USDA Forest Service
 

Pacific Southwest Research Station

 

Pacific Southwest Research Station
800 Buchanan Street
Albany, CA 94710-0011

(510) 559-6300

United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service. USDA logo which links to the department's national site. Forest Service logo which links to the agency's national site.

Research Topics Fire Science

About this Research:
Participating Programs
Contributing Scientists and Collaborators
Research
Related Links

Publications

  • Ritchie, M.W.; Skinner, C.N. 2014. Blacks Mountain Experimental Forest. In: Hayes, D.; Stout, S.; Crawford, R.; Hoover, A. Research for the Long-Term: The interplay of societal need and research on USDA Forest Service Experimental Forests and Ranges. [In press].
  • Jenkins, Michael J.; Runyon, J.B.; Fettig, C.J.; Page, W.G.; Bentz, B.J. 2013. Interactions among the mountain pine beetle, fires, and fuels. For. Sci. (On-line early) DOI: 10.5849/forsci.13-017.
  • Ritchie, M.W.; Zhang, J.; Hamilton, T.A. 2013. Above-ground tree biomass for Pinus ponderosa in northeastern California. Forests. 4: 179-196. DOI: 10.3390/f4010179.
  • Camann, M.; Lamancha, K.L.; Gillette, N.E. 2012. Orbatid mite community decline two years after low-intensity burning in the southern Cascade Range of California, USA. Forests. 3: 959-985.
  • Ponder, F. Jr.; Fleming, R.L.; Berch, S.; Busse, M.D.; Elioff, J.D.; Hazlett, P.W.; Kabzems, R.D.; Kranabetter, J.; Marty, M.; David M.; Page-Dumroese, D.; Palik, B.J.; Powers, R.F.; Sanchez, F.G.; Scott, A.D.; Stagg, R.H.; Stone, D.M.; Young, D.H.; Zhang, J.; Ludovici, K.H.; McKenney, D.W.; Mossa, D.S.; Sanborn, P.T.; Voldseth, R.A. 2012.Effects of organic matter removal, soil compaction and vegetation control on 10th year biomass and foliar nutrition: LTSP continent-wide comparisons. Forest Ecology and Management. 278: 35-54.
  • Ritchie, M.W.; Knapp, E.E.; Skinner, C.N. 2012. Snag longevity and surface fuel accumulation following post-fire logging in a ponderosa pine-dominated forest. Forest Ecology and Management. 287: 113-122. DOI: 10.1016/j.foreco.2012.09.001
  • Stephens, S.L.; McIver, J.D.; Boerner, R.E.J.; Fettig, C.J.; Fontaine, J.B.; Hartsough, B.R.; Kennedy, P.L.; Schwilk, D.W. 2012. Effects of forest fuel-reduction treatments in the United States. Bioscience. 62: 549-560.
  • Wing, B.M.; Ritchie, M.W.; Boston, K.; Cohen, W.B.; Gitelman, A.; Olsen, M.J. 2012. Prediction of understory cover with airborne LiDAR in an interior ponderosa pine forest. Remote Sensing of the Environment. 124: 730-741. DOI: 10.1016/j.rse.2012.06.024.
  • Fettig, C.J.; McKelvey, S.R. 2010. Bark beetle responses to stand structure and prescribed fire at Blacks Mountain Experimental Forest, California, USA: 5- year data. Fire Ecology. 6: 26-42.
  • Rabin, L.A.; Oliver, W.W.; Powers, R.F.; Ritchie, M.W.; Busse, M.D.; Knapp, E.E. 2009. Historical growth plots in the Pacific Southwest. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-213. Albany, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station. 83 p.
  • Ritchie, M.W.; Skinner, C.N. 2009. Trial by Fire. P. 14-15 In: LeVan, S. (Ed.) Experimental Forests and Ranges. General Technical Report FPL-GTR-182, USDA Forest Service.
  • Uzoh, F.C.C.; Skinner, C.N. 2009. Effects of creating two forest structures and using prescribed fire on coarse woody debris in northeastern California, USA. Fire Ecology. 5(2): 1-13.
