• Build within created clearings to preserve

existing vegetation.

• On mountaintops, place structures below the

top of the ridge to avoid structure silhouette.

• On plateaus, place structures at the highest

elevation for vistas and breezes.

• Place observation structures (such as viewing

platforms and towers) within the tree canopy

and back from edge of ridges.

• Place buildings just above the floodplain in



Figure of Development limited at the top of the ridges and structure moved off of the high point of the ridge


Figure of a Building site limited to the toe of slope

With the Riparian zone separated by a Landscape buffer



Figure of Observation platform using local and natural materials


Other guidelines for SITING:

• Site buildings to shelter wind on three sides

while providing sun exposure on the south side

in coves.

• Place larger buildings in the broader valleys.

• Break up expanses of parking by terracing lots.

• Connect related buildings with decks and


• Clear vegetation around buildings (but “limb up”

trees rather than removing them) for

ventilation and protection from insects and


• Place structure parallel to contours of the



Figure of Landscape buffer maintained in riparian zones adjacent both a Lake and a River


Figure of Historic development in sheltered coves below ridges.


Figure of Branches trimmed up and undergrowth cleared for ventilation and protection from snakes and insects.



• Create compounds of several related buildings

rather than one large building to minimize

building footprints.

• Break down the scale of large buildings with

multiple forms.

• Reduce building mass by stepping down

sloped sites.


Figure of a Traditional building cluster

Figure encouraging clustering of structures


Other guidelines for MASSING AND SCALE

• Create buildings that appear to have grown

and evolved through time by combining

different forms, such as shed and gable-style


• Design rectangular buildings to be sited on

an east-west axis; these respond to solar

conditions and breezes better than square



Figure of the relation of building mass to setting:

Small valley relates to smaller mass

Hill-top relates to minimal mass

Large valley relates to larger mass


Figure of Large building broken down in scale to smaller forms and those forms stepping down the slope.



• Design roofs to be the dominant element

of the building.

• Use broad overhangs to create a

sheltering feeling.

• Complement the angles of landforms by

sloping the roof.

• Design the roof pitches to range from

6:12 to 9:12; porch roofs can have a

flatter pitch than the main roof.

• Avoid A-frames, mansard roofs,

or flat roofs.


Figure of Predominant roof forms:

Gable roof and shed porch


Roof characteristics include:

• Addition intersecting with main roof

• Broad overhangs

• Flatter porch

• Chimney on end


Figure of Addition with a shed or gable roof that has broad overhangs.



• Design the base so that it appears

strongly connected to the ground.

• Build stone bases that seem to grow out

of natural stone outcroppings.

• Use solid bases rather than piers or stilts.

• Ventilate the base and crawl space with



Figure of Inappropriate Base up to window sills


Figure of base “growing” out of a stone outcropping when appropriate.


Figure of building with walls subservient to a strong roof and strong base:



Figure of base taking up grade and providing ventilation


Figure of stone walls of local stone laid in local geological pattern



• Design walls that do not dominate the faηade

but instead create a relatively short plane

between the more dominant base and roof.

• Use vertical windows that are either doublehung

or casement.

• Install operable, screened windows when possible.

• Maximize ventilation with operable windows,

transom windows, and vented roofs and gables.

• Use corners that look massive and substantial;

avoid placing windows in building corners.

• Integrate skylights within the roof form; avoid

bubble skylights.

• Include winter covers for gable openings.

• Design porches with high ceilings to allow views

and to let daylight into the building.

• Emphasize entries to make them clear and

inviting for visitors.

• Avoid sliding doors or jalousies.


Figure of Wall materials include:


Lap siding

Board and batten


Figure of Windows with a vertical proportion.


Figure of a Well-defined main entry


Figure of Window types such as:





Figure of building with good ventilation of all spaces:

• Vented roof

• Gable end vent

• High windows/transitions


Figure of other characteristics for WALLS AND OPENINGS:

• Porch is an outdoor room

• Keep porch ceiling high for views and light

• Wood porch with stone pier

• Shed porch ceiling:

Mountains: open

Piedmont: closed

• Dormer for daylight and venting

• Add glass to gable end of building

for daylighting


Figure of Windows infilling between structure



• Express structure by exposing posts, beams,

and trusses, especially within shelters when


• Use oversized structural elements to convey

strength and permanence.


Figure of Structure that is openly expressed



• Use materials that look substantial and heavy.

• Use indigenous, natural, and locally produced


Suitable wall materials include:

• Stone laid to reflect local geological patterns,

and stone in scale with size of local rocks.

• Horizontal log.

• Board and batten.

• Wood-lap siding.

Alternate wall materials include:

• Split-face block, if skillfully constructed,

as a substitute for stone.

• Concrete, if tinted and highly textured to

blend with textures of natural surroundings.

• Cement-fiber siding to match wood.


• Patterned plywood.


Suitable roof materials include:

• Treated, southern pine shake shingle.

• Standing seam metal in medium tones.

• Concrete tile, if it resembles a traditional


• Heavy-textured asphalt shingles.


Figure of Treated, southern pine shake shingles.

Figure of heavy textured Composition shingles.

Figure of Standing seam metal.


Suitable base materials include:

• Stone.

• Textured concrete.

• Split-face block.



• Wood, including railroad ties.


Figure of a Bulletin Board with desirable characteristics:

• Expressed structure

• Natural materials

• Strong connections

• Wood shake roof

• Heavy timber frame



Figure of a Toilet Building with Predominant materials such as:

• Stone base

• Standing seam metal roof

• Board and batten walls



• Draw color schemes from the

immediate natural landscape,

especially rocks and trees.

• Use mid-tone earth colors

such as brown, gray, and


• Stains, when used, should

be solid, penetrating stain

with UV protection.

• Use off-white paint color

in the foothills of the

Mountain Province.

• Bright colors may be used

as accents if drawn from

nature, such as wildflowers

and lichens.

• Use gable ends that are

stained in the mountains

and painted in the foothills.


Figure of Colors taken from the natural landscape:

• Grays and browns of trees and rocks

• Greens of leaves and needles




Chapter 4.4 Table of Contents

Reader’s Guide