Choose site based on the availability of shade.
Use traditional courtyards to provide shade
and cooling for year-round use.
Use traditional L-shaped or U-shaped
courtyards, particularly as entryways.
Cluster different building functions around
Plant shade trees on west side.
Locate buildings for views and access to water.
Avoid riparian areasdirect people to the water
with trails, but do not locate facilities there.
Locate parking farthest from water in riparian
Locate public facilities back from the rim of
canyons or on a bench above the riparian zone.
Site entries on south side to create potential
courtyards and seating.
Select site based on the form of the land; for
example, site structures to match the
horizontal plane of the landscape.
Buffer parking from buildings to keep buildings
Figure is a plan view of buildings and walls creating outdoor rooms.
Figure of a courtyard and water feature for evaporative cooling.
Figure is a profile of a riparian zone that is protected with managed access from the development zone.
Figure of a riparian zone without buildings and protected from development. Small facilities are at canyon constrictions and larger facilities are at canyon openings.
Figure of courtyards protected from the sun, while promoting
Figure of buildings clustered to create a courtyard. Trees are positioned and a veranda or trellis is constructed on south and west for shade.
Figure is a typical cross section of development in a riparian valley. The development zone is on a south-facing slope and construction is avoided in the viewing zone across the valley.
Figure is a typical site profile with parking and building zones separated by shaded buffers and courtyards.
MASSING AND SCALE
Structures are usually low, horizontal, blocky,
Blocky, massive, rectilinear forms create
texture and shade.
Terraced, stepped massing fits into landscape
better and is preferable to one solid block.
Simple wall masses are common.
Rounded, kiva-like building forms can work for
special places such as spaces for exhibits
Foothills evoke taller, more vertical structures,
especially in areas with taller oaks and
Roofs and walls are in equal proportion.
Figure suggesting the building mass be kept more horizontal than vertical.
Figure of doors and windows used to create human scale.
Figures suggesting type of building mass:
· Low, horizontal, and rectangular massing is appropriate for most structures.
· Second story possible
· Corners create added shade
· Rounded forms may be appropriate for special and ceremonial functions
Create a solid, firm base as a connection to
Design a rock foundation if rocks are prevalent
Use a stone base for structural columns.
Avoid an articulated base on level sites.
Avoid elevation on stilts.
Minimize foundation planting.
Band the base in a different color so mud
splash will not show.
Provide drainage away from structure.
Design the bottom of the wall wider so that
walls appear stacked on top.
· Stepped base for sloping sites
· Selectively clear vegetation & slope away from structure for drainage
Figure of types of bases to avoid:
Stone bases are more prevalent in California
Employ more variety in base types.
Design the base to be more vertical.
Use a battered base for slopes.
Figure of base created from different natural materials in the California Mountains.
Walls (including parapets) are dominant in the
Walls are monolithic and massive.
Monolithic, unadorned walls can be accented
by wood elements and detailing.
Walls have soft, rounded edges and corners.
Caps on walls add texture.
Variations include buttresses on walls.
Courtyard walls are extended from the building
with the same materials, color, and texture.
Walls are thinner.
Walls are less dominant in composition.
Resistance to earthquakes is a primary
Use wood siding if stained rather than painted.
Limit logs and heavy timbers to structures
at higher-elevation sites with more dense
vegetation; use moderate-size rather than
Figure of building in the California Mountains where walls and roofs are proportionately more equal.
Figure of walls that should be thinner in California Mountains due to more temperate climate and greater seismic activity.
Figure of butresses providing a vertical expression within a horizontal wall.
Figure of courtyard walls extending the buildings horizontal plane.
Figure of walls that are simple, monolithic and without an expressed base. The roof is a minor element and the wall is a major element.
WINDOWS AND OPENINGS
Use traditional and typical, thick, inset
windows, with deep shadows.
Use smaller, punched openingsmore
typical than large expanses of glass.
Place window openings on the northeast and
Minimize openings on the west side.
Give preference to operable, double-hung,
divided light windows.
Select tall vertical windows rather than wide,
Place windows high on walls to minimize the
reflection of light and heat from ground.
Do not place larger windows on the west or
Include traditional ornament such as decorative
tiles and carved wood on doors and windows.
Avoid horizontal bands of windows.
Avoid windows at corners.
Use exposed lintelsa structural element that
is also a cultural elementover openings.
