USDA Forest Service
 

Pacific Southwest Research Station

 

Pacific Southwest Research Station
800 Buchanan Street
Albany, CA 94710-0011

(510) 559-6300

United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service. USDA logo which links to the department's national site. Forest Service logo which links to the agency's national site.

Research Topics

Watershed & Watersheds: Turbidity Threshold Sampling

^ Main Topic | Caspar Creek Watershed Study | Fine Sediment in Pools Kings River Turbidity Threshold Sampling Study | CALFED |

Turbidity threshold sampling is an automated procedure for measuring turbidity and sampling suspended sediment. The basic equipment consists of a programmable data logger, a turbidimeter mounted in the stream, a pumping sampler, and a stage-measuring device. The data logger program employs turbidity to govern sample collection during each transport event. The Turbidity Threshold Sampling method is currently operating at over 40 gaging sites in northern California, at six sites in Oregon, two sites in Arizona, and two sites in Japan.

General Description - This is a general description written by Rand Eads
Plot Current TTS DATA
Gaging Sites
TTS Literature
Other Turbidity-Related References
Implementation Process
Implementation Guide (PSW General Technical Report, pre-publication) 08/28/08
Manufacturer Links

Gaging Sites:
Caspar Creek: Since 1962, researchers have been studying the nature of hydrologic, erosion, and sedimentation impacts of logging operations on northern California watersheds. TTS was first implemented in water year 1996 at 8 gaging stations in the Caspar Creek watershed. One additional gaging station (XYZ) was added in 2000 and 10 more gaging stations were added in water year 2001. The data include: streamflow, turbidity, estimated sediment loads, with the additional collection of water and air temperature and rainfall at selected sites. Data are collected and maintained by Redwood Sciences Laboratory, in cooperation with the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection.

Freshwater Creek: Hydrologic data collected at Freshwater Creek provide researchers, regulatory agencies, and the community with information about the physical condition of the watershed. TTS was first implemented using the Campbell data logger in winter of 1998. The data include: streamflow, turbidity, estimated sediment loads, water temperature, and rainfall. Data are collected and maintained by Salmon Forever.

Grass Valley Creek: Watershed analysis in the Grass Valley Creek area assists federal, state, and local agencies and public groups in making watershed management decisions. This pilot site was installed by Redwood Sciences Laboratory to test the TTS sampling method in a high gradient channel that transports coarse sediment loads. Data include: streamflow, turbidity, and estimated sediment loads. Data are no longer collected at this site.

Godwood Creek: Godwood creek is entirely contained within Prairie Creek State Park and Redwood National and State Parks, and is a tributary to Prairie and Redwood Creeks. The data include: streamflow, turbidity, and water temperature. The data are collected and maintained by Redwood Sciences Laboratory, in cooperation with the Redwood National and State Parks.

Little Jones Creek: Data collected at Little Jones Creek, a tributary to the Smith River, provide physical information for modeling fisheries habitat. The data include: streamflow, turbidity, estimated sediment loads, and water temperature. Data are collected and maintained by Redwood Sciences Laboratory, in cooperation with Six Rivers National Forest.

Prairie Creek: This existing gaging site in Prairie Creek State Park was used by Redwood Sciences Laboratory to evaluate a bridge-mounted boom. The data include: streamflow, turbidity, estimated sediment loads, and water temperature. Data are collected and maintained by Redwood National and State Parks.

Upper Jacoby Creek: The Upper Jacoby Creek gaging site is located in City of Arcata's Community Forest. The site is a former USGS gaging site (use Station ID=11480000) that was abandoned in 1964. The hydrologic data are used for modeling fisheries habitat. The data include: streamflow, turbidity, estimated sediment loads, and water temperature. Data are collected and maintained by Redwood Sciences Laboratory, in cooperation with the City of Arcata.

TTS Literature:

Lewis, Jack, and Rand Eads. 2008. Implementation guide for turbidity threshold sampling: principles, procedures, and analysis. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-212. Arcata, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station. Oct 2008.

Lewis, Jack. 2003. Turbidity-controlled sampling for suspended sediment load estimation. In: Bogen, J. Tharan Fergus and Des Walling (eds.), Erosion and Sediment Transport Measurement in Rivers: Technological and Methodological Advances (Proc. Oslo Workshop, 19-20 June 2002). IAHS Publ. 283: 13-20. M [294 KB]

Eads, Rand and Jack Lewis. 2003. Turbidity Threshold sampling in watershed research. In: Renard, Kenneth G.; McElroy, Stephen A.; Gburek, William J.; Canfield, H. Evan; Scott, Russell L., eds. First Interagency Conference on Research in the Watersheds, October 27-30, 2003. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service; 567-571.

Eads, Rand, and Jack Lewis. 2002. Continuous turbidity monitoring in streams of northwestern California. In: Turbidity and other sediment surrogates workshop (ed. by G.D. Glysson & J.R. Gray). 30 April - 02 May 2002, Reno, Nevada. 3 p.

