My current research interests include: forest responses to global change; restoration of ecosystem processes in degraded forest; and, production ecology and biogeochemistry. This research is important because nutrient cycles determine site fertility and site fertility drives ecosystem productivity. Further, nutrient and carbon cycles are tightly coupled, and carbon cycling has effects on both nutrient cycles and atmospheric carbon dioxide, which in turn impact global climate. Global climate can then feed back on carbon and nutrient cycles.
Giardina, C.. 2012. Carbon dynamics: processes, pools and fluxes, and regional differences. In: Swanston, Chris; Furniss, Michael J.; Schmitt, Kristen; Guntle, Jeffrey; Janowiak, Maria; Hines, Sarah, eds. Forest and grassland carbon in North America: A short course for land managers. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-93. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station. [DVD]. Available online: http://www.fsl.orst.edu/fs-pnw/pep/carbon/giardina/
Giardina, C.P. 2012. Review of Cabin, Robert J. 2011. Intelligent tinkering: bridging the gap between science and practice. The science and practice of ecological restoration. Ecology 93: 1980-1981
Talhelm, A., K. Pregitzer, C. Giardina. 2011. Long-Term Leaf Production Response to Elevated Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Tropospheric Ozone. Ecosystems. DOI: 10.1007/s10021-011-9493-z.
McKinley, D., M. Ryan, R. Birdsey, M. Harmon, R. Jackson, C. Giardina, R. Houghton, L. Heath, B. Murray, J. Morrison, D. Pataki, K. Skog. 2011. On forests and carbon storage in the United States: a synthesis of current knowledge. Ecological Applications 21: 1902-1924.
Litton, C., C. Giardina, J. Albano, M. Long, & G. Asner. 2011. The magnitude and variability of soil-surface CO2 efflux increase with temperature in Hawaiian tropical montane wet forests. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 43: 2315-2323.
Conant, R. T., M. G. Ryan, G. I. Ågren, H. E. Birge, E. A. Davidson, P. E. Eliasson, S. E. Evans, S. D. Frey, C. Giardina, F. Hopkins, R. Hyvönen, M. U. F. Kirschbaum, J. M. Lavallee, J. Leifeld, W. J. Parton, M. Steinweg, M. D. Wallenstein, J. A. M. Wetterstedt, and M. A. Bradford. 2011. Temperature and soil organic matter decomposition – synthesis of current knowledge and a way forward. Global Change Biology 17: 3392-3404.
Alessa, L. C. Andrade, P. Cash Cash, C. Giardina, M. Hamabata, C. Hammer, K. Henifin, L. Joachim, J. Johnson, K. Kealiikanakaoleohaililani, D. Kingston, A. Kliskey, R. Louis, A. Lynch, DMcKenny, C. Marshall, M. Roberts, T. Tangoro, J. Wheaton-Abraham, E. Wingert. 2011. Indigenous Knowledges Driving Technological Innovation. Asian American and Pacific Islander Nexus 9: 241-247.
Ryan, M. G., M. E. Harmon, R. A. Birdsey, C. Giardina, L. S. Heath, R. A. Houghton, R. B. Jackson, D. C. McKinley, J. F. Morrison, B. C. Murray, D. E. Pataki, K. E. Skog. 2010. A Synthesis of the Science on Forests and Carbon for US Forests. Issues in Ecology, Report Number 13.
Kolka, R., C. Giardina, J. McClure, A. Maier, M. Jurgensen. 2010. Hydrologic contributions to baseflow for a northern old growth riparian area. Ecohydrology, DOI: 10.1002/eco.112.
Ise, T. Litton, C. Giardina, A. Ito. 2010. Comparison of modeling approaches for carbon partitioning: Impact on estimates of global net primary production and equilibrium biomass of woody vegetation from MODIS GPP. Journal of Geophysical Research, 115, G04025, DOI:10.1029/2010JG001326.
Inman-Narahari, F., C. Giardina, R. Ostertag, S. Cordell, L. Sack. 2010. Digital data collection in forest dynamics plots. Methods in Ecology & Evolution. DOI: 10.1111/j.2041-210X.2010.00034.x
Flaspohler, D., C. Giardina, G. Asner, P. Hart, J. Price, C. Lyons, X. Casteneda. 2010. Long-term Effects of Fragmentation and Fragment Properties on Bird Species Richness in Hawaiian Forests. Biological Conservation 143: 280–288.
Liu, L., J. King, F. Booker, C. Giardina, H. Allen, and S. Hu. 2009. Enhanced litter input rather than changes in litter chemistry drive soil carbon and nitrogen cycles under elevated CO2: a microcosm study. Global Change Biology 15: 441-453.
Liu, L., J. King, C. Giardina, and F. Booker. 2009. The influence of chemistry, production and community composition under elevated atmospheric CO2 and tropospheric O3 in a northern hardwood ecosystem. Ecosystems. 12: 401-416.
Fissore, C., C. Giardina, R. Kolka, and C. Trettin. 2009. Soil Organic Carbon Quality in Forested Mineral Wetlands in North America. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 41: 458-466.