  • flames in the background burning material on the ground as part of a prescribed fire
  • Camann, M.A.; Gillette, N.E.; Lamncha, K.L.; Mori, S.R. 2008. Response of forest soil Acari to prescribed fire following stand structure manipulation in the Southern Cascade Range. CJFR. 38: 956-968.
  • Fettig, C.J.; Borys, R.R.; McKelvey, S.R.; Dabney, C.P. 2008. Blacks Mountain Experimental Forest: bark beetle responses to differences in forest structure and the application of prescribed fire in interior ponderosa pine. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 38: 924-935.
  • George, T.L.; Zack, S. 2008. Response of forest birds to manipulation of forest structure and prescribed fire at Black's Mountain Experimental Forest. CJFR. 38: 936-942.
  • Gillette, N.E.; Vetter, R.S.; Mori, S.R.; Rudolph, C.R.; Welty, D.R. 2008. Response of spider assemblages to stand structure manipulations and prescribed fire at Blacks Mountain Experimental Forest, Southern Cascade Range, California. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 38: 969-980.
  • Maguire, C.C.; Maguire, D.M.; Manning, T.E.; Garber, S.M.; Ritchie, M.W. 2008. Response of small mammals to alternative stand structures in the mixed- conifer forest of northeastern California. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 38: 943-955.
  • Ritchie, M.W.; Wing, B.; Hamilton, T. 2008. Maintaining Stability of the Large Tree Component in a Late-Seral Interior Ponderosa Pine Forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 38: 919-923.
  • Symons, J.N.; Fairbanks, D.H.K.; Skinner, C. 2008. Influences of stand structure and fuel treatments on wildfire severity at Blacks Mountain Experimental Forest, Northeastern California. California Geographer. 48: 1-23.
  • Zhang, J.; Ritchie, M.W. 2008. Restoring east-side ponderosa pine ecosystems at the Blacks Mountain Experimental Forest: A case study. In: Deal, R.L. Tech ed. Integrated restoration of forested ecosystems to achieve multiresource benefits: Proceedings of the 2007 national silviculture workshop. General Technical Report PNW-GTR-733. Portland OR: U.S. Dept. Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 107-116.
  • Zhang, J.; Ritchie, M.W.; Oliver, W.W. 2008. Vegetation responses to stand structure and prescribed fire in an interior ponderosa pine ecosystem. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 38: 909-918
  • Ritchie, M.W.; Skinner, C.N.; Hamilton, T. 2007. Probability of wildfire induced tree mortality in an interior pine forest: effects of thinning and prescribed fire. Forest Ecology and Management. 247: 200-208.
  • George, T.L.; Zack, S.; Laudenslayer, W.F. 2005. A comparison of bird species composition and abundance between late- and mid- seral Ponderosa Pine Forests. In: Ritchie, M.W., Maguire, D.A., Youngblood, A. (eds.). Proceedings of the Symposium on Ponderosa Pine: Issues, Trends and Management. Albany, CA: Gen Tech Rep. PSW-198.
  • Skinner, C.N. 2005. Reintroducing fire into the Blacks Mountain Research Natural Area: effects on fire hazard. In: Ritchie, M.W., Maguire, D.A., Youngblood, A. eds. Proceedings of the Symposium on Ponderosa Pine: Issues, Trends and Management. Albany, CA: Gen. Tech. Report. PSW-GTR-198: 245-257.
  • Farris, K.L.; Huss, M.; Zack, S. 2004. The influence of foraging woodpeckers in decomposition of ponderosa pine. The Condor. (106): 50-59.
  • Skinner, C.N.; Ritchie, M.W.; Hamilton, T.; Symons, J. 2004. Effects of prescribed fire and thinning on wildfire severity. In: S. Cooper, ed. Proceedings of the 25th annual forest vegetation management conference. Redding CA. University of California Cooperative Extension: 80-91.
  • Kliejunas, J.; Smith, R.S. 2003. Re-location of the site of the first report of black stain root disease. Report Number R03-01, Forest Health Protection, Pacific Southwest Region, USDA Forest Service.