Lewis, Jack. 2002. Estimation of suspended sediment flux in streams using continuous turbidity and flow data coupled with laboratory concentrations. In: Turbidity and other sediment surrogates workshop (ed. by G.D. Glysson & J.R. Gray). 30 April - 02 May 2002, Reno, Nevada. 3 p.

Lewis, Jack, and Rand Eads. 2001. Turbidity threshold sampling for suspended sediment load estimation. In: Proceedings, 7th Federal Interagency Sedimentation Conference, 25-29 Mar 2001, Reno, Nevada. [1824 KB]

Lewis, Jack, and Rand Eads. 1998. Automatic real-time control of suspended sediment based upon high frequency in situ measurements of nephelometric turbidity. In: Gray, John, and Larry Schmidt (Organizers). Proceedings of the Federal Interagency Workshop on Sediment Technology for the 21st Century, February 17-20, 1998, St. Petersburg, FL.

Lewis, Jack. 1996. Turbidity-controlled suspended sediment sampling for runoff-event load estimation. Water Resources Research 32(7): 2299-2310.

Lewis, Jack, and Rand Eads. 1996. Turbidity-controlled suspended sediment sampling. Watershed Management Council Newsletter 6(4): 1&4-5.

Other Turbidity Related Literature:
Adams, R. J. (1991). Ambient suspended sediment concentration and turbidity levels. Proceedings of the 1991 National Conference, New York, pp. 865-869.

Anderson, C.W., (2004). Turbidity (2d ed.): U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, book 9, chap. A6., section 6.7.

Barrett, J. C. (1992). Turbidity-induced changes in reactive distance of rainbow trout. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 121: 437-443.

Baygi, M. H. M., P. A. Payne, et al. (1994). Measurement of turbidity with polarized light. Measurement Science Technology 5: 685-693.

Davies-Colley, R. J. and D. G. Smith (2001). Turbidity, suspended sediment, and water clarity: a review. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 37(5): 1085-1100.

Downing, John (2005). Turbidity monitoring. Chapter 24 in Down, R.D. and J.H. Lehr. Environmental Instrumentation and Analysis Handbook. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. pp. 511- 546.

Downing, John (2006). Twenty-five years with OBS sensors: The good, the bad, and the ugly. Continental Shelf Research. doi:10.1016/j.csr.2006.07.018. 20 pp.

Foster, I. D. L., R. Millington, et al. (1992). The impact of particle size controls on stream turbidity measurement; some implications for suspended sediment yield estimation. Erosion and Sediment Transport Monitoring Programmes in River Basins 210: 51-62.

Gilvear, D. J. and G. E. Petts (1985). Turbidity and suspended solids variations downstream of a regulating reservoir. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 10: 363-373.

Gippel, C. J. (1989). The use of turbidimeters in suspended sediment research. Hydrobiologia 176/177: 465-480.

Gippel, C. J. (1995). Potential of turbidity monitoring for measuring the transport of suspended solids in streams. Hydrological Processes 9: 83-97.

Guibai, L. and J. Gregory (1991). Flocculation and sedimentation of high-turbidity waters. Water Resources 25(9): 1137-1143.

Jethra, R. (1993). Turbidity measurement. ISA Transactions 32: 397-405.

Lewis, Jack (2007). Comparisons of turbidity data collected with different instruments. Report on a cooperative agreement between the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection and USDA Forest Service--Pacific Southwest Research Station (PSW Agreement # 06-CO-11272133-041)..

Lex, D. (1993). In-line ratiometric turbidimeters are highly accurate, easy to use. I &CS 66(2): 41-44.

Mitchell, A. W. and M. J. Furnas (2001). River loggers - a new tool to monitor riverine suspended particle fluxes. Water Science and Technology 43(9):115-120.

Murren, C. (1993). Clear thinking on turbidity. Measurement and Contro 26: 83-85.

Orwin, John F. and C. Chris Smart (2005). An inexpensive turbidimeter for monitoring suspended sediment. Geomorphology 68: 3-15.

Puleo, Jack A. et al. The effect of air bubbles on optical backscatter sensors. Marine Geology 230: 87-97.

Singler, J. W. (1984). Effects of chronic turbidity on andromous salmonids: recent studies and assessment techniques in perspective. Logan, Utah State University.

Sun, H., P. S. Cornish and T. M. Daniell (2001). Turbidity-based erosion estimation in a catchment in South Australia. Journal of Hydrology 253: 227-238.

Implementation Process:
Many of the files listed below were created with Microsoft Word 2000. If older versions of Word do not open these files you may want to download a document Viewer (3.86 MB, for PCs with Pentium processors). The viewer will not, however, allow file editing.
 
Last Modified: Jan 7, 2011 05:45:25 PM