USDA Forest Service
 

Pacific Southwest Research Station

 

Pacific Southwest Research Station
800 Buchanan Street
West Annex Building
Albany, CA 94710-0011

(510) 559-6300

United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service. USDA logo which links to the department's national site. Forest Service logo which links to the agency's national site.

Programs and Projects

(RWU-4202)

Sierra Nevada Research Center

Photo of Constance Millar

Constance I Millar
Research Paleoecologist
E-mail: cmillar@fs.fed.us
Phone: (510) 559-6435

USDA, Forest Service
Pacific Southwest Research Station

800 Buchanan Street
West Annex Building
Albany, CA 94710-0011
Ph: (510) 559-6300
Fx: (510) 559-6440
Education

B.S. Forest Science, 1977, University of Washington, Seattle, WA
M.S. Wildland Resources Science, 1979, University of California, Berkeley, CA
Ph.D. Genetics, 1985, University of California, Berkeley. CA


Research Interests/Duties

on site photographMy early career addressed questions on population-, evolutionary-, and conservation-genetics of conifer forests. Currently my research team focuses on the role of historic and ongoing climate change in high-elevation forest biogeography, demography, and adaptation. We use tools from Quaternary Sciences, primarily dendrochronology, combined with traditional forest ecology and genetics methods to investigate effects of historic climate change on structure, composition, and function of subalpine meadows and forests in the Sierra Nevada and western Great Basin. Little research has been undertaken to explore the importance of decadal- and century-scale climate change during the last 3000 years as an ecosystem architect relative to other disturbance agents or human effects. My team also focuses on effects of 20th/21st century climate change on high-elevation ecosystems and interactions with global warming. In addition to Quaternary climate and environmental effects, I continue to study Tertiary evolutionary dynamics of pines of the world, especially western North America, and have taken my passion for rock glaciers and periglacial rock-ice features into my research scope. Most recently my research team is undertaking distributional and climatic studies of American pika (Ochotona princeps) and its association with periglacial alpine landforms.

My other primary research interest is the integration of science with policy at the ecoregional and interdisciplinary scale. I am especially interested in communicating and interpreting current research on climate change and its ecological effects in conservation and restoration contexts. During the 1990s, I developed a "Building Bridges Between Science and Management" program while on sabbatical at the Inyo National Forest, eastern Sierra Nevada; served as assistant team leader and science team member for the Sierra Nevada Ecosystem Project; science team member for the Sierra Nevada Research Planning Program; team leader for the Sierra Nevada Science Review; and science advisor to the early stages of the Sierra Nevada Framework EIS project. I remain committed to integration and interdisciplinary synthesis efforts and in the early 2000s, joined with colleagues to form the Consortium for Integrated Climate Research in Western Mountains (CIRMOUNT). In recent years, colleagues from USFS and I formed the Westwide Climate Initiative, an effort committed to developing climate-adaptation tools for resource management.

Rock Glacier and Related Rock-Ice Feature Inventory for the Sierra Nevada, CA, USA. Our database of locations and attributes is on the National Snow and Ice Data Center. You can view information and download data from this site. http://nsidc.org/data/ggd652.html

PIKA INFORMATION: Please write me if you are interested in the latest copy of our pika site-occurrence database. The survey form we use for rapid-assessment of pika sites is here. Pika Survey Form


Selected Publications

Williams P., C.D. Allen, C.I. Millar, T.W. Swetnam, J. Michaelsen, C.J. Still, and S.W. Leavitt. 2010. Forest responses to increasing aridity and warmth in the southwestern United States. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. Vol.107, No.50, pgs.21289–21294.

Millar, C.I. and R.D. Westfall. 2010. Distribution and Climatic Relationships of the American Pika (Ochotona princeps) in the Sierra Nevada and Western Great Basin, U.S.A.; Periglacial Landforms as Refugia in Warming Climates. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, Vol. 42, No. 1, 2010, pp. 76-88. S. Wolf Comment, AAAR 2010; C. Millar and R. Westfall Reply, AAAR 2010

Stephenson, N.L., C.I. Millar, and D. Cole. 2010. Shifting environmental foundations: The unprecedented and unpredictable future. Chapter 4 in D.N. Cole and L. Yung (Eds), Beyond Naturalness: Rethinking Park and Wilderness Stewardship in an Era of Rapid Change. Island Press.

