Distribution of ozone and other air pollutants in forests of the Carpathian
Mountains in central Europe
A. Bytnerowicz, B. Godzik, W. Fraczek, et al. Environmental Pollution 116 (2002) 3-25
Proceedings, International Symposium on Air Pollution and Climate Change Effects
on Forest Ecosystems
Bytnerowicz A, MJ Arbaugh, SL Schilling. 1998. (Tech. ed.) Riverside,
CA 1996 Feb 5-9. USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report 166,
Albany, CA. pp 332
Monitoring ozone air pollution effects on western pine forests
Miller PR, KW Stolte, D Duriscoe, J Pronos. (Tech. Coor.) 1996. USDA Forest
Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA, Gen Tech Rep 155. 79 pp.
2002 - 1999 Publications
Urban Air Pollution and Forests: Resources at Risk in the
Mexico City Air Basin
ME Fenn, M de Lourdes de la I. de Bauer, T Hernández-Tejeda (eds)
Ecological Studies Series
New York: Springer-Verlag. (in press)
Table of Contents
Bytnerowicz, A, A, B Godzik, W Fraczek, et al. 2002. Distribution of ozone and
other air pollutants in forests of the Carpathian Mountains in central Europe.
Environmental Pollution 116 (2002) 3-25. HTML
Allen, EB, AG Sirulnik, L Egerton-Warburton, SN Kee, A Bytnerowicz, PE Padgett,
PJ Temple, ME Fenn, MA Poth, T Meixner. 2001. Air pollution and vegetation change in
southern California shrublands. In, Proceedings, Planning for Biodiversity: Bringing
Research and Management Together. Symposium held Feb. 29 March 2, 2000. Pomona,
California. USDA Forest Service, Pacific SW Research Station, Albany, CA. Gen Tech Rep (in
Andersen C, NE Grulke. 2001. Complexities in understanding ecosystem response to
ozone. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment (in press).
Bytnerowicz A, O Badea, F Popescu, I Barbu, D. Postelnicu, C Vasile, R
Musselman, W Manning, E Stanciu, S Tamas. 2001. Long-term ecological research and air
pollution impacts in the Retezat Mountains, Romania. In: Proceedings, ILTER Meeting,
Nitra, Slovakia, May 23-25, 2000 (in press).
Bytnerowicz A, M Tausz, R Alonso, D Jones, R Johnson, NE Grulke. Summer-time
distribution of air pollutants in the Sequoia National Park, California. Environmental
Fenn M, M Poth, T Meixner. 2001. Atmospheric nitrogen deposition and habitat
alteration in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in southern California: Implications for
threatened and endangered species. In, Proceedings, Planning for Biodiversity: Bringing
Research and Management Together. Symposium held Feb. 29 March 2, 2000. Pomona, CA.
USDA, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA, in press.
Grulke NE, C Andersen, WE Hogsett. 2001. Seasonal changes in above- and
belowground carbohydrate concentrations of ponderosa pine along a pollution gradient. Tree
Grulke NE, D Olszyk, D Grantz 2001 The role of background pollution in
interpreting CO2 enrichment of forest ecosystems. Ecological Society of America (Suppl.) (in
Grulke NE, WA Retzlaff. 2001. Changes in physiological attributes from seedlings
to mature ponderosa pine. Tree Physiology 21:275-286.
Takemoto BK, A Bytnerowicz, ME Fenn. 2001. Current and future effects of ozone
and atmospheric nitrogen deposition on Californias mixed conifer forests. Forest
Ecology and Management (in press).
Tausz M, A Bytnerowicz, MJ Arbaugh, A Wonisch, D Grill 2001. Multivariate
patterns of biochemical responses of Pinus ponderosa trees at field plots in the
San Bernardino Mountains, southern California. Tree Physiology 21:329-336.
Temple PJ, A Bytnerowicz, ME Fenn, MA Poth. 2001. Air pollution impacts in the
mixed conifer forests of southern California. In, Proceedings, Planning for Biodiversity:
Bringing Research and Management Together. Symposium held Feb. 29 March 2, 2000.
Pomona, CA. USDA, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA, Gen Tech
Rep, in press.