Fissore, C., C. Giardina, C. Swanston, M. Torn, G. King, R. Kolka. 2009. Variable temperature sensitivity of soil organic carbon in North American forests. Global Change Biology 15: 2295-2310.
Taylor, G., M. Tallis, C. Giardina, K. Percy, F. Miglietta, P. Sharma, B. Gioli, C. Calfapietra, B. Gielen, M. Kubiske, G. Scarascia-Mugnozza, K. Kets, S. Long, and D. Karnosky. 2008. Future atmospheric CO2 leads to delayed autumnal senescence. Global Change Biology 14: 264-275.
Ostertag, R., C. Giardina, S. Cordell. 2008. Understory Colonization of Eucalyptus Plantations in Hawai'i in Relation to Light and Nutrient Levels. Restoration Ecology 16: 475–485 .
Litton, C.M., and C. Giardina. 2008. Below-ground carbon flux and partitioning: Global patterns and response to temperature. Journal of Functional Ecology, 22, 941-954.
Karberg, N., N. Scott, C. Giardina. 2008. Methods for estimating litter decomposition. Chapter 8 in C. Hoover (ed), Field Measurements for Forest Carbon Monitoring: A Landscape-Scale Approach. Springer Verlag.
Hancock, J., Bradley, K.L., C. Giardina, K.S. Pregitzer. 2008. The influence of soil type and altered lignin biosynthesis on the physiology, growth and carbon allocation in Populus tremuloides. Plant and Soil 308: 239–253.
Giardina, C. 2008. Soil Organic Carbon. Encyclopedia of Global Warming and Climate Change. Sage Publications, Inc, 1552 p. (Invited; Refereed).
Giardina, C. 2008. Gross Primary Production. Encyclopedia of Global Warming and Climate Change. Sage Publications, Inc, 1552 p. (Invited; Refereed).
Giardina, C. 2008. Forests. Encyclopedia of Global Warming and Climate Change. Sage Publications, Inc, 1552 p. (Invited; Refereed).
Fissore, C., C. Giardina, R. Kolka, C. Trettin, G. King, M. Jurgensen, C. Barton, D. McDowell. 2008. Temperature and vegetation effects on soil organic carbon quality along a forested mean annual temperature gradient in North America. Global Change Biology 14:193–205.
Liu, L., J. King, C. Giardina. 2007. Effects of Elevated Atmospheric CO2 and Tropospheric O3 on nutrient dynamics: Decomposition of Leaf Litter in Trembling Aspen and Paper Birch Communities. Plant and Soil 299: 65-82.
King, J., C. Giardina, K. Pregitzer, A. Friend. 2007. Biomass partitioning in red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) along a chronosequence in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 37: 93-102.
Hancock, J., W.M. Loya, C. Giardina, L. Li, V. Chiang, K. Pregitzer. 2007. Plant growth, biomass partitioning and soil carbon formation in response to altered lignin biosynthesis in Populus tremuloides. New Phytologist 173: 732–742.
Giardina, C., C.M. Litton, J. M. Thaxton, S. Cordell, L. Hadway, and D. R. Sandquist. 2007. Science driven restoration: A candle in a demon haunted world – Response to Cabin (20. Restoration Ecology 15: 171-176.
Bradley, K.L., J. Hancock, C. Giardina, K.S. Pregitzer. 2007. Soil microbial community responses to altered lignin biosynthesis in Populus tremuloides vary among three distinct soils. Plant and Soil 294: 185-201.
Karnosky, D., J. King, J. Darbah, J. Sober, A. Sober, M. Kubiske, N. Nelson, C. Giardina, K. Percy. 2006. Physiological and Genetic Responses to Ozone in Trees Growing Under Elevated Atmospheric CO2. The International Forestry Review: Forests in the Balance – Linking Tradition and Technology 7:89.(Published abstract of the XXII IUFRO World Congress;Refereed).
Funk, J., C. Giardina, A. Knohl, and M. Lerdau. 2006. The influence of nutrient availability and stand age on leaf- and canopy-level isoprene flux in a Eucalyptus saligna experimental forest. Journal of Geophysical Research – Biogeosciences DOI:10.1029/2005JG000085.
Norby, R., E. DeLucia, B. Gielen, C. Calfapietra, C. Giardina, J. King, J. Ledford, H. McCarthy, D. Moore, R. Ceulemans, P. De Angelis, A. C. Finzi, D. F. Karnosky, M. E. Kubiske, M. Lukac, K. S. Pregitzer, G. E. Scarascia-Mugnozza, W. Schlesinger and R. Oren. 2005. Forest response to elevated CO2 is conserved across a broad range of productivity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science102: 18052-18056.
King, J.S., M. E. Kubiske, K. S. Pregitzer, G. R. Hendrey, C. Giardina, E. McDonald, V. S. Quinn, and D. F. Karnosky. 2005. Tropospheric O3 compromises net primary production in young stands of trembling aspen, paper birch and sugar maple in response to elevated atmospheric CO2. New Phytologist 168: 623–636.
