Forest Health Protection
1720 Peachtree Road, NW
Room 816 N
Atlanta, GA 30309
Phone: (404) 347-7478
Fax: (404) 347-1880
have historically produced approximately 1.3 billion forest seedlings
annually, which accounts for 80% of the total forest-tree seedlings grown
in the United States. Forest Health Protection (FHP) provides southern
forest nurseries with technology transfer, technical assistance and training.
FHP has also been instrumental in acquiring information on alternatives
to methyl bromide through technology development projects and collaboration
on research studies.
- 89% of southern
nurseries use the fumigant methyl bromide with chloropicrin on a regular
schedule to control soilborne pests.
- In 1991, Parties
of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer
listed methyl bromide as an ozone-depleting chemical. The production
of methyl bromide for soil fumigation in developed nations was scheduled
to be banned on January 1, 2005.
- United Nations
administers of the Montreal Protocol granted the United States CUE's
(critical use exemptions) for 2005 at levels comparable to 35% of the
1991 baseline of methyl bromide. In 2006, the CUE levels of methyl bromide
have been approved for only 27% of the 1991 baseline with the remaining
10% to be decided at a meeting in June 2005.
- In the South,
only members of the Auburn Coop, International Paper, and Weyerhaeuser
Company are approved to use CUE supplies of methyl bromide. This leaves
approximately 22 southern nurseries that produce 123,068,702 bare root
seedlings (Auburn Nursery Coop TN04-02) without access to CUE supplies
of methyl bromide. Quarantine Pre-shipment supplies of methyl bromide
are only available if these nurseries ship out of state.
- Alternatives to
methyl bromide (see attached for technology transfer products).
- FHP participated
in 2 National Special Technology Development Projects (STDP).
R8 investigated the effects of organic amendments and no fumigation
in three nurseries (corporate, state, Federal) that grow bareroot
pines. Investigators cooperating with FHP included scientists
from the state of Florida, University of Florida, and Forest
R8 investigated the effects of 100% Chloropicrin, (1 site included
metam sodium/chloropicrin), EPTC herbicide, and Paenibacillus
macerans (PGPR) seed treatment in three pine nurseries (2 State,
1 corporate). Investigators cooperating with FHP included scientists
from Auburn University and Forest Service Research.
- Other alternatives
to methyl bromide projects
FHP cooperated with FS Research on an evaluation of dazomet
and metam sodium for production of Fraser fir seedlings at Linville
FHP cooperated with FS Research on an evaluation of broadcast
applications of glyphosate for control of nutsedge.
a new needle nematode (Longidorus americanum) was found
to damage loblolly pine during the 98-2000 STDP. FHP has
continued to cooperate with FS Research on host range tests
for identification of nonhost cover crops and the use of
fallow as pest management practices.
FHP has cooperated with Forest Service Research on the evaluation
of pathogenicity and host range of a stunt nematode (Tylenchorhynchus
ewingi) and stubby-root nematode (Paratrichodorus minor)
found associated with damaged pine seedlings in some nurseries.
- Technical assistance
- FHP provides
assistance on managing seedlings diseases and identifying causal
agents of damage to state, corporate and private nurseries. FHP
has provided training on disease identification and pesticide application
for forest-tree nurseries when requested.
of methyl bromide is expected to decrease and the cost is expected to
increase, which will place pressure on nursery managers to use available
alternatives. At this time, it appears that no one alternative fumigant
will replace methyl bromide for all southern forest nurseries. Managers
will need to tailor alternative pest management strategies that will work
with their crops, soils, and pests problems in their nursery. Managers
will need good science-based information on a variety of strategies including
alternate fumigants, chemical, biological, and cultural practices. FHP
is continuing to address information gaps on managing soilborne pests
through cooperation with forest nurseries of all ownerships and with state,
federal and university scientists.
320 Green St.
Athens, GA 30602