Appendix D

Glossary

Adobe

Architectural character

Architectural character type

Arts and Crafts Movement

Balds

Bargeboards

Base

Battered

Built environment

Canales

Chickees

Civilian Conservation Corps

Cold roofs

Context

Corbels

Coursed cobblestone

Dependencies

Dogtrot house

Dripline

Eave soffit

Embodied energy

Expressed oversized structure

Fall line

Family of signs

Fee demonstration

Forest Service region

Forest Service shield

Gable

Gable roof

Granger-Thye permit

Half-timbering

Head frames

Hip roofs

INFRA

Landscape character

Landscape character types

Line officer

Lintel

Mandan lodges

Massing

Meaningful Measures

National Recreation Strategy

Naturalness

Partnerships

Province

Rafter tails

ROS

Recreation Opportunity Spectrum (ROS):

Rustic

Scale

Scenery Management System (SMS)

Shotgun house

Structure

Sustainability

Tabby

Townscape

Utilitarian building

Universal Design

Vigas

Visual Management System (VMS)

Works Progress Administration (WPA)

 

DEFINITIONS

 

Adobe: A sun dried, unburned brick of clay and

straw. The clay of which the brick is made is

also referred to as ďadobeĒ clay and used as

the mortar for cementing the blocks together.

Glossary

Readerís Guide

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Architectural character: The distinguishing

appearance of a building or structureís

architectural features, such as roof slope,

materials, openings, massing, color, and scale.

The character is based on ecological and

cultural influences.

Glossary

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Architectural character type: Based on ecological

and cultural influences, the architectural

character definition for a distinctive and broad

geographic area. An architectural character

type with distinct and distinguishing features

is defined for each of eight provinces.

Glossary

Readerís Guide

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Arts and Crafts Movement: A building and

design period from approximately 1890 to 1929

that is best characterized by the Craftsman

style structure. The movement, which

essentially is a style of simplicity and lack of

fanciful ornamentation, included design of

structures, furniture, textiles, and pottery.

Popular architects of this period and design

included John Ruskin, Gustave Stickley,

Charles Limbert, and Frank Loyd Wright.

Glossary

Readerís Guide

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Balds: Southern Appalachian mountain balds are

meadow-like, essentially treeless openings of

grasses, sedges, forbs, and shrubs that occur

above 4,000 feet in elevation on mountain

gaps, ridges, and crests. When viewed from a

distance these areas appear ďbaldĒ as opposed

to the surrounding taller vegetation.

Glossary

Readerís Guide

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Bargeboards: The covering of the outside edge

of a gable roof that runs parallel with the

rafters.

Glossary

Readerís Guide

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Base: Bottom or lower part of a building; its

connection to the ground or land.

Glossary

Readerís Guide

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Battered: A wall that has been methodically

stepped back to form a slope from bottom

to top. Typically this treatment is used in

retaining walls to use the weight of the wall

to resist the horizontal forces.

Glossary

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Built environment: The part of the environment

formed by humans, including buildings,

structures, landscaping, earth forms,

roads, signs, trails, and utilities.

Glossary

Readerís Guide

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Canales: ďCanalĒ and ďCanalesĒ are the Spanish

words for a drain or waterspout that takes

water from a roof and dispenses it off the

side of the building away from the wall.

Glossary

Readerís Guide

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Chickees: A traditional abode of Southwest

Floridaís Native Americans; ďchickeeĒ in the

Mikasuki language means ďdwelling.Ē It is an

open air structure made from peeled pine or

cypress poles with palm fronds nailed to the

roof poles in an overlapping circular manner

for water tightness.

Glossary

Readerís Guide

Appendix D Table of Contents

 

Civilian Conservation Corps: Formed in the Great

Depression, the Civilian Conservation Corps is

a national Government work program that

operated from 1933 to 1942 to employ

500,000 18- to 25-year-old men from lowincome

and nonworking families at jobs in

forests, parks, and rangelands. It was a joint

Government operation: the Army ran the

camps; the Departments of the Interior and

Agriculture were responsible for work projects

and personnel to manage them. The program

created many high-quality structures,

buildings, and campgrounds; most of which

still remain in use.

Glossary

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Cold roofs: A continuous, semi-flexible roof

membrane, consisting of plies of felts, mats,

or fabrics that are laminated on a roof with

alternate layers of cold-applied roof cement

and surfaced with a cold-applied coating.