Arbaugh MJ, A Bytnerowicz, ME Fenn. 2000. A predictor of seasonal nitrogenous
dry deposition in a mixed conifer forest stand. Pgs. 17-24, In, KM Scow, GE Fogg, DE
Hinton, ML Johnson (eds), Integrated Assessment of Ecosystem Health. Lewis Publishers,
Boca Raton, Florida.
Bytnerowicz A. 2000. Air pollution and forest health in Central Europe: lessons
from a regional network. Pgs. 11-16, In: K Lajtha, K Vanderbilt (eds) Cooperation in
Long-Term Ecological Research in Central and Eastern Europe. Proceedings, 22-25 June 1999,
Budapest, Hungary. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis, OR.
Bytnerowicz A. 2000. Development of Forest ILTER in Central Europe. Pgs. 25-31,
In K Lajtha, K Vanderbilt (eds) Cooperation in Long-Term Ecological Research in Central
and Eastern Europe. Proceedings, 22-25 June 1999, Budapest, Hungary. Oregon State
University Press, Corvallis, OR.
Bytnerowicz A, M Arbaugh, M Fenn, M Poth. 2000. Comments on a report of the
Union of Concerned Scientists and the Ecological Society of America "Confronting
Climate Change in California - Ecological impacts on the Golden State. Ecological Society
of America, Bull 81:248-250.
Bytnerowicz A, J Carroll, B Takemoto, P Miller, M Fenn, R Musselman. 2000.
Distribution and transport of air pollutants to vulnerable California ecosystems. Pgs.
93-118 In, KM Scow, GE Fogg, DE Hinton, M. Johnson (eds), Integrated Assessment of
Ecosystem Health. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, Florida.
Calatayud A, PJ Temple, E Barrens, 2000. Chlorophyll a fluorescence emission,
xonthophyll cycle activity, and net photosynthetic note responses to ozone in some foliose
and fruticose lichen species. Photosynthetica 38:d281-286.
Fenn ME, MA Poth, SL Schilling, DB Grainger. 2000.Throughfall and fog deposition
of nitrogen and sulfur at an N-limited and N-saturated site in the San Bernardino
Mountains, southern California. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 1476-1488.
Fenn ME. 2000. Human alteration of the nitrogen cycle: consequences for global
change, the environment, and for ecosystems. (in Spanish). Pgs. 79-86, In: Proceedings,
Conf. Global Climate Change, Congressional Committee for Temperate and Tropical Forests,
and the Commitee for Ecology and the Environment. Natl Legislature of Mexico, 1999
Nov 17. Mexico City, Mexico.
Grulke NE. 2000. An analysis of short-, medium- and long-term effects of ozone
exposure on stomatal conductance of ponderosa pine. Pg. 35, Abstr., In: D.Karnosky (Tech
Comp), Proceedings, 19th Annual IUFRO Meeting, Division 7.04, Specialists in
Air Pollution: Effects on Forest Ecosystems, May 28-31, Houghton Technological University,
Grulke NE, L Balduman. 2000. Deciduous conifers: high N deposition and ozone
exposure effects on growth and biomass allocation in ponderosa pine. water, Air and Soil
Miller PR, JJ Carroll, S Schilling, R Guthrey. 2000. Air Pollution and forests:
Effects at the Landscape Level. Pgs. 233-248 In, KM Scow, GE Fogg, DE Hinton, ML Johnson
(eds), Integrated Assessment of Ecosystem Health. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, Florida.
Retzlaff WA, MA Arthur, NE Grulke, DA Weinstein, B Gollands. 2000. Use of a
single-tree simulation model to predict effects of ozone and drought on growth of a white
fir tree. Tree Physiology 20: 195-202.
Swanson FJ, FN Scatena, GE Dissmeyer, ME Fenn, ES Verry, JA Lynch. 2000.
watershed Processes: Fluxes of water, Dissolved Constituents and Sediment. In, GE
Dissmeyer (ed.), Drinking water from Forests and Grasslands A Synthesis of the
Scientific Literature. USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Asheville, NC, Gen
Tech Rep *
Temple PJ. 2000. Plants of Sycamore Canyon Park, Riverside CA, Crossosoma
Temple PJ. 2000. The ecolphysiology of forest tree responses to air pollution: A
comparative approach. PP 104-110. In: Proc. International Symposium on Oxidants/Acidic
Species and Forest Decline in East Asia. H. Akimoto and H. Sakugana, eds.
