[ Table of Contents ]

The Health of Southern Forests, USDA Forest Service, Forest Health Protection, Southern Region

Selected References for Stressors

Annosum Root Disease

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Alexander, Sam A.; Skelly, John M.; Webb, Roger   
  S. 1981. Effects of Heterobasidium annosum on radial   
  growth in southern pine beetle-infested loblolly  
  pine. Phytopathology 71(5):479-481.

Applegate, Hart W. 1971. Annosus root rot mortality   
  in once-thinned loblolly pine plantations in 
  Tennessee. Plant Disease Reporter 55: 625-627.

Bradford, B.; Alexander, Sam A.; Skelly, John M. 
  1978. Determination of growth loss in Pinus taeda L. 
  caused by Heterobasidium annosus (Fr.). Brief. 
  European Journal of Forest Pathology 8:129-134.

Bradford, B.; Skelly, John M.; Alexander, Sam A. 
  1978. Incidence and severity of annosus root rot in 
  loblolly pine plantations in Virginia. European 
  Journal of Forest Pathology 8:135-145.

Driver, Charles H.; Ginns, J.H. 1964. The effects of 
  climate on the occurrence of annosus root rot in 
  thinned slash pine plantation. Plant Disease 
  Reporter 48:509-511.

Froelich, Ronald C.; Cowling, E.B.; Collicott, L.; Dell, 
  Thomas R. 1977. Fomes annosus reduces height and   
  diameter growth of planted slash pine. Forest
  Science 23:299-306.

Froelich, Ronald C.; Kuhlman, E. George; Hodges, 
  Charles S.; Weiss, Melvin J.; Nichols, J.D. 1977. 
  Fomes annosus root rot in the South: guidelines for 
  prevention.  USDA Forest Service, Southern 
  Forest Experiment Station, Southeastern Forest 
  Experiment Station, and Southeastern Area State 
  and Private Forestry, Atlanta, GA. 17 p.

Froelich, Ronald C.; Dell, Thomas R.; Walkinshaw, 
  Charles H. 1966. Soil factors associated with 
  Fomes annosus root rot in the Gulf States. Forest 
  Science 13:356-361.

Hodges, Charles S. 1974. Symptomatology and 
  spread of Fomes annosus (Fr.) Karst. in southern 
  pine plantations. Research Paper SE-114. USDA 
  Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment 
  Station, Asheville, NC. 10 p.

Kucera, Bob; Ryan, George W. 1986. Annosus root 
  rot a nuisance in Alabama. Alabama's Treasured 
  Forests 5(2): 19-21.

Morris, Calab L. 1970. Volume losses from Fomes 
  annosus in loblolly pine plantations in Virginia. 
  Plant Disease Reporter 68:283-294.

Morris, Calab L.; Frazier, D.H. 1966. Development 
  of a hazard rating for Fomes annosus in Virginia. 
  Plant Disease Reporter 50:510-511.  

Powers, Harry R., Jr; Verrall, Art F. 1962. A closer 
  look at Fomes annosus. Forest Farmer 21(7):8-9, 16-17.

Ross, Eldon W. 1973. Fomes annosus in the 
  Southeastern United States: relation of environ-
  mental and biotic factors to stump colonization 
  and losses in the residual stand. Technical Bulletin 
  1459. USDA Forest Service, Athens,GA: 1-26.
Webb, Roger S.; Alexander, Sam A.; Skelly, John M. 
  1981. Incidence, severity, and growth effects of 
  Heterobasidium annosum in unthinned loblolly pine 
  plantations. Phytopathology 71: 661-662.

Butternut Canker

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Anderson, Robert L.; LaMadeleine, Leon A. 1978. 
  The distribution of butternut decline in the Eastern 
  United States. Report S-3-78. USDA Forest Service, 
  Northeast Area State and Private Forestry 5 p.