Glossary

Readerís Guide

Appendix D Table of Contents

 

Context: The larger sphere of influence that a

facility is considered within and affected by.

Three contexts for sustainability are ecological,

cultural, and economic.

Glossary

Readerís Guide

Appendix D Table of Contents

 

Corbels: In Southwest style of post and beam

building, the corbel is the decorated support

capping the post and supporting the beam.

Its purpose is to dissipate the load of the

beam onto the post, as well as decoration.

Glossary

Readerís Guide

Appendix D Table of Contents

 

Coursed cobblestone: Cobblestones are stones

chiseled to roughly rectangular shapes; they

are coursed when the bed joints are visible as

horizontal layers.

Glossary

Readerís Guide

Appendix D Table of Contents

 

Dependencies: Numerous out buildings associated

with farming, such as barns, tool sheds, chicken

houses, smoke houses, and corn cribs.

Glossary

Readerís Guide

Appendix D Table of Contents

 

Dogtrot house: Simple, long, narrow house of logs

with gable roof popular in the old South, some

with siding over the logs for better appearance

and large doors in the middle of the house on

each side to let the breeze blow though. A

porch and doors were typically on both sides

of the house. Name derived from the fact that

not only the breeze went through the middle,

but also the dogs.

Glossary

Readerís Guide

Appendix D Table of Contents

 

Dripline: The point at which drainage water drops

from a structure of any form or material to

fall to the surface below. Examples: drip line of

a tree or drip line of a roof.

Glossary

Readerís Guide

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Eave soffit: A horizontal covering from the

underside of the roof edge to the house wall.

The soffit would typically cover the rafter ends.

Glossary

Readerís Guide

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Embodied energy: For buildings, it is the sum

total energy required for construction (that

is, procurement of materials, on site activity,

and, also, maintenance and refurbishment and

demolition). It can be compared to the capital

cost of the building only in terms of energy

measurement, not monetary terms. For

materials, it is the total energy measured in

units of energy to create for a unit of weight.

Glossary

Readerís Guide

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Expressed oversized structure: One typical

element was enlarged or exaggerated to

emphasize it as a major design feature

(for example, the front porch of a Craftsman

Bungalow style house with very large porch

piers).

Glossary

Readerís Guide

Appendix D Table of Contents

 

Fall line: A point where the coastal plain rocks

have eroded back to the harder upland rocks

that form a barrier in a river. Typically this

fall line would create waterfalls for power

generation, as well as form the point where

boats would have to be unloaded to move their

cargo upriver. These points formed natural

features around which early towns formed in

the 19th century.

Glossary

Readerís Guide

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Family of signs: A series of signs with a

distinctive shape that serve as an informal

logo of the Forest Service. The signs have

different, but similar, shapes with different

sizes and have a protocol of use as delineated

in Engineering Management series publication:

EM-7100-15, Sign and Poster Guidelines For

The Forest Service. The signs of dark brown

and crŤme (off white) color are usually entrance

signs and readily identify a Forest Service

facility.

Glossary

Readerís Guide

Appendix D Table of Contents

 

Fee demonstration: A temporary program

authorized by Congress in 1996 to allow

certain Government agencies to charge fees

for use of developed recreation sites and

parking. A condition of the program is that

the fees are to be used to maintain the

existing sites within the fee area. The program

was to last 2 years but has been extended

and could possibly be made permanent.

Glossary

Readerís Guide

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Forest Service region: For administrative

purposes, the Forest Service has divided the

States and territories into 10 administrative

units called regions. Each region has a regional

forester with staff to serve as administrator

for the forests in the region.

Glossary

Readerís Guide

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Forest Service shield: This is the official

logo/symbol of the Forest Service used to

denote official correspondence and property

owned or operated by the agency. It consists

of a badge-like shield, a single conifer tree

between the letters U and S, and the words

Forest Service above the tree and Dept. of

Agriculture on the lower side.

Glossary

Readerís Guide

Appendix D Table of Contents

 

Gable: The triangular wall section at the ends of

a pitched roof bounded by the two roof slopes.

The gable is the vertical wall section.

Glossary

Readerís Guide

Appendix D Table of Contents

 

Gable roof: Two pitched roofs back to back

forming a triangle on each end called a gable.