Cole, D., N.L. Stephenson, and C.I. Millar. 2010. Responding to climate change: A toolbox of management strategies. Chapter 11 in D.N. Cole and L. Yung (Eds), Beyond Naturalness: Rethinking Park and Wilderness Stewardship in an Era of Rapid Change. Island Press.

Stephens, S., C.I. Millar, and B.M. Collins. 2010. Operational approaches to managing forests of the future in Mediterranean regions within a context of changing climates. Environ. Res. Lett. 5 (2010) 024003 (9pp).

Halofsky, J.E.; Peterson, D.L.; Furniss, M.J.; Joyce, L.A.; Millar, C.I.; and Neilson, R.P. In press. A Workshop Approach to the Development of Climate Change Adaptation Strategies and Actions for Natural Resource Management. Journal of Forestry.

Furniss, M.J.; Millar, C.I.; Peterson, D.L.; Joyce, L.A.; Neilson, R.P.; Halofsky, J.E.; Kerns, B.K. 2009. Adapting to Climate Change: A Short Course for Land Managers. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-789DVD. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. Available online at www.fs.fed.us/ccrc/ or through USFS Publishing Services in Fort Collins, Colorado.

Hobbs, R.J., Cole, D.N., Yung, L., Zavaleta, E.S., Aplet, G.H., Chapin, F.S., Landres, P.B., Parsons, D.J., Stephenson, N.L., White, P.S., Graber, D.M., Higgs, E.S., Millar, C.I., Randall, J.M., Tonnessen, K.A., Woodley, S. 2009. Guiding concepts for protected area stewardship in an era of global environmental change. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment.

Peterson, D.L., C.I. MIllar, J.S. Littell, K.A. O'Halloran. In press. U.S. national forests adapt to climate change through science-management partnerships. Climatic Change.

Blate, G.M., L.A. Joyce, J.S. Littell, S.G. McNulty, C.I. Millar, S.C. Moser, R.P. Neilson, K.O'Halloran, and D.L. Peterson. 2009. Adapting to climate change in the U.S. national forests. Special Issue on Forest Management Adaptation to Climate Change. Unasylva.

Joyce, L., G. Blate, S. McNulty, C. Millar, S. Moser, R. Neilson, D. Peterson. 2009. Managing for multiple resources under climate change: National forests. Special Issue on Adaptation Options for Climate-Sensitive Ecosystems and Resources. Environmental Management.

Pauchard, A., Kueffer, C., Dietz, H., Daehler, C.C., Alexander, J., Edwards, P.J., Arevalo, J.R., Cavieres, L., Guisan, A., Haider, S., Jakobs, G., McDougall, K., Millar, C.I., Naylor, B.J., Parks, C.G., Rew, L.J., and Seipel, T., 2009. Ain't no mountain high enough: plant invasions reaching new elevations. The Ecological Society of America. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 2009; 7, doi:10.1890/080072.

Pacific NW Research Station. 2008. Changing with the Climate. Science Update(featuring Millar's research) No. 17, Summer 2008.

Diaz, Henry F., Constance I. Millar, Connie A. Woodhouse. 2008. The Consortium for Integrated Climate Research in Western Mountains - A Progress Report. Mountain Research Initiative Newsletter no. 1 September 2008.

Bosworth, D., R. Birdsey, L. Joyce, and C. Millar. 2008. Climate change and the nation's forests: Challenges and opportunities. Journal of Forestry, June 2008.

Joyce, L.A., G.M. Blate, J.S. Littell, S.G. McNulty, C.I. Millar, S.C. Moser, R.P. Neilson, K. O'Halloran, D.L. Peterson. 2008. Adaptation options for climate-sensitive ecosystems and resources: National Forests. Chapter 3 in Preliminary review of adaptation options for climate-sensitive ecosystems and resources. Synthesis and Assessment Product 4.4, U.S. Climate Change Science Program. 126 pgs.
Link to entire report. 873 pages.

Millar, C.I. and R.D. Westfall. 2008. Rock glaciers and periglacial rock-ice features in the Sierra Nevada; Classification, distribution, and climate relationships. Quaternary International, 188: 90-104.