Nair, V.M.G.; Kostichka, C.J.; Kuntz, James E. 1979. 
  Sirococcus clavigignenti-juglandacearum: an 
  undescribed species causing canker on butternut. 
  Mycologia 71:641-646.

Rink, G. 1990. Juglans cinera L. Butternut. In: Burns, 
  R.M.; Honkala, B.H., technical coordinators. Silvics 
  of North America. Vol. 2: Hardwoods. USDA Forest 
  Service Agriculture Handbook 654: 386-390.

Tisserat, N.A.; Kuntz, James E. 1982. Epidemiology of 
  butternut canker. In: Black walnut for the future. 
  General Technical Report NC-74. USDA Forest 
  Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station 
  18-22.

Dogwood Anthracnose

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Anderson, Robert L.; Knighten, John L.; Dowsett, 
  Sally E. 1990. Dogwood anthracnose: a 
  Southeastern U.S. perspective. In: 23rd annual 
  Tennessee nursery short course, Tennessee nursery 
  industry, Nashville: 14-18.

Byther, R.S.; Davidson, R.M., Jr. 1979. Dogwood 
  anthracnose. Ornamentals Northwest Newsletter 
  3(2): 20-21.

Chellemi, D.O.; Britton, Kerry O.; Swank, Wayne T. 
  1992.  Influence of site factors on dogwood 
  anthracnose in the Nantahala mountain range of 
  western North Carolina. Plant Disease Reporter	
  76:915-918.

Knighten, J.L.; Anderson, Robert L. 1992. Results of 
  1991 dogwood anthracnose impact assessment 
  and pilot test in the Southeastern United States. 
  Protection Report R8-PR23. USDA Forest Service, 
  Asheville, NC. 58 p.

Mielke, Manfred E.; Daughtrey, Margery L. 1990. 
  How to identify and control dogwood anthracnose. 
  Report NA-GR-18. USDA Forest Service, 
  Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry, 
  Broomall, PA. 7 p.

Fusiform Rust

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Anderson, Robert L.; McCartney, Thomas C.; Cost, 
  Noel D.; Devine, Hugh; Botkin, Martin. 1988. 
  Fusiform rust hazard maps for loblolly and slash 
  pines. Research Note SE-351. USDA Forest Service, 
  Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, Asheville, 
  NC. 7 p.

Anderson, Robert L.; Starkey, Dale A.; May, Dennis 
  M.; Cost, Noel D.; Uhler, Robert J.; Holzman, Steve; 
  Byers, H. 1994.  Fusiform rust ATLAS layer. USDA 
  Forest Service, Forest Health Monitoring, Southern 
  Region, Asheville, NC. 8 p.

Dinus, Ronald J.; Schmidt, Robert A., editors. 1977. 
  Management of fusiform rust in southern pines. In: 
  Proceedings of symposium sponsored by Southern 
  Forest Disease and Insect Council at University of 
  Florida, Gainesville, Dec. 7 and 8, 1976, and by 
  USDA Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment 
  Station, and Southeastern Area State and Private 
  Forestry. 163 p.

Jacobi, William R.; Anderson, Robert L.; Cost, Noel D. 
  1981. Multiresource inventories: procedures for 
  assessing the damage caused by insects and 
  diseases. Research Paper SE-221. USDA Forest 
  Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, 
  Asheville, NC. 11 p.

Starkey, Dale A.; Anderson, Robert L.; May, Dennis 
  M.; Cost, Noel D.; Uhler, Robert J. 1991. Incidence 
  and loss of fusiform rust in the South. USDA Forest 
  Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, 
  Starkville, MS.

USDA Forest Service. 1982. Field instructions for the 
  Southeast, 1982. Southeastern Forest Experiment 
  Station, Asheville, NC. 120 p. 

USDA Forest Service. 1984. Field Survey inventory 
  work plan, Texas/Oklahoma, 1985. Southern Forest 
  Experiment Station, Starkville, MS. 95 p.

