive red band), and white trunk rot of aspen (characterized by a hoof-shaped conk).

Cankers (code 23): A canker -- a sunken lesion on the stem caused by the death of cambium -- may cause tree breakage or kill the portion of the tree above the canker. If cankers occur on the lower 1/2 of the tree bole, the tree will likely be killed. Examples include Atropellis canker in lodgepole pine and ponderosa pine (characterized by a blue-black stain in the wood), Cytospora canker in spruce, fir, and aspen, Ceratocystis canker in aspen (forming highly irregular and blackened callous ridges around the canker), and sooty bark canker in aspen (which kills trees rapidly and causes the underside of dead bark to be blackened and "sooty"). Note: Record code 21 for cankers resulting from a stem rust.

True mistletoe (code 24): This is a parasitic plant ( Phoradendron spp.) that grows on tree branches or stems of host trees. When it occurs in large amounts on a single tree, true mistletoe can reduce tree growth deform the tree, and increase the tree's susceptibility to other damaging agents. True mistletoes are green plants with or without well developed leaves. Host plants include juniper, oak, mesquite, and poplars (cottonwood, etc.). Code true mistletoe as a damage only when it is present on numerous stems or branches.

Dwarf mistletoe (code 26): This is a parasitic plant ( Arceuthobium spp.) that grows on tree branches or stems of host trees and can substantially reduce tree growth, deform the tree, and increase the tree's susceptibility to other damaging agents. Dwarf mistletoe occurs on larch, Douglas-fir, and pines (rarely on true fir and spruce). A mistletoe class rating of 4 to 6 is considered damaging (refer to

page 10-45). Signs and symptoms include witches brooms (a massed dense clump of branches, typically with live foliage), the visual presence of the mistletoe plant (simple or branched shoots, approximately 1 to 4 inches in length), and swellings on the tree stem or branches.

Note: If any dwarf mistletoe occurs on the tree, whether it is coded as a damage or not, enter an appropriate code for Mistletoe Class

(Item 456, page 10-45).

Broom rusts (code 27): Broom rusts are diseases that attack the foliage of true firs and spruce. These diseases form spores on the foliage, and also induce the plant to form growth hormones which distort the growth of the tree and form witches brooms (massed dense clumps of tree branches) often containing dead and diseased branches and needles. Code broom rust as a damage only when numerous brooms occur or when the tree has been deformed by the disease.

Root Diseases (code 28): Root disease kills all or a portion of a tree's roots. Quite often, the pathogenic fungus girdles the tree at the root collar. Tree damage includes mortality (often occurring in groups or "centers"), reduced tree growth, and increased susceptibility to other agents (especially bark beetles). General symptoms include resin at the root collar, thin, chlorotic (faded) foliage, and decay of roots. Examples include Armillaria root disease in all tree species (characterized by white mycelial fans - mats of the fungus - between the bark and wood at the base of the tree), Annosus root disease, primarily on true firs but also infecting pines (characterized by white spongy root rot containing black specks and fruiting bodies of the fungus)

Foliage Diseases (code 29): Foliage diseases are caused by fungi and result in needle shed, growth loss, and, potentially, tree mortality. This category includes needle casts, blights, and needle rusts. Examples include Rhabdocline needle cast in Douglas-fir (characterized by numerous brown bands on needles and shed needles causing thinned tree foliage), and snow mold on pines, fir, spruce, and juniper (characterized by gray or black thickly matted needles, killing branches or small trees).

Fire Damage (code 31). Fires may cause scarring to a tree stem or bole or may kill foliage in the lower crown without seriously damaging a tree. Record damage for basal scars due to fire only if the cambium on half or more of the bole circumference has been killed. Also code if fire-killed foliage reaches into the upper one-third of the crown.

Animal Damage (codes 40-48). Record one of the following codes for damage by either wild or domestic animals. Code only when half or more of the bole circumference has been girdled or stripped, or when browsing or trampling has seriously decimated a small tree, and the damage will ultimately prevent the tree from ever becoming a 5.0-inch sound tree with good form and vigor.

Unidentified Animal (code 40): Record this item only if the type of animal (domestic or wild) that caused the damage cannot be determined.

Domestic Animal (code 41): Record for damage (e.g., trampling, browsing) that can be attributed to domestic animals (e.g., cows, sheep, horses).