Oxidant Air Pollution Impacts in the Montane Forests of
Miller PR, JR McBride (eds)
Ecological Studies 134
New York: Springer-Verlag. 424 pp.
Table of Contents
Bytnerowicz A, S Godzik, M Poth, I Anderson, J Szdzuj, C Tobias. 1999. Chemical
composition of air, soil and vegetation in forests of the Silesian Beskid Mountains,
Poland. water, Air and Soil Pollution 116:141-150.
Fenn ME, Poth MA 1999. Temporal and spatial trends in streamwater nitrate
concentrations in the San Bernardino Mountains, southern California. Journal of
Environmental Quality 28:822-836.
Fenn ME, Kiefer JW. 1999. Throughfall deposition of nitrogen and sulfur in a
Jeffrey pine forest in the San Gabriel Mountains, southern California. Environmental
Fenn ME, LI de Bauer, LI, A Quevedo-Nolasco, C Rodriguez-Frausto. 1999. Nitrogen
and sulfur deposition and forest nutrient status in the Valley of Mexico. water, Air and
Soil Pollution 113:155-174.
Grulke NE, CP Andersen, ME Fenn, PR Miller. 1999. Ozone exposure and N
deposition reduces root biomass in ponderosa pine across the San Bernardino Mountains,
California. Environmental Pollution 103:63-73.
Padgett PE, EB Allen, A Bytnerowicz, RA Minnich. 1999. Changes in soil inorganic
nitrogen as related to atmospheric nitrogenous pollutants in southern California.
Atmospheric Environment 33:769-781.
Tausz M, A Bytnerowicz, MJ Arbaugh, W Weidner, D Grill. 1999. Antioxidants and
protective pigments of Pinus ponderosa needles at gradients of natural
stress and ozone in the San Bernardino Mountains in California. Free Radical Research 31:
Tausz M, A Bytnerowicz, W Weidner, MJ Arbaugh, P Padgett, D Grill. 1999.
Pigments and photoprotection in needles of Pinus ponderosa trees with and without
symptoms of ozone injury. Phyton 39:214-219.
Tausz M, A Bytnerowicz, W Weidner, MJ Arbaugh. 1999. Changes in free-radical
scavengers describe the susceptibility of Pinus ponderosa to ozone in southern
California forests. water, Air and Soil Pollution 116:249-254.
Tausz M, A Wonisch, J Peters, M Soledad Jimenez, D Morales, A Bytnerowicz. 1999.
Complex patterns of the antioxidative defense systems in pine species at field plots
subjected to different environmental stress combinations. Pgs. 181-188, In: A Denke, K
Dornisch, F Fleischmann, J Grassman, I Heiser, S Hippeli, W Osswald, H Schempp (eds)
Different Pathways Through Life: Biochemical Aspects of Plant Biology and Medicine. Lincom
Studies in Biochemistry, Lincom Europa: Muenchen, Germany.
Publications list for 1998-1995
Proceedings, International Symposium on Air Pollution and Climate
Change Effects on Forest Ecosystems
Bytnerowicz A, MJ Arbaugh, SL Schilling. 1998. (Tech. ed.)
Riverside, CA 1996 Feb 5-9.
USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report 166, Albany, CA. pp
Table of Contents
Allen, EB, PE Padgett, L Yoshida, C Siguenza. 1998. Nitrogen deposition,
grassland conversion and rehabilitation. Proc., XVIII International Grasslands Congress.
Anderson IC, MA Poth. 1998. Controls on fluxes of trace gases from Brazilian
cerrado soils. Journal of Environmental Quality 27:1117-1124.
Arbaugh MJ, PR Miller, JJ Carroll, B Takemoto, T Procter. 1998. Relationship of
ozone exposure to pine injury in the Sierra Nevada and San Bernardino Mountains of
California, USA. Environmental Pollution 101:291-301.
Blum O, A Bytnerowicz, W Manning, L Popovicheva. 1998. Ambient tropospheric
ozone in the Ukrainian Carpathian Mountains and Kiev region. Environmental Pollution
Bytnerowicz A. 1998. Air pollution and climate change effects on forests in
Central and Eastern Europe. Environmental Pollution 98: 271.