Gypsy Moth

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Campbell, Robert W. 1966. Gypsy moth egg mass 
  density and subsequent defoliation. Research Note 
  NE-44. USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Forest 
  Experiment Station. 6 p.

Campbell, Robert W.; Valentine, Harry T. 1972. Tree 
  condition and mortality following defoliation. 
  Research Paper NE-236. USDA Forest Service. 39 p.

Clement, G.E. 1917. Control of the gypsy moth by 
  forest management. Part I: The gypsy moth in 
  woods. Bulletin 484. U.S. Department of 
  Agriculture, 54 p.

Leonard, D.E. 1981. Bioecology of the gypsy moth. 
  In: Doane, C.C.; McManus, M.L., editors. The gypsy 
  moth: research toward integrated pest manage-
  ment. Technical Bulletin 1584. U.S. Department of 
  Agriculture, Washington, D.C.: Chapter 2.

Tigner, Tim. 1992. Gypsy moth impact on Virginia's 
  hardwood forests and forest industry. Virginia 
  Department of Forestry, Charlottesville, VA. 35 p.

Hemlock Woolly Adelgid

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USDA Forest Service. 1991. The hemlock woolly 
  adelgid. Pest Alert NA-PR-06-91. Northeastern Area 
  State and Private Forestry, 1 leaf illustration.

Littleleaf Disease

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Campbell, W.A.; Copeland, O.L. 1954. Littleleaf of 
  shortleaf and loblolly pines. Circular 940.
  U.S. Department of Agriculture. 41 p.

Hoffard, William H.; Oak, Steven W. 1985. 
  Demonstrating integrated pest management on 
  national forests in South Carolina and Georgia. In: 
  Hertel, G.D.; Branham, Susan J.; Swain, Kenneth M., 
  editors. Technology transfer in integrated forest 
  pest management in the South. General Technical 
  Report SE-24. USDA Forest Service, Southeastern 
  Forest Experiment Station, Asheville, NC: 35-44.

Oak, Steven W. 1985. Adaption of littleleaf 
  hazard rating for use in forest management in 
  South Carolina national forests. In: Branham, Susan 
  J.; Thatcher, Robert C., editors. Integrated pest 
  management research symposium, New Orleans, 
  LA; General Technical Report SO-36. USDA Forest 
  Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station 246-251.

Oak, Steven W.; Tainter, Frank H. 1988. How to 
  identify and control littleleaf disease. Protection 
  Report R8-PR 12. USDA Forest Service, Southern 
  Region, Atlanta, GA. 14 p.

Oak Decline

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Ammon, Vernon; Nebeker, T. Evan; Filer, Ted H.; 
  McCracken, Francis I.; Solomon, J.D.; Kennedy, H.E. 
  1989.  Oak decline. Technical Bulletin 161. 
  Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment 
  Station, 15 p.

Bassett, Edward N.; Fenn, Patrick; Mead, Margaret A. 
  1982. Drought-related oak mortality and incidence 
  of Hypoxylon canker. Arkansas Farm Research 
  31(1):8.

Jacobi, William R.; Anderson, Robert L.; Cost, Noel D. 
  1981. Multiresource inventories: procedures for 
  assessing the damage caused by insects and 
  diseases. Research Paper SE-221. USDA Forest 
  Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station. 
  Asheville, NC. 11 p.

Manion, Paul D. 1981. Tree disease concepts. 
  Prentiss-Hall, Inc. Englewood Cliffs, NJ. 399 p.

Starkey, Dale A.; Oak, Steven W.; Ryan, George W.; 
  Tainter, Frank H.; Redmond, Clair; Brown, H. Daniel. 
  1989. Evaluation of oak decline areas in the South. 
  Protection Report R8-PR-17. USDA Forest Service, 
  Southern Region, Atlanta, GA. 36 p.

