USDA Forest Service

Forest Health Protection, Southern Region


USDA Forest Service
Forest Health Protection
Region 8
1720 Peachtree Road, NW
Room 816 N
Atlanta, GA 30309

Phone: (404) 347-7478
Fax: (404) 347-1880

United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service.

USDA Link Forest Service Link


Seed Orchard


  • Tree Improvement and Intensive Forestry
    • South is the "wood basket" of the US - 58% of US timber supply in 1997
      • Intensive forestry - in 1998 - 2.06 million acres regenerated with 1.25 billion seedlings - from 10,000 acres of seed orchards
      • Seed orchards - genetically improved seed - from extensive breeding and progeny testing
        • Growth gain over wild "woods run" seed - 10 to 30% over unimproved planting stock
        • Seed crop - extremely valuable - net present value of genetic gain and future growth
      • Regeneration - major investment - site prep, planting, survival counts, fertilization, weed control
    • Implications of Tree Improvement and Intensive Forestry
      • More wood and fiber produced on same area
        • Meet increasing demands for growing population
        • Simultaneously reduce environmental impact of industrial forestry
        • Benefits to local and regional economies
      • Reduced dependence on imported wood
      • Reduced risk of exotic pest introductions - plant, insect and disease species
      • Increased productivity benefits "natural" forests - less pressure to provide fiber from USDA NFS
    • Federal (USDA Forest Service) Seed Orchards
      • No longer intensively managed - but still producing needed seed for Southern Region
      • Longleaf and shortleaf pine seed harvested in "bumper crop" seasons
      • Produce seedlings for restoration of "historical" longleaf sites and shortleaf restoration
    • Major Insect Pests - cause major losses to seed production and plantation growth
      • Seed and Cone Insects
        • Coneworms - four species - Dioryctria amatella, D. clarioralis, D. disclusa, D. merkeli
        • Seed bugs (Hemiptera) - two species - Leptoglossus corculus and Tetyra bipunctata
      • Regeneration Insect
        • Nantucket pine tip moth - Rhyacionia frustrana
    • The "Pesticide Dilemma"
      • Genetically improved seed - high value - low damage threshold - pesticides required
      • But, small acreage treated - low quantities of pesticides used
        • Pesticide companies unwilling to maintain registrations and register new products for seed orchards
      • Increased regulation and restriction by EPA for pesticides - Food Quality Protection Act
    • The Tree Improvement Community
      • The Seed Orchard Pest Management Subcommittee (SOPMS)
        • Subcommittee of the Southern Forest Tree Improvement Committee
        • Members from USDA FS (SRS and FHP) entomologists, Tree Improvement Cooperative geneticists, Industry and State entomologists
      • Coordinates issues concerning seed orchard and regeneration integrated pest management
      • Deals with the "Pesticide Dilemma"
        • Works with USDA Office of Pesticide Regulation and EPA on pesticide registration issues
        • Coordinates field tests and South-wide studies


  • What is Working?
    • FHP plays critical role in tree improvement and intensive forestry in the South - FHP people involved: IPM Specialist (Taylor), Entomologist (Mangini) and Biological Tech (Bruce)
    • Partnerships
      • Seed Orchard IPM
        • Taylor and Mangini members of SOPMS - work on seed orchard IPM
        • Western Gulf Forest Tree Improvement Cooperative - Texas Forest Service
        • Western Gulf Forest Pest Management Cooperative - Texas Forest Service
        • North Carolina State University Industry Tree Improvement Cooperative
        • University of Florida Tree Improvement Cooperative
        • USDA Forest Service - Southern Research Station
        • USDA Forest Service - Erambert, Ouachita and Stuart Seed Orchards
        • USDA Office of Pesticide Registration
        • Environmental Protection Agency
      • Tip Moth IPM
        • Taylor involved in tip moth IPM - University of Georgia and industry
  • FHP Role
    • Technical Assistance - single most important job we do
      • Resource for federal seed orchards
        • Monitor longleaf pine sources at Stuart Seed Orchard
        • Provide yearly inventories of cone crop and level of insect-caused loss
      • Answer questions: insect identification, pesticide labels, spray schedules, monitoring
      • Mangini and Taylor - updates to meetings of Cooperatives
        • Update Cooperative members on pesticide registration issues and research findings
        • One-on-one interaction with orchard managers
      • FHP is uniquely suited to providing this technical assistance
        • FHP staff are independent of industry, state and Cooperative ties - no conflict of interest
        • Coordinate between SRS and university researchers and orchard managers
    • Technology Development and Transfer
      • FHP participates in South-wide pesticide efficacy tests sponsored by SOPMS
        • FHP provides entomological expertise
        • FHP coordinates and participates in training - including occasional IPM training workshops for seed orchard managers throughout the South
      • FHP cooperates with Southern Research Station on coneworm and seed bug research
      • Mangini and Bruce - small-scale pilot tests of new pesticides
        • Conducted solely with program dollars in 2002, 2003, 2004 and 2005
        • Efficacy of new pesticides, pesticide combinations and rates: growth regulators, nicotinoids, low-rates of pyrethroids
        • Established efficacy of Mimic - growth regulator now widely used in orchards
      • Taylor - tip moth IPM
        • Cooperation with University of Georgia and industry
        • Testing of new attractant/pesticide combinations
      • Taylor - Dislodgeable Residue Study - data for EPA registration requirements
    • Coordination Between EPA and Tree Improvement Community
      • Provide data for continued registration of pesticides
      • Expertise on label and application requirements
  • FHP Staffing and Budget
    • Sufficient for current work load - one dedicated Entomologist and one Biological Science Tech
      • Both Mangini and Bruce available for other Field Office duties if necessary
      • Additional help available as needed from Alexandria Field Office Personnel
    • Professional assistance for seed orchard work available from Asheville Field Office when needed
    • FHP aerial lift/bucket truck recently overhauled and in good condition


  • A small, but very important part of FHP in the Southern Region
  • One of the best programs for cooperative efforts, technology transfer
  • Major impact on forestry in the South - with potential national and global impacts


FHP Contact:

Alex Mangini
USDA Forest Service
Forest Health Protection
2500 Shreveport Highway
Pineville, LA, 71360



USDA Forest Service - Forest Health Protection, Southern Region
Last Modified: Monday, 16 December 2013 at 14:18:28 CST

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