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Leaves (needles) of high elevation white pines can be retained on branches and functional for up to 40 years.


Dwarf mistletoe

Limber mistletoe

Several dwarf mistletoe species (Arceuthobium spp.) are damaging parasites to high elevation white pines; some have caused severe damage in certain locations. Limber pine dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium cyanocarpum) is of particular concern for all of the high elevation white pines. Heavy mistletoe infection results in reduced growth rates, reduced cone and seed production, and a loss of vigor.

Other dwarf mistletoes species observed on high elevation white pines include:

Western spruce dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium mucrocarpum)
Southwestern dwarf mistletoe (A. vainatum ssp. crytopodum)
Lodgepole dwarf mistletoe (A. americanum)
Larch dwarf mistletoe (A. tsugense ssp. mertensianae)
Western dwarf mistletoe (A. camylopodum)
Hemlock dwarf mistletoe (A. tsugense)

For more information on limber pine dwarf mistletoe

Sources: 96, 2, 20, 24, 33, 97, 81, 98


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