Cole, D.N., L. Yung, E.S. Zavaleta, G.H. Aplet, F.S. Chapin III, D.M. Graber, E.S. Higgs, R.J. Hobbs, P.B. Landes, and C.I. Millar, D.J. Parsons, J.M. Randall, N.L. Stephenson, K.A. Tonnessen, P.S. White, S. Woodley. 2008. Naturalness and beyond: Protected area stewardship in an era of global environmental change. The George Wright Forum 25(1).

Grayson, D.K. and C.I. Millar. 2008. Prehistoric human influence on the abundance and distribution of deadwood in alpine landscapes. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 10(2008): pgs101-108.

Millar, C.I., R.D. Westfall, and D.L. Delany. 2007. Response of high-elevation limber pine (Pinus flexilis) to multi-year droughts and 20th-century warming; Sierra Nevada, California, USA. Canadian Journal of Forest Research vol 37: pp 2508-2520.

Millar, C.I., N.L. Stephenson, and S.L. Stephens. 2007. Climate Change and Forests of the Future: Managing in the Face of Uncertainty. Ecological Applications 17(8): pp 2145-2151. Shorter versions: CIRMOUNT Newsletter Mountain Views 2(1): 5-10 and Climate Change Resource Center Issue Paper 1-5.

Malanson, G.P, D.R. Butler, D.B. Fagre, S.J. Walsh, D.F. Tomback, L.D. Daniels, L.M. Resler, W.K. Smith, D.J. Weiss, D.L. Peterson, A.G. Bunn, C.A. Hiemstra, D. Liptzin, P.S. Bourgeron, Z. Shen, and C.I. Millar. 2007. Alpine treeline of western North America: Linking organism-to-landscape dynamics. Physical Geography 28(5): 378-397.

Millar, C.I., J.C. King, R.D. Westfall, H.A. Alden, and D.L. Delany. 2006. Late Holocene forest dynamics, volcanism, and climate change at Whitewing Mountain and San Joaquin Ridge, Mono County, Sierra Nevada, CA, USA. Quaternary Research 66 (2006): 273-287.

Millar, C.I., R. Neilson, D. Batchelet, R. Drapek, and J. Lenihan. 2006. Climate change at multiple scales. Chapter 3 in Salwasser, H. and M. Cloughesy (eds). Forests, Carbon, and Climate Change. Oregon Forest Resources Institute Publication.

Millar, C.I. and L.B. Brubaker. 2006. Climate change and paleoecology: New contexts for restoration ecology. Chapter 15 in M. Palmer, D. Falk, and J. Zedler (eds) Restoration Science. Island Press. pp315-340.

Millar, C.I. In press. Climate change; Confronting the global experiment. In Cooper, S. and S. Frederickson (eds.), Proceedings of the 27th Annual Forest Vegetation Management Conference, Growing the Future, S.L. Cooper (Compiler). January 17-19, 2006, Redding, California. University of California, Shasta County Cooperative Extension, Redding, California.

Millar, C.I., H.F. Diaz, and fourteen others. 2006. Mapping New Terrain; Climate change and America's West. USDA Miscellaneous Pub. Misc-PSW-77. 1-28.

Millar, C.I. 2005. The Consortium for Integrated Climate Research in Western Mountains: A new national research network. Mountain Forum Bulletin 5(1): 18-19.

Greenwood, G., and C. Millar. 2005. The Consortium for Integrated Climate Research: The role of regional integration in global studies. Mountain Research and Development 25(1): 80-81.

Millar, C.I., L.J. Graumlich, D.L. Delany, R.D. Westfall, and J.K. King. 2004. Response of subalpine conifers in the Sierra Nevada, California, U.S.A., to 20th-century warming and decadal climate variability. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, 36(2):181-200.

Westfall, RD and Millar, CI. 2004. Genetic Consequences of Forest Population Dynamics Influenced by Historic Climatic Variability in the Western USA. Forest Ecology and Management. 197: 157-168.

Millar, C.I. 2004. Climate and landscape change over time. In P. Stine and D. Murphy (eds). Proceedings of the Sierra Nevada Science Symposium, Science for Management and Conservation. USDA Forest Service, PSW General Technical Report, GTR 193: 25-31.

Millar, C.I. 2004. The Consortium for Integrated Climate Research in Western Mountains. Chapter 20 in Lee, C. and Schaaf, T. (eds) Global Change Research in Mountain Biosphere Reserves. Proceedings of the International Launching Workshop held in Entlebuch Biosphere Reserve, 10-13 November 2003. Pg. 154-158.