  • Hartsough, B. 2003. Economics of harvesting to maintain high structural diversity and resulting damage to residual trees. Western Journal of Applied Forestry. 18(2): 133-142.
  • Farris, K.L.; Garton, E.O.; Heglund, P.J.; Zack, S.; Shea, P.J. 2002. Woodpecker foraging and the successional decay of ponderosa pine. In: Laudenslayer, William F., Jr.; Shea, Patrick J.; Valentine, Bradley E., Weatherspoon, C. Phillip; Lisle, Thomas, tech. cord. Proceedings of the Symposium On The Ecology And Management Of Dead Wood In Western Forests, 1999 November 2-4, Reno, NV. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-181: 237-246.
  • Oliver, W.W. 2002. Snag frequencies 50 years after partially cutting interior ponderosa pine stands. In: Parker, Sharon and Hummel, Susan Stevens, comps. Beyond 2001: A silviculture odyssey to sustaining terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Proceedings of 2001 National Silviculture Workshop, 2001 May 6-10, Hood River, OR. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-546. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station: 47-51.
  • Shea, P.; Laudenslayer, W.F., Jr.; Ferrell, G.; Borys, R. 2002. Girdled versus bark beetle-created ponderosa pine snags: utilization by cavity-dependent species and differences in decay rate and insect diversity: Laudenslayer, William F., Jr.; Shea, Patrick J.; Valentine, Bradley E., Weatherspoon, C. Phillip; Lisle, Thomas, tech. cord. Proceedings of the Symposium On The Ecology And Management Of Dead Wood In Western Forests, 1999 November 2-4, Reno, NV. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-181: 179-191.
  • George, T.L.; Zack, S. 2001. Spatial and temporal considerations in restoring habitat for wildlife. Restoration Ecology. 9(3): 272-279.
  • Oliver, W.W. 2001. Can we create and sustain late successional attributes in interior ponderosa pine stands? Large-scale ecological research studies in northeastern California. In: Vance, Regina K.; Edminster, Carleton B.; Covington, W. Wallace; Blake, Julie A. comps. Ponderosa pine ecosystems restoration and conservation: steps toward stewardship; 2000 April 25-27; Flagstaff, AZ. Proceedings RMRS-P-22. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station.
  • Samman, S.; Wilson, B.L.; Hipkins, V.D. 2001. Genetic variation in Pinus ponderosa, Pursia tridentate, and Festuca idahoensis, community-dominant plants of California's yellow pine forest. Madrono. 47(3): 164-173.
  • Oliver, W.W. 2000. Can we sustain uneven-aged ponderosa pine stands? An interdisciplinary study in northeastern California. P. 610-618. In: W. H. Emmingham (compiler). Proceedings of the IUFRO interdisciplinary uneven-aged management symposium. September 15-19, 1997. Oregon State University, Corvallis.
  • Oliver, W.W. 2000. Ecological research at the Blacks Mountain Experimental Forest in Northeastern California. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-179. Albany, CA: Pacific Southwest Research Station, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. 66 p.
  • Hartsough, B.R. 1999. Harvesting to enhance old-growth characteristics and reduce fuel loading. In: Forestry engineering for tomorrow symposium. June 28-30, 1999. Edinburgh University, Edinburgh, Scotland.
  • Zack, S.; Laudenslayer, W.F.; George, T.L.; Skinner, C.; Oliver, W. 1999. A prospectus on restoring late successional forest structure to eastside pine ecosystems through large-scale, interdisciplinary research.. In: J.E. Cook and B.P. Oswald (compilers). First Biennial North American Forest Ecology Workshop. Forest Ecology Working Group, Society of American Foresters. June 24-26, 1997. North Carolina State University, Raleigh: 343-355
  • Oliver, W.W.; Powers, R.F. 1998. Blacks Mountain, California: Interdisciplinary field research in ponderosa pine. J. For. 96(8): 4-8.
