[ Table of Contents ]

The Health of Southern Forests, USDA Forest Service, Forest Health Protection, Southern Region

Glossary

Aerial videography.
Recording of images with a video camera mounted in an aircraft. Videography can be interfaced with other technologies such as GPS and GIS.

Anthropogenic.
Associated with human activity.

Bioindicator.
An organism, usually a plant, with a high and relatively easily identifiable sensitivity to selective environmental influences. For example, black cherry is a bioindicator of ozone pollution.

Bluestain.
A tree-infecting fungus vectored (transmitted) by bark beetles.

Bole.
The trunk or stem of a tree.

Bottomland.
Low-lying land along a watercourse, in contrast to upland.

Bud.
A small protuberance on the stem of a plant that may develop into a flower, leaf, or shoot.

Callus.
A thickened area on bark.

Cambium.
A thin formative layer between the woody element of a plant and the complex tissue containing tubes for translocation of nutrients and water.

Canker.
A localized area of dead tissue in a plant.

Crawler.
An immature insect stage, usually mobile and suited for dispersal.

Dendrochronology.
The study of tree age.

Dieback.
Death of end branches in tree crowns.

Distress cone crop.
An inordinately high production of reproductive structures in conifers, usually associated with a stressed condition.

EPA.
Environmental Protection Agency.

Feeder roots.
Those parts of the root system responsible for assimilation of water and nutrients.

FHM.
See Forest Health Monitoring.

FIA.
See Forest Inventory and Analysis.

Forest Health Protection.
A unit of the USDA Forest Service that specializes in pest and related problems.

Forest Health Monitoring program.
A consortium of many Federal and State agencies that monitors, assesses, and reports on the status of the nation's forests.

Forest Inventory and Analysis.
A unit of the USDA Forest Service charged with compilation and reporting of data on the nation's forests. Formerly called Forest Survey.

Fruiting bodies.
Reproductive structures of fungi.

Geographic information system.
A system of computers and software that stores data and allows analysis of spatial and temporal relationships with one another.

GIS.
See geographic information system.

Global positioning system.
A system that uses satellite technology and portable receiving units to determine location accurately.

GPS.
See global positioning system.

Host type.
A species or group of species attacked by insects or diseases, usually for food. For example, southern pines to southern pine beetles.

Life cycle.
The series of stages in form and functional activities through which an organism passes between successive recurrences of a specified primary stage.

Mast.
Vegetative structures used by wildlife for food. For example, acorns by bears.

Node.
A point on a stem at which a leaf or leaves are inserted.

Off-frame.
Refers to information in the Forest Health Monitoring program not collected as part of the on-frame program. See on-frame.

On-frame.
Refers to a network of survey plots installed at regular intervals across the United States. These plots are administered and monitored by the USDA Forest Service, the Environmental Protection Agency, and participating State forestry agencies.

Overstory.
The layer of foliage in a forest canopy and trees contributing to it. Understory is the term for the plants of a forest undergrowth.

Palisade tissue.
A layer of cells found beneath the outer layer of the upper side of foliage leaves.

Parthenogenic.
Reproduction without intervention by males.

Pathogen.
A specific causative agent of disease.

Perennial.
Present at all seasons of the year. The term can also be used designate a plant that produces new growth in successive years from a perennating part.

Phloem.
A complex tissue in plants that functions in the translocation of water and nutrients.

Pheromone.
A chemical released by an insect or other animal through which it communicates with another individual of the same species through a sense of smell.

Photogrammetrist.
One who makes reliable measurements by the use of photographs, especially aerial photographs.

Phytotoxic.
Poisonous to plants.

Pitch tubes.
Globs of resin that solidify upon exposure to the air. Bark beetles produce pitch tubes through their boring activities.

Pupa.
A transition stage in a life cycle of insects between larva and adult.

Pupate.
To change to a pupa.

Rotholtz.
Hardened reddish wood that results from feeding by the balsam woolly adelgid.

SEFES.
Southeastern Forest Experiment Station.

Sketch map survey.
Determination and delineation of a forest condition by a surveyor marking it on a map, usually from an aircraft.

SOFES.
Southern Forest Experiment Station.

Spore.
A microorganism used to generate a new individual.

Sporulate.
To generate spores.

Spot.
An infestation in the forest, usually referencing a bark beetle infestation.

Spot head.
Part of a spot that comprises the actively spreading portion of the infestation. It is analogous to a fire line in a forest fire.

Stomata.
The plural of stoma, a minute opening in the outer layer of a plant organ, as a leaf, through which gaseous interchange takes place.

Stylet.
A long mouth part of an insect, normally used to extract fluids.

Syndrome.
A group of signs and symptoms that occur together and characterize a particular abnormality.

Troposphere.
The portion of the atmosphere that is below the stratosphere. It extends outward about 7 to 10 miles from the earth's surface.

Understory.
The term for the plants of a forest undergrowth.

Upland.
Ground elevated above the lowlands along watercourses or between hills, in contrast to bottomland.

Vector.
An organism, usually an insect, which transmits a disease.


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