Porcupine Girdling (code 42): Record for porcupine damage where one-half or more of the bole diameter has been girdled.

Other Wildlife Damage (code 43): Record for damage by wildlife other than big game or small rabbits and rodents. This includes damage by beavers, etc.

Big game (code 44): Record for serious browse damage (i.e., feeding on foliage or bark), trampling, or scraping by elk, moose, deer, or bear.

Hares and rabbits (code 45); small rodents (code 46): Record for serious damage to saplings, such as stem clippings (clean knife-like cuts) by rabbits/hares or small rodents (e.g., voles), or clipping to the terminal leader by squirrels.

Pocket gophers (code 47): Record for root damage to small trees caused by gophers. Gophers often invade openings or cut-over areas and create a network of feeding tunnels just below the ground surface (these tunnels appear as channels of loosened, raised soil).

Sapsuckers (code 48): Sapsuckers are birds that feed on tree sap. Damage is characterized by small wounds in both horizontal and vertical rows, often with oozing resin, on the stem of live trees. Record for damage that occurs over more than 1/2 of the circumference of the stem.

Atmosphere Damage (codes 50-59). Record the appropriate code for weather- or pollution-related damage.

Unidentified weather (code 50): Record if serious damage can be attributed to a weather problem but the specific type cannot be identified. Describe in the comments column the damage present and the cause of the weather damage, if known.

Wind (code 51): Wind may cause serious damage to a tree by breaking numerous branches or the stem/bole, or uprooting the whole tree. Do not code wind damage if another damage (e.g., root rot) was the primary factor affecting or weakening the tree.

Lightning (code 52): Lightning damage often appears as long splits, cracks, or spiral scars down the tree bole; this damage may also cause top sections of the tree to be broken off.

Snow break or bend (code 53): Record for snow damage, such as severe bending (primarily small trees) or breakage to the stem/bole or numerous limbs, resulting from avalanches or from the weight of snow on tree limbs.

Frost crack (code 54): Frost cracks are long vertical splits on the surface of the tree stem, caused by the cooling and contracting of wood. Frost cracks indicate a structure defect in the wood beneath the crack.

Drought (code 55): Drought damage is difficult to determine, but may be identified by widespread foliage damage (wilting, discoloration of new foliage) indicated by yellowing and needle loss.

Sun scald (code 56): Sun scald is the death of a portion of the tree bark caused by exposure to the sun during the winter. Sun scald occurs on young trees and on trees newly exposed to direct sun after an opening occurs in the canopy.

Winter drying or burn (code 57): Winter burn damage on a tree is caused by adverse weather conditions (an extreme drop in temperature) and is characterized by red and green (new needles) foliage above snow-line and green foliage below snow-line.

Air pollution (code 58): Air pollution results in damage to large numbers of trees in the same location. Typically these areas will be in a down-wind location from large industrial sites.

Flooding (code 59): Flooding damage may occur near reservoir sites, washes, streams, or rivers and might be identified by features such as water marks or lines on tree boles, exposed roots (due to soil erosion), or uprooted trees.

Miscellaneous Damage (codes 61, 70-79). Record one of the following codes for miscellaneous damage.

Suppression (code 61): Suppressed trees are characterized by short or nonexistent internodes, gnarled stems, flat crowns, or sparse foliage. For shade-intolerant species such as lodgepole pine, code any indication of suppression. For shade-tolerant species such as spruce, do not code unless the tree is extremely deformed or has no live terminal leader.

Unidentified/Unknown (code 70): Record only if there is serious damage that cannot be identified; describe in the comments column the damage present.

Excessive Lean (code 71): Record for trees leaning more than 15° (27 percent) from vertical. Do not record if a more serious damage is present.

Forked below merchantable top/timber-species saplings with multiple stems (Code 72): Record only for timber species, 5.0-inches DBH and larger, with multiple forks below the merchantable top (4.0-inch diameter top, DOB), or for timber-species saplings, 1.0- to 4.9-inches DBH, with multiple stems.

Broken Top (code 73): Record for timber species broken above 6.0 feet and woodland species with a broken top on the main stem.

Dead Top (code 74): Record for trees with a dead terminal leader.