  • Larsen, M.J.; Harvey, A.E.; Powers, R.; Jurgensen, M.F. 1996. A new species of Botryobasidium (Corticiaceae, Aphyllophorales) inhabiting the interiors of brown rotted logs of ponderosa pine. Mycotaxon LX: 429-432.
  • Dolph, K.L.; Mori, S.R.; Oliver, W.W. 1995. Long-term response of old-growth stands to varying levels of partial cutting in the eastside pine type. West. J. Appl. For. 10(3): 101-108.
  • Dolph, K.L.; Mori, S.R.; Oliver, W.W. 1995. Height-diameter relationships for conifer species on the Blacks Mountain Experimental Forest. Res. Note PSW-RN-418. United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Berkeley, CA. 5 p.
  • Vora, R.S. 1988. Potential soil compaction forty years after logging in northeastern California. Great Basin Naturalist. 48:117-120
  • Vora, R.S. 1988. Predicting biomass of five shrub species in northeastern California. Journal of Range Management. 41: 63-65
  • Vora, R.S. 1988. Species frequency in relation to timber harvest methods and elevation in the pine type of northeast California. MadroƱo. 35: 150-152.
  • Smith, R.H.; Wickman, B.E.; Hall, R.C.; De Mars, C.J.; Ferrell, G.T. 1981. The California pine risk-rating system: its development, use and relationship to other systems. P 53-69 in: R.L. Hedden, S.J. Barras, J.E. Coster, Technical Coordinators. Proceedings of the symposium on hazard-rating systems in forest insect pest management, July 31-August 1 1980, Athens GA. General Technical Report WO-27. Forest Service USDA, Washington DC.
  • Arvanitis, L.G.; O'Regan, W.G. 1972. Cluster of satellite sampling in forestry: a Monte Carlo computer simulations study. p. 191-205 In: Proceedings of the third conference of the IUFRO advisory group of forest statistics. Joy-en-Josas, France. 1970. Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique Publ. 72-73.
  • Oliver, W.W. 1970. The feeding pattern of sapsuckers on ponderosa pine in northeastern California. The Condor 72(2):241.
  • Arvanitis, L.G.; O'Regan, W.G. 1969. Sampling simulation computer programs. I. Fixed and variable plots. University of Wisconsin, College of Agriculture and Life Science. Res. Div. Rep. 49. 48 p.
  • O'Regan, W.G.; Arvanitis, L.G. 1969. Sampling simulation computer programs. II. Cost-effectiveness and sampling efficiency. University of Wisconsin College of Agriculture and Life Science. Res. Division Research aper 50. 31 p.
  • Oliver, W.W. 1968. Sapsucker damage to ponderosa pine. Journal of Forestry. 66(11): 842-844.
  • Arvanitis, L.G.; O'Regan, W.G. 1967. Computer simulation and economic efficiency in forest sampling. Hilgardia. 38(2): 133-164.
  • Gordon, D.T. 1967. Alternatives in fire management strategies. P 115-119. In: Proceedings of a conference on young-growth forest management.
  • Gordon, D.T. 1967. Prescribed burning in the interior ponderosa pine type of northeastern California... a preliminary study. Research aper PSW-45. Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Forest Service, USDA. Berkeley CA. 20 p.
  • O'Regan, W.G.; Arvanitis, L.G. 1967. Cost-effectiveness in forest sampling. Forest Science. 12(4): 406-414.
  • Bega, R.V; Smith, R.S. 1966. The distribution of Fomes annosus in natural forests of California. Plant Dis. Rep. 50(11): 32-35.
  • McKeever, S. 1966. Reproduction in Citellus beldingi and Citellus lateralis in northeastern California. Symposia of Zoological Society of London. 15: 365-385.
  • O'Regan, W.G.; Palley, M.N. 1965. A computer technique for the study of forest sampling methods. Forest Science. 11(1): 99-114.
  • McKeever, S. 1964. Compound 1080 and forest regeneration: Characteristics of the poison in relation to bait shyness, poison shyness, toxicity to rodents, and phytotoxicity to conifer seed. California Resources Agency, Department of Conservation, Division of Forestry.