Diaz, H. and C.I. Millar. 2004. Discussing the future of U.S. mountains; climate change and ecosystems. EOS 85 (35) 329-330.

Millar, C.I. 2003. Climate change as an ecosystem architect: Implications to rare plant ecology, conservation, and management. In Brooks, M. (ed). Proceedings of the Conference on Rare Plants, Ecology, and Conservation, 9-13 Feb 2002, Arcata, California. California Native Plant Society. Pgs. 139-157.

Rosenthal A., and C.I. Millar. 2003. Climate Change: Detecting Climate's Imprint on California Forests. PSW Science Perspectives (featuring Millar's research) Spring 2003.

Millar, C.I. and W.B. Woolfenden. 2001. Integrating Quaternary science research in land management, restoration, and conservation. Quaternary Times 31(1): 1-9.

Jayko, A.S. and C.I. Millar. 2000. Impacts of climate change on landscapes of the Eastern Sierra Nevada and Western Great Basin. U.S. Geological Survey, Open-File Report 01-202. 1-35.

Millar, C.I. 2000. Historical variability in ecosystem management. Past Global Changes 8(3): 2-4.

Millar, C. I. 1999. Evolution and biogeography of Pinus radiata with a proposed revision of its Quaternary history. New Zealand Journal of Forest Science 29 [3]:335-365.

Millar, C. I. and Woolfenden, W. B. 1999. The role of climatic change in interpreting historic variability. Ecological Applications 9 [4]:1207-1216.

Millar, C. I., Chapel, M., Nechodom, M., Phipps, J., and Boynton, J. 1999. Sierra Nevada framework design paper: Contexts and commitments. Cooperative report of the PSW Research Station, PSW Region, USDA, for the Sierra Nevada Framework Project, Sacramento, CA.

Millar, C. I. and Woolfenden, W. B. 1999. Sierra Nevada Forests: Where did they come from? Where are they going? What does it mean? In McCabe, R. and Loos, S. (eds.) Natural Resource Management: Perceptions and Realities. Transactions of the 64th North American wildlife and Natural Resources Conference, San Francisco, March 26-30, 1999, wildlife Managment Institute, Washington, DC. Pgs 206-236.

Millar, C. I. 1999. Genetic diversity. Chapter 14 in Hunter, M. L. (ed.) Maintaining Biodiversity in Forest Ecosystems. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. Pgs 460-494.

Rogers, D. L., Millar, C. I., and Westfall, R. D. 1999. Fine-scale genetic structure of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis): Associations with watershed and growth form. Evolution 53 [1]:74-90.

Millar, C. I., Lind, A., Rowntree, R., Skinner, C., Verner, J., Zielinski, W., and Ziemer, R. 1998. Sierra Nevada Science Review. Report of the Science Review Team charged to synthesize new information of rangewide urgency to the national forests of the Sierra Nevada. Pgs 1-115. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Berkeley, CA.

Millar, C. I. 1998. Reconsidering the conservation of Monterey pine. Fremontia 26 [3]:12-16.

Millar, C. I. 1998. Early evolution of pines. Pgs 69-94. Editor: Richardson, D. M. In: Ecology and Biogeography of Pinus, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Millar, C. I. 1997. Comments on historical variation and desired condition as tools for terrestrial landscape analysis. Pgs 105-132. Editor: Sommarstrom, S. In: What is watershed stability? Proceedings 6th Biennial watershed Management Conference, Lake Tahoe, California/Nevada, October 23-25, 1996. Centers for water and Wildland Recources, University of California water Resources Center Report No. 92, University of California, Davis, CA.

Millar, C. I. 1997. Quaternary evolution of Pinus radiata. Pgs 22-26. Editors: Burdon, R. D. and Moore, J. M. In: IUFRO '97 Genetics of Radiata Pine - Proceedings of NZ FRI-IUFRO Conference December 1-4, 1997, Rotorua, New Zealand. New Zealand Forest Research Institute (FRI) Bulletin No. 203, New Zealand Forest Research Institute Ltd., Rotorua, New Zealand.

Falk, D. A., Millar, C. I., and Olwell, M.(Editors) 1996. Restoring diversity: Strategies for reintroduction of endangered plants. Pgs 1-505. Island Press. Washington, D.C.