Wolf Tree (code 75): A wolf tree is a vigorous timber species with poor growth form, usually larger in diameter than the average tree in the stand, with many large and dead limbs forming a rounded crown not typical of a conifer. Wolf trees are often open grown.

Unhealthy Foliage (code 76): Record if a tree has unhealthy foliage or chlorosis (an abnormal yellowing of foliage) and the causal agent (e.g., disease, insect, drought) cannot be identified.

Heartwood Scar on Bole (code 77): Record for any scar on the bole that has penetrated the heartwood, if the actual causal agent cannot be determined.

Forked Above Merchantable Top (code 78): Record only for under-rotation age timber species, 5.0-inches DBH or larger. Code major forks or multiple stems above merchantable height (4.0-inch diameter top, DOB). Do not use this code for trees that are over-rotation age. Rotation age is 80 years for aspen and paper birch, and 120 years for all other timber species.

Excessive Crook, Sweep, or Taper (code 79): Record for timber species trees 5.0-inches DBH and larger that have abnormal diameter to height ratios, or severe sweeps and crooks that will significantly reduce the tree's quality or affect its marketable products.

Human Damage (codes 80-85). Record this code to indicate any tree damage due to logging operations (or related activity) or other human activity.

Other human (code 80): Record this code for damage caused by a human activity not listed under another code. If this code is used, describe in the comments column the damage present.

Logging (code 81): Logging is the felling and extraction of timber. Record this code for severe damage such as partial uprooting, cutting, extensive breakage, or damage to half or more of the bole circumference due to logging activities.

TSI (code 82): Timber stand improvement (TSI) is a term comprising all intermediate cuttings or treatments made to improve the composition, health, and growth of the remaining trees in the stand. Trees removed are often smaller than the minimum sawtimber size. Record for damage caused by TSI activities.

Land clearing (code 83): Land clearing refers to areas where tree land has been converted to non-tree land (e.g., tree land was cleared for homes or pasture). Record for damage caused by land clearing activities such as road building. Damage may be similar to logging.

Woodland cutting (code 84): Record this code for woodland species that have had cutting to stems or branches for use as fuelwood, fence posts, etc.

Chemical (code 85): Chemical damage may result from factors such as the use of salts on roadways, drift from herbicide usage, or spillage from large amounts of fertilizer or other chemicals. Use this code cautiously as it is difficult to determine.

455 Cause of Death.

MQO: No errors, 80% of the time.

Record the primary Cause of Death (C.O.D.) for all dead tally trees that qualify as mortality (refer to page 10-7). Use the damage item code list on pages 10-34 and 35 along with the following additional codes ; however, do not use damage code 00 (no serious damage) or codes 71 through 79. Record the item pertaining to the primary C.O.D. factor:

Additional

Codes

Cause of Death

90

Girdling (death resulting from a timber stand improvement, TSI, girdling treatment - bark removed from entire circumference of a tree)

91

Poison (death resulting from TSI poison treatment)

97

TSI - cut and left (trees felled during TSI activities but not removed from the forest)

98

Logging - cut and left (trees felled during a logging operation but not removed from the forest)

99

Logging - cut and removed (trees felled during a logging operation and removed from the forest) - Remeasurement trees only.

456 Mistletoe Class.

MQO: ±1 class, 90% of the time.

Rate all live timber-species and pinyon tally trees, 1.0-inch DBH/DRC or larger, for dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium spp.) infection. Dwarf mistletoe occurs on larch, pines (including pinyon), and Douglas-fir (rarely true fir or spruce). Signs and symptoms include witches brooms (a massed dense clump of tree branches, typically with live foliage), the visual presence of the mistletoe plant (simple or branched shoots, approximately 1 to 4 inches in length), and swellings on the tree stem or branches. Code mistletoe as damage (Item 450) for trees with a mistletoe class of 4 or more (unless more serious damages are present).

Use the following six-class mistletoe rating procedures:

· Divide live crown into thirds (figure 20);

· Rate each third separately for the amount of infection;

Rating

Amount of Infection (within the third)

0

No visible infection

1

Light infection -- one-half or fewer of the total branches infected

2

Heavy infection -- one-half or more of the total branches infected

· Add the three individual ratings of the thirds to obtain a total mistletoe rating for the tree; enter the total rating as the Mistletoe Class code.