Use shade structures such as trellises and
Include verandas and porches.
Arched or detailed doorways and portals
are more common.
Windows are not recessed.
More and larger windows are suitable.
Figure of appropriate treatment of windows and openings:
· Add details at doorways.
· Windows should be recessed within walls
· Windows should be placed on north, east, and south
· Openings should not be on the west
Figure of shade created with trellis elements
Figure of door-frame flush with wall.
Figure suggesting more detail should be expressed at windows and doors at the head/lintel, jamb, and sill.
Figure suggesting that openings of courtyards be designed to create shaded areas.
Flat roofs are a strong cultural tradition in this
province, but there are historical precedents for
pitched roofs as well. Pitched roofs can improve
ventilation, create attic space, curtail vandalism,
and reduce maintenance. A suitable hybrid
involves hiding a gently sloping roof behind a flat
Use flat roofs within townscapes or in areas
with flat topography.
Use pitched roofs in vegetated areas or within
more rolling topography.
Design roof pitch ranges from 1:12 to 6:12.
Add shed roofs to create porches.
Use hipped and double-pitched roofs.
Include larger overhangs.
Include verandas and porches.
Figures of appropriate roofs:
· Simple shed forms may be added to steeper-pitched gable forms with overhangs of 12-15".
· In California, broader overhangs should be created that focus views out to the landscape.
· Shed roofs may be hidden behind flat parapet walls
· Pitched roofs with a moderate 1215" overhang should be used in varied mountainous terrain
Create exterior walls that are load-bearing and
should appear massive.
Enclose wall structure but expose roof beams
(vigas) and other roof structure.
Expose ceiling structure, including corbels,
beams, and rafters (often decorative).
Expose lintels over windows.
Protrude structural timbers through the
Expose massive structures that have less
detail; however, lighter structures have more
Use stout and strong columns on ramadas.
Figure of exposed structure that is limited primarily to roof supports such as load bearing walls, beams, corbel, column, and rafters.
Figure of structural expression limited to roof and possibly window supports such as the roof viga and lintel.
Select natural materials with integral colors
that do not need to be painted or stained.
Make walls from stone, adobe, concrete block,
or split-face block.
Use suitable masonry materials including
CMU block, adobe, and stacked flagstone.
Use strongly textured wall materials to create
a pleasing play of light and shadow patterns.
Make a rough or smooth texture wall to match
the scale of setting.
Use anodized steel to reduce maintenance and
as an alternative to wood on exposed
Use fluted materials to disperse heat.
Use decomposed granite and concrete to
match surrounding earth tones for pathways.
Use pavers for highly developed areas or in
Avoid materials on horizontal surfaces that
attract and retain heat.
Avoid reflective materials that create glare.
Avoid exposed wood unless protected from sun.
Use native or locally produced materials when
Use metal siding for utilitarian structures.
Make traditional-style fences and shade
structures from small-diameter, collected
woodsometimes called coyote, Mormon, or
Figure of materials types that may be more varied in the California mountains: Board and batten gable, Shingle gable,
Wood siding, Stucco wall, and Stone Base
Figure of ornamental use of manufactured split-free concrete block, including fluted detailing.
Use standing-seam or corrugated metal roofs.
Use heavy asphalt shingles, concrete tile, and
Use concrete tile and clay mission tile if
Avoid shake roofs and stamped metal shake
Figure of appropriate roofing materials:
Seamed Metal, Composition
Concrete or fiber-cement shingles, (Mission) clay tile,
Make colors slightly darker than landscape
precedents as they will fade in the intense
sunlight. Dark colors also look lighter in the
Use lighter colors for brightness in interiors.
Use light, moderate earth tones, including brown,
gray, terra cotta, gray-green, olive, and sage.
Avoid deep, rich greens.
Avoid reflective colors.
Use color as an accent in decorative elements
such as clay tiles, mosaics, and in door and
Use light, bright colors in townscapes.
Use darker colors in mountains.
Figures that suggest a concentration of details at focal points:
· Corbel intersection of column and beam
· Coyote fence of native cedar with stucco or stone post.
Figures of detailing:
· Handmade tiles located at a focal point of a chimney.
· Detail at end of structural members
· Handcrafted fixtures and hardware including light fixture, hand-wrought door pull, and hand-wrought door hinge.