Stringer, Jeffrey W.; Kimmerer, Thomas W.; 
  Overstreet, John C.; Dunn, James P. 1989. Oak 
  mortality in eastern Kentucky. Southern Journal of 
  Applied Forestry. 13(2):86-91.

Tainter, Frank H.; Fraedrich, S.W.; Brenson, J.D. 1984. 
  The effect of climate on growth, decline, and death 
  of northern red oaks in the western North Carolina 
  Nanathala mountains. Castanea 49(3):127-137.

USDA Forest Service. 1982. Field instructions for the 
  Southeast, 1982. Southeastern Forest Experiment 
  Station, Asheville, NC. 120 p.

USDA Forest Service. 1984. Field Survey inventory 
  work plan, Texas/Oklahoma, 1985. Southern Forest 
  Experiment Station, Starkville, MS. 95 p.

USDA Forest Service. 1987. The South's fourth forest: 
  alternatives for the future. Forest Resource Report 
  No. 24. USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC. 512 p.

Ozone

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Anderson, Robert L.; Knighten, J.L. 1990. 
  Modification of survey procedures for assessing 
  ozone injury on bioindicator plants in Region 8 
  class 1 wilderness areas. Forest Pest Management 
  Field Office Report 91-02. USDA Forest Service, 
  Asheville, NC.

Anderson, Robert L.; Knighten, J.L.; Scarrow, Collen 
  M. 1987. Survey of the James River Face wilderness 
  area on the Jefferson National Forest, Virginia, for 
  air pollution-caused symptoms on vegetative 
  bioindicator plants. Forest Pest Management Field 
  Office Report 87-1-3. USDA Forest Service, 
  Asheville, NC.

Anderson, Robert L.; Knighten, J.L.; Scarrow, Collen 
  M. 1986. Survey for ozone-caused injury on 
  sensitive plant species on the Francis Marion 
  National Forest and Bull Island (Cape Romain 
  National Wildlife Refuge). Forest Pest Management 
  Field Office Report 94-1-26. USDA Forest Service, 
  Asheville, NC.

Brantley, Elizabeth A.; Tweed, Donald. 1994. Ozone 
  injury to bioindicator foliage in the Southeaset 
  Region 8 class 1 wilderness areas - 1993. Forest 
  Health Field Office Report 94-1-26. USDA Forest 
  Service, Asheville, NC.

Chappelka, Art H. 1993. Foliar ozone injury in 
  national forests in Alabama, Florida, and 
  Mississippi. Unpublished Report. School of Forestry, 
  Auburn University, Auburn, AL.

Halsell, N.T., editor. 1994. Forest Health Monitoring 
  field methods guide. Internal Report. U.S. 
  Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, NV.

Heck, Walter W. 1968. Factors influencing 
  expressing oxidant damage to plants. Annual 
  Review of Phytopathology 6:165-188.

Hennessey, Thomas C.; Dougherty, Phillip M.; and 
  Tauer, Charles G., editors. Forest decline: assessing 
  impacts of a changing environment on forest 
  productivity. Proceedings of the Plenary Sessions 
  on the Ninth North American Forest Biology 
  Workshop. Victoria, Canada; Heron Publishing. 
  Rozanne Poulson, Series Editor. Published as 
  Tree Physiology. Volume 3, Number 1, March 1987, 
  iv, 102 p.

Kertz, R.C.; Starkey, Dale; Wright, B.; Wergowske, D. 
  1993. Ozone damage to vegetation associated 
  with 4 Forest Service wilderness areas in Alabama, 
  Arkansas, and Texas. Forest Health Field Office 
  Report 94-2-02. USDA Forest Service, Alexandria, LA.

Lefohn, Allen S.; Knudsen, H. Peter; Logan, Jennifer 
  A.; Simpson, Jeanne; Bhumralkar, Chandrakant. An 
  evaluation of the kriging method to predict 7-h 
  seasonal mean ozone concertrations for estimating 
  crop losses. JAPCA: The International Journal of Air 
  Pollution Control and Hazardous Waste Management. 
  Volume 37, Number 5, May 1987. p.595-602.

