Quantification of energy benefits is an important part of the Center's research. Healthy urban forests have the ability to cut heating and air conditioning use, resulting in reduced costs and atmospheric emissions from power plants. Tree shade reduces air temperature and the amount of radiant energy absorbed and stored by built surfaces. Additionally, trees reduce the velocity of wind, slowing the infiltration of outside air. Our research shows that properly selected, located, and managed trees can drastically reduce city and residential energy costs and lessen our reliance on new power plants.