EVOLUTION OF SUSTAINABLE DESIGN
Pioneered by landscape architects Ian McHarg
and Phillip Lewis in the 1960’s, a new ecological
approach to planning and design emphasized
respect for the flows of wildlife, air, and water
across the landscape.
Parallel to that movement was the increased
awareness of the need to conserve energy,
prompted by the oil crisis of the mid 1970’s.
This resulted in increased conservation measures
in buildings, development of such “off the grid”
energy systems as solar and wind power, and
use of natural ventilation and daylighting.
Recycling became part of the American
consciousness, reflected in increased reuse of
building materials and buildings themselves.
The effects of building materials on human
health also became a concern.
These developments eventually converged
under the umbrella term of “sustainable design.”
A 1993 National Park Service publication,
Guiding Principles of Sustainable Design,
synthesized many of these concepts for park
and recreation settings.