Figure 20. Example six-class mistletoe rating.

460-Percent Volume Loss - Rotten and Missing (460),

462 Sound Dead (461), and Form Defect (462) .

MQO: ±5% for total deductions <20%, 90% of the time, and ±10% for total deductions >20%, 90% of the time.

Using the general Seen Defect Guidelines provided (supplement), along with any other evidence, record the percentage of rotten and missing volume, sound dead volume, and form defect (timber species only), to the nearest 1 percent, for all tally trees 1.0-inch DBH/DRC and larger. When estimating volume loss (tree cull) only consider the cull on the merchantable bole/portion of the tree.

Examine the tree first for rotten and missing volume loss, then sound dead volume loss, and finally form defect. Do not "double" volume deduction for an individual section having both form defect and rotten/missing or sound dead volume. If a portion of the tree is both rotten and has form defect, categorize the section as rotten/missing volume only. Likewise, if a section is both sound dead and form defect, categorize the section as sound dead only. The total volume loss will equal 100 percent or less.

The merchantable bole on a timber species is defined as the portion of a tree, 5.0-inches DBH or larger, between a 1-foot stump and a 4.0-inch top diameter. For saplings, consider the stem from a 1-foot stump to a 1.0-inch top.

The merchantable portion of a woodland species is defined as the portion of a tree, with at least 1 stem 3.0-inches DRC or larger, up to a minimum top diameter of 1.5-inches, and includes all qualifying segments above the place(s) of diameter measurement; do not include sections below the place(s) of diameter measurement. Qualifying segments are stems or branches that are a minimum of 1.0 foot in length and at least 1.5 inch in diameter (at the top). Branches and stems smaller than 1.5 inches in diameter (or portions of branches and stems smaller than

1.5 inches in diameter, such as tips of branches) are not included when determining volume loss.

Use the following guidelines to estimate tree cull:

a. Timber species, 5.0-inches DBH and larger. Refer to

table 2 and supplemental guidelines to compute volume loss.

(1) Rotten and missing volume (Item 460) loss is often difficult to estimate. Use your best judgment and be alert to such defect indicators as the following:

· Cankers or fruiting bodies.

· Swollen or punky knots.

· Dull, hollow sound of bole when struck with an ax.

· Large dead limbs, esp. those with frayed ends.

· Sawdust around the base of the tree.

Regard with suspicion all trees exhibiting any of the characteristics listed above. As a general rule, when boring trees for age and radial growth data, note the presence of any yellow, yellowish brown, or light brown rot on the increment core; this may indicate the presence of butt or stem rot.

Refer to supplemental disease and insect pests field guides as an aid in identifying damaging agents and their impact on volume loss. Refer to appendix C.5 for a guide for estimating circular internal defect (defect deduction table).

(2) Sound dead volume (Item 461) loss can be detected by cutting into a tree with a hatchet and examining the soundness of the wood. Sound dead wood can be caused by insect or animal girdling, lightning or fire damage, etc.

(3) Form defect volume (Item 462). Only consider the form defects (e.g., crooks, sweep, forks) serious enough to reduce the usable merchantable volume of the tree.

b. Timber species saplings, 1.0- to 4.9-inches DBH . Determine Rotten and Missing Volume (Item 460) and Sound Dead Volume (Item 461) for saplings using the same criteria as in larger trees (see Table 3). In general, do not code defect volume for a sapling unless it has any of the following signs or symptoms which indicate the tree will not likely reach a 5.0-inches DBH sound tree with good form and vigor.

If a sapling will not become a sound tree of good form and vigor, record "100" for Defect Volume (Item 462):

· Mistletoe, rot, or any canker on the main stem.

· Broken or dead top.

· Any girdling of 1/2 or more of the main stem circumference.

· Suppressed trees that will not be released.

· Severely twisted or gnarled main stems.

c. Woodland species tally trees, at least 1 stem 3.0-inches DRC and larger.

(1) Rotten volume (Item 460) may be identified by visual evidence of cubical rot, or indirectly detected by a dull hollow sound when the segment is struck by the flat side of a hatchet. Also, if a tree segment is suspected of containing rot, bore into the segment (but only far enough to detect rot), and check the core for punky wood.

