• Maximize natural ventilation.
• Use colors and materials that reflect heat.
• Combine daylighting (natural light for buildings)
with shading through deciduous trees.
• Provide shade on the west and south sides by
planting or preserving trees.
• Integrate shade devices such as shutters,
louvers, overhangs, and screens into building
• Situate buildings so that they catch breezes.
• Use the minimum amount of building materials.
• Minimize air conditioning and mechanical
• Examine the potential of recycling graywater
• Recharge groundwater by creating permeable
surfaces around buildings; maintain the
historic runoff rates to prevent erosion.
• Consider ground-coupled heat pumps for
• See the “Common Principles” section in the
introduction to this chapter for more
recommendations on sustainability.
Figure of building maximizing Natural ventilation and shading
With Operable windows installed.
Figure of Insulated and ventilated building reducing solar gain
Figure of Ground-coupled heat pump.