  • McKeever, S. 1964. Food habits of the pine squirrel in northeastern California. Journal of Wildlife Management. 28(2): 402-404.
  • McKeever, S. 1964. The biology of the golden-mantled ground squirrel. Ecological Monographs. 34(4): 383-401.
  • McKeever, S. 1964. Variation in the weight of the adrenal, pituitary and thyroid glands of the white footed mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus. American Journal of Anatomy. 114(1):1-15.
  • Quick, C.R. 1964. Experimental herbicidal control of dwarf mistletoe on some California conifers. Research Note PSW-47. Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Forest Service, USDA. Berkeley CA. 9 p.
  • Teeguarden, D.E.; Gordon, D.T. 1964. Thinning increases growth of stagnated ponderosa and Jeffrey pine sapling stands. Journal of Forestry. 62(2): 114.
  • McKeever, S. 1963. Seasonal changes in body weight, reproductive organs, pituitary, adrenal glands, thyroid gland, and spleen of the belding ground squirrel (Citellus beldingi). Am. J. Anat. 113(1): 153-173.
  • McKeever, S. 1963. The occurrence of Moniliformis clarki (Ward) (Acanthocephala: Moniliformidae) in California mammals. Journal of Parisitology. 49(6): 1032-1033.
  • Gordon, D.T. 1962. A prototype fuel-break in the eastside ponderosa-Jeffrey pine type. Research Note 207. Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Forest Service, USDA. Berkeley CA. 9 p.
  • Gordon, D.T. 1962. Growth response of east side pine poles to removal of low vegetation. Research Note 209. Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Forest Service, USDA. Berkeley CA. 3 p.
  • Wickman, B.E.; Eaton, C.B. 1962. The effects of sanitation-salvage cutting on insect-caused pine mortality at Blacks Mountain Experimental Forest 1938-1959. Technical paper 66. Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Forest Service, USDA. Berkeley, CA. 39 p.
  • McKeever, S. 1961. Relative populations of small mammals in three forest types of northeastern California. Ecology. 42(2): 399-402.
  • Palley, M.N.; O'Regan, W.G. 1961. A computer technique for the study of forest sampling methods. I. Point Sampling compared with line sampling. Forest Science. 7(3): 282-294.
  • McKeever, S. 1960. Food of the northern flying squirrel in northeastern California. Journal of Mammalogy. 41(2): 270-271.
  • Miller, J.M.; Keen, F.P. 1960. Biology and control of the western pine beetle. Miscellaneous Publication 800. USDA. Washington, DC. 381 p.
  • Eaton, C.B. 1959. Insect-caused mortality in relation to methods of cutting in ponderosa pine on the Blacks Mountain Experimental Forest. Tech. Paper 43. Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. USDA Forest Service. Berkeley, CA. 33 p.
  • Gordon, D.T. 1959. Ten-year observations on pruned ponderosa and Jeffrey pine. Research Note 153. Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Forest Service, USDA. Berkeley, CA. 4p.
  • Hallin, W.E. 1959. The application of unit area control in the management of ponderosa-Jeffrey pine at Blacks Mountain Experimental Forest. Technical Bulletin 1191. USDA, Washington, DC. 96 p.
  • McKeever, S. 1959. Effects of reproductive activity on weight of adrenal glands in Microtus montanus. Anat. Rec. 135: 1-5.
  • Teeguarden, D.E.; Gordon, D.T. 1959. A precommercial thinning in ponderosa and Jeffrey pine. Journal of Forestry. 57(12): 900-904.
  • U.S. Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 1959. Guide to Susanville research center. Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Forest Service, USDA, Berkeley, CA. 12 p.
  • Fowells, H.A.; Schubert, G.H. 1956. Seed crops of forest trees in the pine region of California. Technical Bulletin 1150. USDA. Washington, DC. 48 p.
  • Gordon, D.T. 1956. Slash disposal and seedbed preparation by tractor. Journal of Forestry. 54: 771-773.
  • Hallin, W.E. 1956. Pruning ponderosa and Jeffrey pine. Research Note 115. Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Forest Service, USDA. Berkeley, CA. 4 p.