(2) Missing volume (Item 460) includes the merchantable portion of the tree that has been cut (e.g., for posts or firewood) or is broken off. If cutting or other damage (fire scar) on a stem is so old that the tree stem or stub has deteriorated or has been replaced with new growth, do not deduct volume for the original loss.

(3) Sound dead volume (Item 461) includes dead volume only in the merchantable portion; dead ends of branches and stems less than 1.5 inches in diameter are not part of the merchantable portion of the tree, and therefore are not included in determining percent dead volume. Be careful not to overestimate dead volume for trees with numerous dead branch tips.

463 Past Tree Class.

MQO: No errors 80% of the time.

Record only for trees qualifying as mortality. Estimate the live tree class immediately prior to death (see sound, rough, and rotten below).

464 Current Tree Class.

MQO: No errors 90% of the time.

Record a Current Tree Class code for all tally trees and nontallied site trees. Base the Tree Class code on the information collected in Items 460, 461, and 462.

1 - Sound (live) - timber species

- A live sapling (1.0- to 4.9-inches DBH), with minor or no evidence of form defects, insects, or disease, that is expected to become a sound tree 5.0-inches DBH or larger with good form and vigor.

- A live tree, 5.0-inches DBH or larger, that has less than 67 percent of the merchantable volume cull, and contains at least one solid 8-foot section, reasonably free of form defect, on the merchantable bole.

2 - All live woodland species

3 - Rough (live) - timber species

- A live sapling (1.0- to 4.9-inches DBH) with form defects or evidence of insects and disease that will preclude it from becoming a sound tree of good form, 5.0-inches DBH or larger.

- A live tree, 5.0-inches DBH or larger, with 67 percent or more of the merchantable volume cull, and more than half of this cull due to sound dead wood volume loss or severe form-defect volume loss.

- A live tree, 5.0-inches DBH or larger, that does not now, nor prospectively, have at least one solid 8-foot section, reasonably free of form defect, on the merchantable bole.

4 - Rotten (live) - timber species

- A live tree, 5.0-inches DBH or larger, with 67 percent or more of the merchantable volume cull, and more than half of this cull due to rotten and/or missing volume loss.

5 - Hard dead

- A standing or down dead tree, 1.0-inch DBH/DRC or larger, that has a minimum of 33 percent of the original merchantable volume sound (less than 67 percent rotten and/or missing).

6 - Soft dead

- A standing or down dead tree, 1.0-inch DBH/DRC or larger, that has less than 33 percent of the original merchantable volume sound (more than 67 percent rotten and/or missing).

470 Posts - Lines and

471Corners .

MQO: No errors 90% of the time.

Examine all juniper and oak tally trees (live or dead) for fence post products. Line posts are placed along a straight length of fence line to keep the fence strands separated. A corner post is a larger segment used to anchor the fence at a selected locations along the fence line, such as a bend or corner. The criteria for posts are as follows:

a. Corner posts:

· 8.0 feet minimum length.

· 7.0 - 9.0 inches diameter at butt (large) end.

· 2.5 inches minimum diameter at small end.

· Reasonably straight and solid.

b. Line posts:

· 7.0 feet minimum length.

· 5.0 - 7.0 inches diameter at butt (large) end.

· 2.5 inches minimum diameter at small end.

· Reasonably straight and solid.

Record the number of corner and line posts per tally tree. Include qualifying stems and large branches. Ignore portions of butt segments larger than 9.0 inches in diameter; however, count any posts that occur above a large butt segment. Include down stem segments, from stems that have been measured for DRC, if the downed segment meets the post criteria. Consider corner posts first. Do not double record the same segment as a corner and line post. Record 0 if there are none.

472Christmas Tree Grade.

MQO: ±1 class 90% of the time.

Record one of the following one-digit codes for live pinyon tally trees, 12 feet or shorter in height. Refer to figure 21 for illustrations of the following grades:

Code

Grade

1

Premium -- excellent conical form with no gaps in branches; trees have a straight stem/bole.

2

Standard -- good conical form with small gaps in branches; trees are bent or slightly malformed.

3

Utility -- conical in form with branches missing; trees are bent or malformed.

4

Cull -- not meeting one of the above classifications. Poor conical form; large gaps in branches; may have more than one stem.

Figure 21. Christmas tree grades for pinyon.