Albuquerque Lab
Related Links
Contact Information

Albuquerque Forestry Sciences Laboratory
333 Broadway SE. Suite 115
Albuquerque, NM 87102-3497
Phone: 505-724-3660
Fax: 505-724-3688

Carol B. Raish

c.raishResearch Social Scientist


Ph.D., Anthropology/Archaeology, University of New Mexico, 1988
M.A., Anthropology/Archaeology, University of Nebraska, 1979
B.A., Spanish, Washburn University, 1968


Carol's interests in anthropology and archaeology began when she took an anthropology class as an undergraduate. Six years after obtaining her bachelor's degree, she returned to school to pursue advanced degrees in anthropology. Her interests in the field include studying similarities in farming and ranching across cultures, and in exploring underlying causes of land-use conflict. She also examines the importance of small-scale ranching to maintaining the heritage and traditions of families and individuals. She served as a temporary employee for the Forest Service for archaeology projects with the Cibola National Forest before becoming a permanent employee in 1989.

Current Research

Carol is examining cultural and ethnic variations in fire use and management practices. She is also studying homeowner attitudes toward fire threat mitigation. She is conducting research to determine management practices favored by communities and users of Valles Caldera National Preserve and continues her work with understanding the role and importance of ranching to families and communites. Results of her studies will help the Forest Service to understand the importance of ranching in rural Hispanic cultures as well as to better manage Forest Service relations with communities and individuals.


Raish C. 1996. Historic land use and grazing patterns in northern New Mexico. In: Shaw DW, Finch DM, organizers. General Technical Report RM-272. Desired Future Conditions for Southwestern Riparian Ecosystems: Bringing Interests and Concerns Together. Fort Collins, CO: USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, p 189-197. PDF

Raish C. 1999. Española/Canjilon pilot study: economic, social, and cultural aspects of public land grazing on the Santa Fe and Carson National Forests. In: Finch DM, Whitney JC, Kelly JF, Loftin SR, eds. Proceedings RMRS-P-7. Rio Grande Ecosystems: Linking Land, Water, and People. Toward a Sustainable Future for the Middle Rio Grande Basin. Fort Collins, CO: USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, p 35-38. order a copy

Jemison R, Raish C, (eds.). 2000. Livestock Management in the American Southwest: Ecology, Society, and Economics. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Science. available for purchase

Eastman C, Raish C, McSweeney AM. 2000. Small livestock operations in northern New Mexico. In: Jemison R, Raish C, eds. Livestock Management in the American Southwest: Ecology, Society, and Economics. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Science, p 523-554. available for purchase

Raish C. 2000. Environmentalism, the Forest Service, and the Hispano communities of northern New Mexico. Society and Natural Resources 13(5): 489-508. PDF

Raish C. 2000. Lessons for restoration in traditions of stewardship: sustainable land management in northern New Mexico. In: Gobster PH, Hull RB, eds. Restoring Nature: Perspectives from the Social Sciences and Humanities. Washington D.C. and Covelo, CA: Island Press, p 281-297. available for purchase

Raish C, McSweeney AM. 2001. Livestock ranching and traditional culture in northern New Mexico. Natural Resources Journal 41(3): 713-730. link to journal

Raish C, McSweeney AM. 2003. Economic, social, and cultural aspects of livestock ranching on the Española and Canjilon Ranger Districts of the Santa Fe and Carson National Forests: a pilot study. General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-113. Fort Collins, CO: USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 89 pp.

Raish C, McSweeney AM, Baldwin AR. 2003. Small-scale ranching and traditional economic practices in northern New Mexico. In: Allsopp N, Palmer AR, Milton SJ, Kirkman KP, Kerley GIH., Hurt CR, and Brown CJ, eds. Proceedings of the VIIth International Rangeland Congress, Rangelands in the New Millennium, 26 July-1 August 2003, Durban, South Africa. p.1689-1690. CD-ROM.

Raish C. 2004. Historic and contemporary land use in Southwestern grassland ecosystems. In: Finch, DM, ed. General Technical Report RMRS-135, vol. 1. Assessment of grassland ecosystem conditions in the Southwestern United States. Fort Collins, CO: USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, p. 86-119.

McSweeney AM, Raish C. 2004. Traditional use practices and environmental conservation in southwestern national forests, USA. In: Camarda I, Manfredo MJ, Mulas F, and Teel TL, eds. Global Challenges of Parks and Protected Area Management, Proceedings of the 9th ISSRM, 10-13 October 2002, La Maddalena, Sardinia, Italy. Sassari, Sardinia, Italy: Carlo Delfino editore, p. 385-392. request a copy

McSweeney AM., Raish C. 2005. High elevation grasslands as a crucial resource to ranchers of northern New Mexico. In: Proceedings of the XX International Grassland Congress, 26 June - 1 July 2005, Dublin, Ireland. The Netherlands: Wageningen Academic Publishers, p. 855. available for purchase

Raish, C, González-Cabán A, Condie CJ. 2005. The importance of traditional fire use and management practices for contemporary land managers in the American Southwest. Environmental Hazards 6:115-122.

Raish, C. 2007. Review of: Campbell, Claire Elizabeth,. Shaped by the West Wind: Nature and History in Georgian Bay. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2004. 265p. $85.00 (cloth), $29.95 (paper) ISBN: 0-7748-1098-X (cloth), 0-7748-1099-8 (paper). available for purchase

Raish, C., González-Cabán A, Martin W, Martin IM, Bender H. 2007. Cultural variation in public perceptions concerning fire use and management. In: Daniel T, Carroll M, Moseley C, Raish C, eds. People, Fire, and Forests. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press. available for purchase

Martin IM, Bender H, Raish C. 2007. What motivates homeowners to protect themselves from wildfire risks in the WUI? In: Martin WE, Raish C, Kent B, eds. Wildfire Risk: Human Perceptions and Management Implications. Washington, DC: RFF Press. available for purchase

Martin IM, Bender H, Raish C. 2007. What motivates individuals to protect themselves from risks: the case of wildland fires. Risk Analysis 27 (4): 887-900. available for purchase

a more complete list of my publications is availablble from FSINFO