Falk, D. A., Millar, C. I., and Olwell, M. 1996. Guidelines for developing a rare plant reintroduction plan. Part V. Pgs 453-490. Editors: Falk, D. A., Millar, C. I., and Olwell, M. In: Restoring diversity: Strategies for reintroduction of endangered plants. Island Press, Washington, DC.

Millar, C. I. and Westfall, R. D. 1996. Integrated management and monitoring of Genetic Conservation Areas on National Forests in California. Pg 62. Editors: Rogers, D. L. and Ledig, F. T. In: The Status of Temperate North American Forest Genetic Resources, No. 16, University of California Genetic Resources Conservation Program, Davis, California.

Millar, C. I. 1996. Sierra Nevada ecosystems. Chapter 1 in Sierra Nevada Ecosystem Project, Final Report to Congress, Vol. I, Assessment Summaries and Management Strategies, Centers for Water and Wildland Resources, Report No. 36, University of California, Davis, California. Pgs 5-17.

Millar, C.I. 1996. The SNEP process in detail. Appendix 4 in Sierra Nevada Ecosystem Project, Final Report to Congress, Vol. I, Assessment Summaries and Management Strategies, Centers for Water and Wildland Resources, Report No. 36, University of California, Davis, California. Pgs. 197-209.

Millar, C. I., Barbour, M. G., Elliott-Fisk, D. L., Shevock, J. R., and Woolfenden, W. B. 1996. Significant natural areas. Chapter 29 in Sierra Nevada Ecosystem Project, Final report to Congress, Volume II, Assessments and Scientific Basis for Management Options, Centers for Water and Wildland Resources, Report No. 37, University of California, Davis, California. Pgs 839-854.

Millar, C. I. 1996. Tertiary vegetation history. Chapter 5 in Sierra Nevada Ecosystem Project, Final report to Congress, Volume II, Assessments and Scientific Basis for Management Options, Centers for Water and Wildland Resources, Report No. 37, University of California, Davis, California. Pgs 71-122.

Millar, C. I. 1996. Case studies in ecosystem management: the Mammoth-June ecosystem management project, Inyo National Forest. Chapter 10 in Sierra Nevada Ecosystem Project, Final report to Congress, Volume I, Assessment Summaries and Management Strategies, Centers for Water and Wildland Resources, Report No. 37, University of California, Davis, California. Pgs 146-150.

Rogers, D. L., Millar, C. I., and Westfall, R. D. 1996. Genetic diversity within species. Chapter 28 in Sierra Nevada Ecosystem Project, Final report to Congress, Volume II, Assessments and Scientific Basis for Management Options, Centers for Water and Wildland Resources, Report No. 37, University of California, Davis, California. Pgs 759-838.

Chapel, M., Flores, D., Fullmer, P., Manley, P., and Millar, C. I. 1994. Conserving biological diversity: The coarse filter/fine filter approach, [Volume 2]: Pgs B1-29. Region 5 Ecosystem Management Guidebook, USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Region, San Francisco, CA.

Erman, D. C., Millar, C. I., Graber, D., Leisz, D., and Rowntree, R. 1994. Sierra Nevada Ecosystem Project, Progress Report to Congress. Pgs 1-70. Centers for water and Wildland Research, University of California, Davis, CA.

Millar, C. I. 1993. Conservation of germplasm in forest trees. Pgs 42-65. Editors: Libby, W. J. and Ahuja, M. R. In: Clonal Forestry II, Conservation and Application , Springer-Verlag, New York.

Millar, C. I. 1993. Impact of the Eocene on the evolution of Pinus L. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 80:471-498.

Millar, C. I., Kinloch, B. B., Jr., and Westfall, R. D. 1992. Conservation of biodiversity in sugar pine: Effects of the blister rust epidemic on genetic diversity. Pgs 190-200. Editors: Kinloch, B. B., Jr., Marosy, M., and Huddleston, M. E. In Proceedings of a Symposium presented by the California Sugar Pine Managment Committee. Sugar pine: Status, values and roles in ecosystems. Publication No. 3362, University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Davis, California.

Millar, C. I. and Westfall, R. D. 1992. Allozyme markers in forest genetic conservation. New Forests 6:347-371. Reprinted in: Editors, Adams, W.T.; Strauss, S.H.; Copes, D.L.; and Griffin, A.R. Population Genetics of Forest Trees. Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Orians, G. and Millar, C. I. 1992. Forest Lands. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 42 [1-2]:125-140. New York. Elsevier Special Series.