  • Furniss, M.M.; Hallin, W.E. 1955. Development of high-risk trees in ponderosa and Jeffrey pine stands following sanitation-salvage cutting. Research Note 94. California Forest and Range Experiment Station. USDA Forest Service. Berkeley, CA. 2 p.
  • Gordon, D.T. 1955. A portable pole ladder. Journal of Forestry. 53: 453-454.
  • Roy, D.F. 1953. Effects of ground cover and class of planting stock on survival of transplants in the eastside pine type of California. Research Note 87. Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Forest Service, USDA. Berkeley, CA. 6 p.
  • Roy, D.F.; Schubert, G.H. 1953. K-screen seed spots. Research Note 88. Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Forest Service, USDA. Berkeley, CA. 2 p.
  • Tackle, D.; Roy, D.F. 1953. Site preparation as related to ground cover density in natural regeneration of ponderosa pine. Technical Paper 4. California Forest and Range Experiment Station, Forest Service, USDA. Berkeley, CA. 13 p.
  • Cosens, R.D.; Tackle, D. 1950. Costs of rodent control in pine regeneration in California. Research Note 73. California Forest and Range Experiment Station. USDA Forest Service. Berkeley, CA. 5 p.
  • Hasel, A.A. 1949. Long-term silvicultural experiment on methods of cutting. Proceedings of the Berkeley symposium on mathematical statistics and probability. Berkeley: Univ. Berkeley Press: 477-479.
  • Hasel, A.A. 1946. Logging cost as related to tree size and intensity of cutting in ponderosa pine. Journal of Forestry. 44(8): 552-560.
  • Dunning, D.; Hasel, A.A. 1945. The Blacks Mountain Experimental Forest. California Forest and Range Experiment Station. USDA Forest Service. Berkeley, CA. 23 p.
  • Hasel, A.A. 1945. The Blacks Mountain portable log loader. Research Note 43. California Forest and Range Experiment Station, Forest Service, USDA. Berkeley, CA. 8 p.
  • Hasel, A.A. 1942. Estimation of volume in timber stands by strip sampling. Annals of Mathematical Statistics. 13(2): 179-206.
  • Hasel, A.A. 1942. Sampling error of cruises in the California pine region. Journal of Forestry. 40(3): 211-217.
  • Salman, K.A.; Bongberg, J.W. 1942. Logging high-risk trees to control insects in the pine stands of northeastern California. Journal of Forestry. 40(7): 533-539.
  • Brundage, M.R. 1938. Valuation of trees and cutting systems on four sample plots, Blacks Mountain Experimental Forest. California Forest and Range Experiment Station, USDA Forest Service. Berkeley, CA. 4p.
  • Hasel, A.A. 1938. Methods-of-cutting demonstration plots. California Forest and Range Experiment Station, Forest Service, USDA. Berkeley, CA. 3 p.
  • Hasel, A.A. 1938. Sampling error in timber surveys. Journal of Agricultural Research. 57(10): 713-736.
  • Hasel, A.A. 1937. Analysis of sampling methods for volume determination in a ponderosa pine forest. California Forest and Range Experiment Station, Forest Service, USDA. Berkeley, CA. 43 p.
  • Hasel, A.A. 1937. Arrangement of cruise plots to permit a valid estimate of sampling error. California Forest and Range Experiment Station, Forest Service, USDA. Berkeley, CA. 13 p.
  • Brundage, M.R.; Orr, T.J. 1936. Lumber selling values of logs from insect-infested ponderosa and Jeffrey pine trees salvaged in 1935 on an east-side pine region area. Research Note No. 9, California Forest and Range Experiment Station, USDA Forest Service. 7 p.
  • Brundage, M.R.; Orr, T.J. 1936. Through mill, kiln, and planer with 100 trees. Research Note No. 11, California Forest and Range Experiment Station, USDA Forest Service. 7 p.
  • Zumwalt, E.V. 1934. The Blacks Mountain Experimental Forest. In: The Alumni News, New York State Ranger School: 64-66.
Last Modified: Sep 12, 2013 07:17:31 PM