Particleboards are widely used for construction, furniture, and interior decoration. The primary material used in the particleboard panel industry is wood, but there has recently been a revival of interest in using agriculture residues to produce particleboards and other composite panels due to competition for wood raw materials and for economical and environmental considerations. Globally, wheat and rice are the most important food grains ranking second and third in terms of the total cereal production, and appear to be the most promising agriculture residues for manufacturing composite panels. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of oxalic acid (OA) - and steam-pretreatment on the primary performance of rice straw particleboards. In addition, the effect of various treatment conditions on carbohydrates released from rice straw particles was investigated. The results show that steam- and short durations of OA-treatment significantly improved the mechanical properties and dimensional stability of rice straw particleboards. However, steam-treated rice straw (without OA-treatment) panels exhibited even better performance when compared with OA-treated panels. OA-pretreatment time has a negative effect on performance of panels, whereas the effect of temperature on the performance of OA-treated panels was not significant, except for the linear expansion. OA-treatment accelerated carbohydrates extraction. The sugars released from the OA-treated rice straw particles increase with increasing treatment temperature and time. Carbohydrates extracted from rice straw particles could be a potential sustainable resource for biofuel or bio-based chemicals.