Rogers, D. L. and Miller, C.I. 1992. Genetic management of plants in the California State Parks: A primer. Pgs 1-88. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station and California Dept. of Parks and recreation, Berkeley, CA.

Millar, C. I. and Libby, W. J. 1991. Strategies for conservation of clinal, ecotypic and disjunct population diversity in widespread species. Pgs 149-170. Editors: Falk, D. A. and Holsinger, K. In: Conservation of rare plants: Biology and genetics, Oxford University Press, New York.

Millar, C. I. and Kinloch, B. B., Jr. 1991. Taxonomy, phylogeny and coevolution of pines and their stem rusts. Pgs 1-38. Editors: Hiratsuka, Y., Samoil, J., Blenis, P., Crane, P., and Laishley, B. In: Proceedings of the IUFRO Rusts of Pines Conference, September 18-22, 1989 in Banff, Alberta, Canada, Canadian Forestry Service, Canada.

Millar, C. I. and Marshall, K. A. 1991. Allozyme variation in Port-Orford-cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana): Implications for genetic conservation. Forest Science 37 [4]:1060-1077.

Millar, C. I. and Libby, W. J. 1991. Tree planting: Not a simple solution. The Environmental Professional 13:289-290.

Riggs, L. A., Millar, C. I., and Delany, D. L. 1991. Genetic variation sampled in three California oaks. Pgs 233-234. Editor: Standiford, R. B. In: Proceedings Symposium Oak Woodlands and Hardwood Rangeland Management, October 31- November 2, 1990, Davis, CA, General Technical Report PSW-126, USDA Forest Service, Berkeley, CA.

Ledig, F. T., Millar, C. I., and Riggs, L. A. (editors): 1990. Conservation of diversity in forest ecosystems. Forest Ecology and Management 35 [1-2]:1-197, Elsevier Science Publishers, New York .

Millar, C. I. and Guinon, M. 1990. Planting oaks: Don't forget the genes. California Oaks 2 [2]:1-9.

Millar, C. I. 1990. William Burke Critchfield. Fremontia 18(4):65-67

Millar, C. I., Delany, D. L., and Riggs, L. A. 1990. Genetic variation in California oaks. Fremontia 18 [3]:20-21.

Millar, C. I. and Libby, W. J. 1989. Restoration: Disneyland or native ecosystem: A question of genetics. Fremontia 7 [2]:3-10. Reprinted in: 1989 Restoration and Management Notes 7 (1):18-23.

Millar, C. I. 1989. Allozyme variation of bishop pine associated with pygmy forest soils in northern California. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 19: 870-879.

Millar, C. I. and Ford, L. D. 1988. Managing for nature conservation: From genes to ecosystems. BioScience 38 [7]:456-457.

Millar, C. I. 1988. Researchers and managers join forces to conservation diversity in forest ecoysytems. Diversity [15]:26.

Millar, C. I. and Critchfield, W. B. 1988. Crossability and relationships of bishop pine Pinus muricata (Pinaceae). MadroƱo 35 [1]:39-53.

Millar, C. I., Strauss, S. H., Conkle, M. T., and Westfall, R. D. 1988. Allozyme differentiation and biosystematics of the Californian closed-cone pine (Pinus subsect. Oocarpae). Systematic Botany 13 [3]:351-370.

Millar, C. I. 1987. The California Forest Germplasm Conservation Project: A case for genetic conservation of temperate tree species. Conservation Biology 1 [3]:191-193.

Millar, C. I. 1987. Experiments in rooting bishop pine (Pinus muricata D.Don) cuttings. New Forests 3: 231-238.

Millar, C. I. 1986. Gene conservation in California's forests. Fremontia 14 [1]:6-7.

Millar, C. I. 1986. Bishop pine (Pinus muricata) of inland Marin County, CA. MadroƱo 33 [2]:123-129.

Millar, C. I. 1986. The California closed cone pines (subsection Oocarpae Little and Critchfield): A taxonomic history and review. Taxon 35 [4]:657-670.

Millar, C. I. 1985. Inheritance of allozyme variants in bishop pine (Pinus muricata D.Don). Biochemical Genetics 23 [11/12]:933-946.

