About Wildland Fires
Each year, fires that start in American wildlands devastate lives and livelihoods – destroying homes, damaging natural resources, and polluting water and air. On average, there are tens of thousands of wildland fires each year, impacting millions of acres. In 2012 alone, 67,774 wildland fires burned, covering 9,326,238 acres; the USDA Forest Service spent over $1.4 billion dollars to suppress these fires. Additional losses from damage to natural resources and infrastructure as well as other economic impacts can be many times the cost of suppression.
At the same time, fire also plays an essential role in sustaining ecosystems and provides benefits to society. Almost every wildland ecosystem in North America has a history of fire, but with greatly varied patterns of fire frequency and type. Understanding the ecological role of fire is essential for balancing the benefits and risks of alternative fire management strategies.
About this Research
To better equip managers to deal with wildland fires, Forest Service fire scientists develop and provide knowledge and tools that help reduce the negative impacts of fire while enhancing the beneficial effects of fire and fire management on society and the environment. The research focuses on understanding and modeling fundamental fire processes, interactions of fire with ecosystems and the environment, social and economic aspects of fire, evaluating integrated management strategies and disturbance interactions, and applying fire research to management problems.
Since the early 1900s, Forest Service fire research has played a vital role in the agency’s fire and fuels management program. The results and products from this work are used by managers in making tactical firefighting decisions, in prioritizing and implementing fuel hazard reduction projects, in smoke forecasting, in rehabilitating and restoring land after severe wildfire, and in providing information to home owners in the wildland-urban interface.
Recognizing the complexity and scope of wildland fires, Forest Service Research & Development’s approach emphasizes cutting-edge and world-renowned research that is conducted by experts located around the country.
- The Missoula Fire Sciences Laboratory, part of the Rocky Mountain Research Station, conducts research into the fundamentals of fire behavior, extensive modeling of fire behavior, studies of soil heating, determination of fire effects and ecosystem response to fire, estimation of fire danger, as well as measurements of smoke emissions, dispersion, and chemical content.
- The Pacific Wildland Fire Sciences Laboratory, located in the Pacific Northwest Research Station, Seattle, WA, specializes in combustion science and fire physics, fuel science and fire behavior modeling, effects of fire on air quality, effects of fire on forest ecosystems, and fire behavior and effects in the wildland-urban interface.
- At the Pacific Southwest Research Station in Riverside, CA, researchers investigate environmental and physical aspects of fire science.
- Wildland fire and fuels research supports the Forest Service Fire & Aviation Management Program, which is a world leader in wildland fire management using a combination of aviation technology, computer simulated fire management programs, and resource tracking systems most of it developed by our science findings.
- At the Rocky Mountain Research Station, the Boise Aquatic Sciences Laboratory is conducting research to ensure that land managers have access to the most current science findings and tools to best manage aquatic systems in fire prone landscapes.
- The Northern Research Station conducts research and develops/delivers new products to address both national and regional fire issues relevant to forest ecosystems in the Midwest and Northeast.
Fire and Fuels Research
There are five current emphasis areas of fire and fuels research:
Physical Fire Science: basic fire science, including physical fire processes, the characteristics of fire at multiple scales, and fire danger assessment
Ecological and Environmental Fire Science: fire effects on ecosystem components, and fire and environmental interactions
Social Fire Science: public interactions with fire and fuels management, socioeconomic aspects of fires and fuels management, and organizational effectiveness
Integrated Fire and Fuels Management Science: management strategies at multiple scales, treatment and disturbance effects on ecosystem components, and forest operations, including biomass utilization and product development associated with fire and fuel management activities
Science Delivery: ensuring that knowledge generated by Forest Service scientists reaches groups and individuals who will benefit from it, including policy makers, wildland fire managers, and local communities