Pioneered by landscape architects Ian McHarg

and Phillip Lewis in the 1960’s, a new ecological

approach to planning and design emphasized

respect for the flows of wildlife, air, and water

across the landscape.


Parallel to that movement was the increased

awareness of the need to conserve energy,

prompted by the oil crisis of the mid 1970’s.

This resulted in increased conservation measures

in buildings, development of such “off the grid”

energy systems as solar and wind power, and

use of natural ventilation and daylighting.

Recycling became part of the American

consciousness, reflected in increased reuse of

building materials and buildings themselves.

The effects of building materials on human

health also became a concern.


These developments eventually converged

under the umbrella term of “sustainable design.”

A 1993 National Park Service publication,

Guiding Principles of Sustainable Design,

synthesized many of these concepts for park

and recreation settings.




Chapter 2 Table of Contents

Reader’s Guide