Adequate Knowledge to Determine the Type, Distribution, and Timing of Management
Practices to Sustain Healthy, Productive Forest Ecosystems Resistant to Insects,
Diseases, and Wildfire.
McCaughey, Ward W.: Schmidt, Wyman C. 2001. Taxonomy, distribution, and history.
In: Tomback, Diana F.; Arno, Stephen F.: Keane. Robert E.. eds. Whitebark Pine
Communities: Ecology and Restoration. Washington, DC: Island Press: 29-40.
Jones, J. Greg; Chew, Jimmie D.: Zuuring, Hans R. 1999. Applying simulation and
optimization to plan fuel treatments at landscape scales. In: Gonzalez-Caban,
Armando; Omi, Philip N., tech. coords. Gen Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-173. Proceedings of
the Symposium on Fire Economics. Planning, and Policy: Bottom Lines: 1999 April
05-09; San Diego, CA. Albany. CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Pacific Southwest Research Station: 229-236.
Healthy forests are resistant to disturbance and resilient in response to injury.
New Fire Plan funding enabled to us to initiate new studies on management effects
on residual tree fire in high elevation forests. Aggressive control of wildfire
along with selective harvest of serai, fire-resistant conifer species such as
western larch and ponderosa pine have, ironically, led to stand conditions highly
susceptible to intense, severe wildfire. Earlier, this knowledge helped us
develop ecologically acceptable treatments for jointly reducing the insects,
pathogens, and fire, and we cooperated in establishing several demonstration sites
to illustrate these findings. Forest managers use these sites frequently as they
inform and educate various publics about forest management. We began research to
quantify management effects on the physiology of northern Rockies forests, with
the goal of providing managers with simple indices of potential resilience to
Whitebark pine is critical for grizzly bear survival in the Yellowstone Ecosystem.
Elsewhere, whitebark is an integral part of the high elevation environments. The
survival of this tree is severely threatened by white pine blister rust, an
introduced disease from Europe, native insects such as the mountain pine beetle,
and fire exclusion at the upper elevations. In some places, 90 to 95 percent of
the stands are dead due to one or more of these mortality factors. Studies have
shown that current and future losses will have negative impacts for regional and
. local biodiversity of plants and animals. There may also be impacts on water
quality and stream flows in subalpine watershed as well as a reduction of
aesthetic values. Our unit wrote two chapters in a new book, "Whitebark Pine
Communities - Ecology and Restoration" describing the current ecological status
and potential management options for whitebark pine Taxonomy, Distribution, and
History of Whitebark pine and Natural Regeneration Process.
We continue to develop special successional models and allocation models, such as
SIMPPLLE and MAGIS, and GIS databases to explore forest/pest interactions on