Millar, C. I., Dunlap, J. M., and Walker, N. K. 1985. Analysis of growth and specific gravity in a 20-year old provenance test of Sequoia sempervirens. California Forests and Forest Products 59:1-6.

Millar, C. I. 1983. A steep cline in Pinus muricata. Evolution 37 [2]:311-319.

Libby, W. J., McCutchan, B. G., and Millar, C. I. 1981. Inbreeding depression in selfs of redwood. Silvae Genetica 30 [1]:15-29.

Millar, C. I. 1977. The Arboretum: A living laboratory. University of Washington Arboretum Bulletin 40 [1]:12-15.

Posters and Presentations

Millar, CI; Westfall, RD; and Delany, DL. 2010. Thermal Regimes of Periglacial Landforms; Micro-climatic Processes in the Sierra Nevada, California Presented at MtnClim2010 Conference, Blue River OR, June 2010.

Millar, CI; Westfall, RD; and Delany, DL. 2008. Complex Responses of Subalpine Forests to Climate Change Presented at Great Basin Archeological Conference, Portland OR, October 2008.

Millar, CI; Westfall, RD; and Delany, DL. 2008. Geographic, Periglacial, and Climatic Relationships of American Pika (Ochotono princeps) in the Eastern Sierra Nevada and Western Great Basin. Presented at California Climate Change Research Conference, Sacramento CA, Sept 2008.

Millar, CI; Westfall, RD; and Delany, DL. 2007. Sierra Nevada Rock Glaciers: Alpine Water Reserves and Biodiversity Refugia in a Warming World. Presented at AGU2007, San Francisco CA, Dec 2007.

Millar, C.I. Summer, 2007. Treeline Response to Climate: Up, Down, All Around. Link to site with Flash Player Presentation. Given to CNPS at White Mountain Research Station, CA. podcast

Millar, C.I. March, 2007. Re-thinking Forest Management in the West. Link to site with Flash Player Presentation. USFS Arcata, CA. podcast

Millar, C.I. 2007. Re-framing Resource Management in the Face of Changing Climates. Presentation, notes, and briefing paper. USFS, New Orleans, LA.

Millar, CI; Westfall, RD; and Delany, DL. 2006. Elevational Gradients and Differential Recruitment of Limber Pine (Pinus flexilis) and Bristlecone Pine (Pinus longaeva); White Mountains, California, USA. Presented at AGU2006, San Francisco CA, Dec 2006.

Millar, CI; and Westfall, RD. 2006. Modern and Paleoclimate Relations of Rock Glaciers and Related Rock-Ice Features (RIFs) of the Sierra Nevada, California, USA. Presented at MTNCLIM2006, Mt Hood OR, Sept 2006.

Holzer, K; Fagre, D; and Millar, CI. 2006. GLORIA in North America, An Alpine Ecology Monitoring Network. Presented at Ecological Society of America (ESA) Conference, Memphis TN, August 2006.

Millar, CI; Clow, D; Lundquist, J; and Westfall, RD. 2006. Rock Glaciers and Periglacial Rock-Ice Features in the Eastern Sierra Nevada; Updates on Classification, Mapping, Climate Relations, and Monitoring. Presented at PACLIM2006, Asilomar CA, March 2006.

Millar, CI; Westfall, RD; and Delany, DL. 2005. Limber Pine Forest Mortality Event in Response to a Late-20th-Century Low Precipitation/High Temperature Period. Presented at AGU2005, San Francisco CA, Dec 2005.

Millar, CI; Diaz, HF; Fagre, DB; and Redmond, K. 2005. CIRMOUNT: Consortium for Integrated Climate Research in Western Mountains. Presented at Open Science Conference on Climate Change in Mountain Regions, Perth Scotland, Oct 2005.

Millar, CI; Westfall, RD; Delany, DL; King, JC; and Alden, HA. 2004. High-Elevation Response of Conifers to Climate Change in the Sierra Nevada and Western Great Basin, USA: Treeline Elevation is Not the Primary Effect. Presented at AGU2004, San Francisco CA, Dec 2004.

Dennis, A; Millar, CI; and Murrell, KE. 2004. A New GLORIA Target Region in the Sierra Nevada, California, USA; Alpine plant Monitoring for Global Climate Change. Presented at AGU2004, San Francisco CA, Dec 2004.


Last Modified: Mar 28, 2013 02:54:14 PM