Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5

United States Department of Agriculture
Forest Service
General Technical Report PSW GTR-157
American Marten, Fisher, Lynx, and Wolverine:
Survey Methods for Their Detection

William J. Zielinski   Thomas E. Kucera


cover picture




August 1995

Table of Contents

Preface

Chapter 1

Introduction to Detection and Survey Methods
William J. Zielinski and Thomas E. Kucera

Background

Species Detection

Differences Among Survey Methods

Survey Durations

Population Monitoring

Alaska and Canada

Habitat Assessments

Interpretation of Results

Cautions

Disposition of Data

References

Appendix: Addresses of State Natural Heritage Programs


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Chapter 2

Definition and Distribution of Sample Units
William J. Zielinski, Thomas E. Kucera, and James C. Halfpenny

Introduction

Objectives

Background

The Sample Unit

Use of Detection Devices: Cameras and Track Plates

Snow-Tracking Methods

Survey Duration

Sample Unit Distribution

Regional Surveys

Project Surveys

References


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Chapter 3

Photographic Bait Stations
Thomas E. Kucera, Art M. Soukkala, and William J. Zielinski

Introduction

Description of Devices

Single-Sensor Camera System

Dual-Sensor Camera System

Line-Triggered Camera System

Baits and Lures

Mustelids

Lynx

Survey Seasons

Single and Dual Sensor

Line Trigger

Survey Duration

Preparations for the Field

Defining the Survey Area

Station Number and Distribution

In the Field

Winter Safety

Handling Bait

Station Setup

Checking the Stations

Developing Film

Data Management

Comparisons of Camera Systems

Costs

Single Sensor

Dual Sensor

Line Trigger

Equipment List

Single Sensor

Dual Sensor

Line Trigger

References

Appendices

A--Data Forms

B--Trailmaster Commands

C--Examples of Photographs


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Chapter 4

Track Plates
William J. Zielinski

Introduction

Description of Devices

Track-Plate Box

Unenclosed Track Plate

Baits and Lures

Survey Seasons

Survey Duration

Preparations for the Field

Defining the Survey Area

Station Number and Distribution

In the Field

Station Location

Station Setup

Checking the Stations

Data Management

Safety Concerns

Sooting the Plates

Handling Bait

Comparison of Track-Plate Methods

Costs

Equipment

Orientation Related

Track-Plate Related

General

References

Appendices

A--Examples of Fisher and Marten Tracks from Con-Tact Paper

B--Discriminant Function to Distinguish Marten and Fisher Tracks

C--Data Forms


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Chapter 5

Snow Tracking
James C. Halfpenny, Richard W. Thompson, Susan C. Morse, Tim Holden, and Paul Rezendes

Introduction

Survey Season and Snow Conditions

Defining the Survey Area

Searching for Tracks

Route Selection, Mode of Travel, and Duration

Topographic Considerations

Survey Frequency

Tracking at Bait Stations

Baits and Lures

Station Number and Distribution

Survey Duration and Check Frequency

Preparations for the Field

Background

Morphology of Carnivore Feet and Tracks

Footprints in Snow

Understanding Gaits

Measuring Tracks and Trails

Lynx, Wolverines, Fishers and Martens: Tracks and Trails

In the Field

Analyzing Tracks and Trails

Measuring Tracks and Trails in the Field

Track Preservation

Scat and Hair

Data Measurement

Inventory and Monitoring

Safety Concerns

Winter Hazards

Scat Collection Hazards

Costs

Equipment and Training

Tracking Equipment

Training in Tracking

References

Appendices

A--Minimum Outline Databases

B--Data Forms

C--Photographic Interpretation


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Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5