Glossary

Readerís Guide

Appendix D Table of Contents

 

Granger-Thye permit: The Granger-Thye Act of

April 24, 1954, is a far-reaching statutory

authority allowing Forest Service funds and

property to be used in specific ways. This act is

the basis for the use of Government facilities

by private parties (rentals) and expenditures of

Government money on other than Government

lands and concessionaire programs. The permit

is the document outlining the conditions and

terms of the action.

Glossary

Readerís Guide

Appendix D Table of Contents

 

Half-timbering: Exposed wood beams on the

exterior of the house in between stucco or

other materials. This was a feature of some

Craftsman homes. Because it is simpler and

less complex, it should not to be confused

with Tudor style houses.

Glossary

Readerís Guide

Appendix D Table of Contents

 

Head frames: The steel or timber frame at the

top of a mining shaft, which carries the sheave

or pulley for the hoisting rope, and serves

various other purposes. Includes all the raised

structure around the shaft that is used for

loading and unloading cages.

Glossary

Readerís Guide

Appendix D Table of Contents

 

Hip roofs: A gable roof with the ends brought

together at the same pitch as the rest of

the roof so all four sides of the roof are the

same angle.

Glossary

Readerís Guide

Appendix D Table of Contents

 

INFRA: Acronym for ďInfrastructure.Ē A Forest

Service corporate database and inventory of

the entire national forest and grasslands built

environment, including roads, buildings, trails,

structures, utilities, and all other improvements.

Glossary

Readerís Guide

Appendix D Table of Contents

 

Landscape character: The distinguishing

appearance of a landscapeís visual and

ecological factors; landscape character is

defined in visual aspects of landform, climate,

geology, and surfacial rock; water features;

vegetation; color; and cultural pattern.

Glossary

Readerís Guide

Appendix D Table of Contents

 

Landscape character types: A subdivision of

a province having overall characteristics of

the province but having a distinguishing

geographically specific landscape character.

For example, the Southern Rocky Mountain,

Northern Rocky Mountain, and Black Hills

landscape character types of the Rocky

Mountain Province.

Glossary

Readerís Guide

Appendix D Table of Contents

 

Line officer: Forest Service administrative

decisionmaker, for example, the district ranger

or forest supervisor.

Glossary

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Appendix D Table of Contents

 

Lintel: The horizontal beam forming the upper

support member for a door or window frame

carrying the weight of the structure to the

side supports.

Glossary

Readerís Guide

Appendix D Table of Contents

 

Mandan lodges: Earth covered post and beam

lodges of the North Dakota Mandan Tribe.

All around the perimeter of the lodge were

12 pillars that supported the rafters that

radiated down from the smoke hole at the

center and the 4 central posts. Across the

tops of these posts ran stringers, and slanting

down to the ground was an outer wall of

vertical-slanted logs. This formed a storage

space where firewood was kept and a coral for

favored horses, that might be brought in to

protect them from enemy raiding or dangerous

storms. The log walls and roof were covered

with willow poles, then brush, then heaped with

dirt. The lodges were arranged in circles around

a ceremonial plaza.

Glossary

Readerís Guide

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Massing: Expanse, spatial enclosure having form

or bulk; the resultant shape or form of buildings

or a building group.

Glossary

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Appendix D Table of Contents

 

Meaningful Measures: A Forest Service

recreation management system defining

measurable quality standards, costs, priorities,

targets, and results monitoring reporting.

Glossary

Readerís Guide

Appendix D Table of Contents

 

National Recreation Strategy: Now known as

the National Recreation Agenda, the strategy

was the fourth element in the Forest Serviceís

Natural Resource Agenda and the plan of

action to meet the expanding recreation use

and protect the health, diversity, and

productivity of the land. The strategy focuses

on five key goals: 1) improving the settings

for outdoor recreation and enhancing visitor

experiences, 2) guaranteeing visitor

satisfaction with services and facilities,

3) reaching out to rural and urban communities

to capitalize on the social and economic

opportunities associated with recreation on

the national forests, 4) strengthening our

relationships with those who cooperate to

improve outdoor recreation for all Americans,

and 5) ensuring that recreation use does

not impair the landís health.

Glossary

Readerís Guide

Appendix D Table of Contents

 

Naturalness: The level or degree of landscape of

modification and the predominance of nature

versus human alterations.

Glossary

Readerís Guide

Appendix D Table of Contents

 

Partnerships: A term implying a formal or

informal level of cooperation to achieve a

certain goal desired by the interested partner

and Forest Service. A partnership is a

framework to recognize and involve interested

parties in cooperating with the Forest Service.