Lefohn, A.S.; Knudson, H.P.; McEvoy, L.C., Jr. In press. 
  The use of kriging to estimate monthly ozone 
  exposure parameters for the southeastern 
  United States.

Mohnen, V.A.; Goldstein, W.; Wang, W.C. 1993. 
  Trophospheric ozone and climate change. Journal 
  of the Air and Waste Management Association 43: 
  1332-1334.

Skelly, J.M.; Davis, Donald D.; Merill, William; 
  Cameron, E.A.; Brown, H. Daniel; Drummond, 
  David B.; Dochinger, Leon S., editors. 1987. 
  Diagnosing injury to eastern forest trees; a 
  manual for identifying damage caused by air 
  pollution, pathogens, insects, and abiotic stresses. 
  National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program, 
  Forest Resources Program, Vegetation Survey 
  Research Coooperative. For USDA Forest Service 
  by Agricultural Information Services, College of 
  Agriculture, Department of Plant Pathology, 
  Pennsylvania State Univiversity, University Park, 
  PA. 122 p.

Soils

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Coile, T.S. 1952. Soil and the growth of forests. 
  Advanced Agronomy 4:329-398.

Southern Pine Beetle

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Bellanger, Roger P. 1976. Shortleaf pine. In: 
  Silvicultural guidelines for forest owners in Georgia. 
  Georgia Forest Research Paper No. 6. Georgia 
  Forestry Commission, Macon, GA: 18-19.

Billings, Ronald F. 1979. Detecting and aerially 
  evaluating southern pine beetle outbreaks. 
  Southern Journal of Applied Forestry 3:50-54.

Billings, Ronald F.; Doggett, Coleman. 1980. An 
  aerial observer's guide for recognizing and 
  reporting southern pine beetle spots. Agriculture 
  Handbook 560.  USDA Forest Service, Combined 
  Forest Pest Research Development Program, 
  Pineville, LA. 19 p.

Billings, Ronald F.; Pase, H.A., III. 1979. A field guide 
  for ground checking southern pine beetle spots. 
  Agriculture Handbook 558. USDA Forest Service, 
  Combined Forest Pest Research Development 
  Program, Pineville, LA. 19 p.

Doggett, Coleman A. 1971. Foliage coloration 
  changes in loblolly pine during southern pine 
  beetle attack. Journal of Economic Entomology 
  65:1298-1299.

Fares, Yohanna; Mangnuson, Charles C.; 
  Doraiswamy, Paul C.; Sharpe, Peter J.H. 1980. 
  Dynamics of bark beetle-fungus symbiosis. II. Pine 
  tree drying model. In: Stephen, Fred M.; Searcy, 
  Janet L.; Hertel, Gerard D., editors. Modeling 
  southern pine beetle populations: symposium 
  proceedings, Asheville, NC, February 1980. 
  Technical Bulletin 1630. USDA Forest Service, 
  Combined Forest Pest Research Development 
  Program, Pineville, LA: 61-74.

Lorio, P.L., Jr. 1968. Soil, site, and stand conditions 
  related to southern pine beetle activity in Hardin 
  County, Texas. Journal of Economic Entomology 
  61: 565-566.

Price, Terry S.; Doggett, Coleman; Pye, John M.; 
  Holmes, Tom P., editors. 1990. A history of 
  southern pine beetle outbreaks in the south-
  eastern United States by the Southern Forest 
  Insect Working Group Georgia Forestry 
  Commission, Macon, GA. 66 p.

Weather

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Waring, R.H.; Rogers, J.J.; Swank, W.T. 1980. Water 
  relations and hydrologic cycles. In: Dynamic 
  properties of forest ecosystems. Cambridge 
  University Press, London: 205-264.