Giardina, C., M. Coleman, J. Hancock, E. Lilleskov, W. Loya, K. Pregitzer, J. King, M. Ryan and C. Trettin. 2005. The response of belowground carbon allocation in forests to global change. Chapter 7 in D. Binkley and O. Menyailo (eds), The impacts of global climate change on plant--soil interactions. NATO Science Series, Kluwer Academic Press.
Liu, L., J. King and C. Giardina. 2005. Effects of elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and tropospheric O3 on leaf litter production and chemistry in trembling aspen and paper birch communities. Tree Physiology 25:1511-1522.
Giardina, C., D. Binkley, M. Ryan, J. Fownes, R. Senock. 2004. Belowground carbon cycling in a humid tropical forest decreases with fertilization. Oecologia 139: 545-550.
Hubbard, R., M. Ryan, C. Giardina, and H. Barnard. 2004. The effect of fertilization on sap flux and canopy conductance in a Eucalyptus saligna experimental forest. Global Change Biology 139: 545-550.
Ryan, M., D. Binkley, J. Fownes, C. Giardina, and R. Senock. 2004. An experimental test of the causes of forest growth decline with stand age. Ecological Monographs, 74(3), 2004, pp. 393-414.
Loya, W., K. Pregitzer, N. Karberg, J. King, and C. Giardina. 2003. Reduction of soil carbon formation by tropospheric ozone under elevated carbon dioxide. Nature 425: 705-707.
Giardina, C., M. Ryan, D. Binkley, and J. Fownes. 2003. Primary production and carbon allocation in relation to nutrient supply in an experimental tropical forest. Global Change Biology 9: 1438-1450.
Giardina, C., and M. Ryan. 2002. Total belowground carbon allocation in a fast growing Eucalyptus plantation estimated using a carbon balance approach. Ecosystems 5: 487-499.
Giardina, C., and M. Ryan. 2000. Evidence that decomposition rates of organic carbon in mineral soil do not vary with temperature. Nature 404: 858-861.
Giardina, C., and M. Ryan. 2000. Soil warming and organic matter content. Nature 408: 790.
In previous work, I examined the following topics:
A. The effect of tree species, soil type and nutrient additions on carbon and nutrient cycling. Papers and book chapters from this research include:
Funk, J., C. Jones, C. Baker, H. Fuller, C. Giardina and M. Lerdau. 2003. Diurnal variation in the basal emission rate of isoprene. Ecological Applications, 13: 269-278.
Giardina, C., M. Ryan, R. Hubbard and D. Binkley. 2001. Tree species and soil textural controls on carbon and nitrogen mineralization rates. Soil Science Society of America Journal 65: 1272-1279.
Giardina, C., D. White and S. White. 2000. The effects of fertilization on the biomass production of 15 yr old Eucalyptus saligna trees. Journal for Hawaiian and Pacific Agriculture 11: 41-44.
Binkley, D., C. Giardina and M. Bashkin. 2000. Soil phosphorus pools and supply under the influence of Eucalyptus saligna and nitrogen-fixing Albizia falcataria. Forest Ecology and Management 128: 241-247.
Binkley, D., and C. Giardina. 1998. Why do trees species affect soils? The warp and woof of tree-soil interactions. Biogeochemistry 42: 89-106.
Binkley, D., C. Giardina, I. Dockersmith, D. Morse, K. Tonnesson and T. Maniero. 1997. Status of air quality related values in Class I National Parks and Monuments of the Colorado Plateau. Technical Report of the Air Resources Division-National Park Service (290 p.)
Binkley, D., and C. Giardina. 1997. Nitrogen fixation in tropical forest plantations. Chapter 9 in E. Nambiar and A. Brown, editors. Management of soil, nutrients and water in tropical plantation forests. ACIAR/CSIRO/CIFOR Monograph No. 43, Canberra, Australia.
Giardina, C., S. Huffman, D. Binkley, and B. Caldwell. 1995. Alders increase soil phosphorus availability in a Douglas-fir plantation. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 25: 1652-1657.
B. The effects of wild fire and prescribed fire on nutrient and carbon cycles in tropical and temperate ecosystems. Papers from this research include:
Giardina, C., and C. Rhoades. 2001. Clear cutting and burning affect nitrogen supply, phosphorus fractions and seedling growth in soils from a Wyoming lodgepole pine forest. Forest Ecology and Management 140: 19-28.
Cromack, K., J. Landsberg, R. Everett, R. Zeleny, C. Giardina, E. Strand, T. Anderson, R. Averill and R. Smyrski. 2000. Assessing the impacts of severe fire on forest ecosystem recovery. Journal of Sustainable Forestry 11: 177-228.
Giardina, C., R. Sanford, Jr. and I. Dockersmith. 2000. Changes in soil phosphorus and nitrogen during slash-and-burn clearing of a dry tropical forest. Soil Science Society of America Journal 64: 399-405.
Giardina, C., R. Sanford, Jr., I. Dockersmith and V. Jaramillo. 2000. Effects of slash burning on ecosystem nutrients during the land preparation phase of shifting cultivation. Plant and Soil 220: 247-260.
Dockersmith, I., C. Giardina and R. Sanford, Jr. 1999. Persistence of tree related patterns in soil nutrients following slash-and-burn disturbance in the tropics. Plant and Soil 209: 137-156.