Glossary

Readerís Guide

Appendix D Table of Contents

 

Province: A broad geographic area having similar

and distinguishing ecological and cultural

characteristics.

Glossary

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Rafter tails: Same as rafter ends; the end of

the rafters exposed at the edge of the eave.

Glossary

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ROS: Recreation Opportunity Spectrum, defining

six different recreation settings varying from

urban to primitive.

Glossary

Readerís Guide

Appendix D Table of Contents

 

Recreation Opportunity Spectrum (ROS): A

recreation planning land classification system

that defines areas by the probable recreation

experience it provides in terms of setting and

level of development. The setting is measured

by the number of people expected, producing

different levels of solitude and the evidence of

human use as shown by management activities

and degree of development.

Glossary

Readerís Guide

Appendix D Table of Contents

 

Rustic: A historic building style generally

employing local native materials and extensive

use of unrefined or natural formed wood

members and stone.

Glossary

Readerís Guide

Appendix D Table of Contents

 

Scale: Two definitions: (1) in architecture, the

size of a building or structure in relation to

a human, varying from small intimate to

monumental, and (2) the geographic context

for relating to and identifying the built

environmentóthese scales are Nation,

province, and site; goals such as national

identity influence architectural character at

a site scale and vice versa.

Glossary

Readerís Guide

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Scenery Management System (SMS): Provides

an overall framework for the orderly inventory,

analysis, and management of scenery. Applies

to every acre of national forest and national

grasslands administered by the Forest Service

and to all Forest Service activities, including

timber harvesting, road building, stream

improvements, special use developments,

utility line construction, recreation

developments, and fuel breaks.

Glossary

Readerís Guide

Appendix D Table of Contents

 

Shotgun house: Simple, long, narrow, one-story,

gable roof house with a narrow, covered front

porch in front. A door and back door are on

the other end with a small platform. Rooms

were as wide as the house and doors continued

through the rooms to the end. This was

typically a low-cost house for low-income

residents.

Glossary

Readerís Guide

Appendix D Table of Contents

 

Structure: Description of the spatial relationship

of components parts of a building and their

connections. Also, a term for something built

having mass and shape (for example, bridge,

tower, or building).

Glossary

Readerís Guide

Appendix D Table of Contents

 

Sustainability: An aspect of developments and

land uses that (1) minimizes the use of

resources, (2) conserves ecosystems, and

(3) creates healthy built environments and

landscapes for present and future generations.

Glossary

Readerís Guide

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Tabby: Early cement made from lime, sand, and

oyster shells and used mostly on the southern

Atlantic coast. Walls were made from this

material poured into forms; some walls were

then covered with stucco and also scored to

appear as blocks.

Glossary

Readerís Guide

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Townscape: A component of the landscape

comprised of a town or city, including a town

center, commercial area, and residential area.

Glossary

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Utilitarian building: Buildings tending to be of

few functions and not used by the public, for

example, warehouse, and well houses.

Glossary

Readerís Guide

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Universal Design: A term for a public philosophy

directing the design of products and

environments to be usable by all people, to

the greatest extent possible, without the

need for adaptation or specialized design.

The intent of universal design is to simplify

life for everyone by making products,

communications, and the built environment

more usable by as many people as possible

at little or no extra cost. Universal design

benefits people of all ages and abilities

(1997 North Carolina State University,

The Center for Universal Design).

Glossary

Readerís Guide

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Vigas: In the Southwestern United States, a

vigas is a tree log often stripped of its bark

and used in a room, or throughout a house,

for structural roof support or decoration.

Glossary

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Visual Management System (VMS): A guideline

process developed by the Forest Service in 1974

to retain a selected level of visual quality in the

seen landscape. The landscape is sorted into

different areas in terms of distance, relative

quantities of persons viewing the landscape

for recreation reasons, and quality of scenery.

This system was modified in 1996 and evolved

into the Scenery Management System.

Glossary

Readerís Guide

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Works Progress Administration (WPA): An

independent agency established by Congress

in 1935 to provide jobs during the Great

Depression. Although it primarily created

major public work construction jobs, it also

provided art, music, writing, and theater

projects. The need for the WPA ended in 1941;

the agency was officially eliminated in 1943.

Glossary

 

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