Bytnerowicz A, M Fenn, S Ferguson, F Fujioka, N Grulke, P Miller, R Ottmar, M
Poth, P Riggan. 1998. State of knowledge for the USDA Forest Service Pacific Global Change
Program: Atmosphere/Biosphere Gas and Energy Exchange. USDA Forest Service, Pacific
Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA, Gen Tech Rep, GTR-161.
Bytnerowicz A, K Percy, G Riechers, P Padgett. 1998. Nitric acid vapor effects
on forest trees - deposition and cuticular changes. Chemosphere 36:697-702.
Bytnerowicz A, T Dueck, S Godzik. 1998. Nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitric
acid vapor and ammonia. In: R. Flagler (ed.) Recognition of Air Pollution Injury to
Vegetation: a Pictorial Atlas, Air & Waste Management Association, Pittsburg, PA *.
Bytnerowicz A, MJ Arbaugh, PR Miller, JR McBride, B Takemoto. 1998. Effects of
Ozone on Southwestern Forests - A Risk Assessment Approach. Proceedings, 91st
Annual Meeting, Air and Waste Management Association, 14-18 June, 1998, San Diego, CA.
98-RP106.02, 10 pgs.
Fenn ME, MA Poth, JD Aber, JS Baron, BT Bormann, DW Johnson, AD Lemly, SG
McNulty, DF Ryan, R Stottlemyer. 1998. Nitrogen excess in North American Ecosystems:
Predisposing factors, ecosystem responses and management strategies. Ecological
Applications * 706-733.
Grulke NE. 1998. Role of early, late, and whole season ozone exposure in
photosynthetic decline of ponderosa pine. Proceedings, 91st Annual Meeting, Air
Waste and Management Association, 18-21 June, San Diego, CA. 98-TA37.05, 13 pgs.
Higashi R, Arbaugh MJ, Fan W-T. 1998. Cumulative biochemical markers of air
pollutant effects in natural-grown trees. Proceedings, Critical Methodologies for the
Study of Ecosystem Health, Symposium held in Davis, CA September 10-11, 1996.
Kurczynska E, W Dmuchowski, W Wloch, A Bytnerowicz. 1998. Influence of air
pollution on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needle chemical composition
and cambial activity. Environmental Pollution: 325-334.
Miller PR, MJ Arbaugh 1998. Ozone Effects on California Forests. In, J Innes
(ed) IUFRO Report on Air Quality Effects on Forests, *
Temple PJ, PR Miller, MJ Arbaugh. 1998. Effect of ozone on California forests.
Presented at a symposium at the University of Hiroshima, September 1997. *
Temple PJ, J E-J Sun, GHM Krause. 1998. Peroxyacyl Nitrates (PAN) and other
minor air pollutants. In: RB Flager (ed) Recognition of Air Pollution Injury to
Vegetation: A Pictorial Atlas. Air & Waste Management Association, Pirttsburgh, PA. *
Zeller K, M Cerny, A Bytnerowicz, L Smith, M Sestak, M Michalec, V Pernegr, J
Kucera. 1998. Air pollution status of a representative site in the Czech Republic Brdy
Mountains. Environmental Pollution, 98: 291-298.
Fenn ME, A Bytnerowicz. 1997. Summer throughfall and winter deposition in the
San Bernardino Mountains in southern California. Atmospheric Environment 31:673-683.
Fenn ME. 1997. From nitrogen limitation to nitrogen excess: Nitrogen saturation
in North American forests. Pgs 19-33 In: Proceedings, 2nd International Symposium and 3rd
National Conference on Sustainable Agriculture: A Contribution to Integrated Agricultural
Development, San Luis Potos, Mexico, December 1996. (In Spanish).
Grulke NE, EH Lee. 1997. Assessing ozone-induced foliar injury in ponderosa
pine. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 27:1658-1668.
Kiefer JW, ME Fenn. 1997. Using vector analysis to assess nitrogen status of
ponderosa and Jeffrey pine along deposition gradients in forests of southern California.
Forest Ecology and Management 94:47-59.
Miller P, A Bytnerowicz, M Fenn, M Poth, P Temple, S Schilling, D Jones, D
Johnson, J Chow, J Watson. 1997. Multidisciplinary study of ozone, acidic deposition and
climate effects on a mixed conifer forest in California, USA. Chemosphere 36:1001-1006.
Miller PR, MJ Arbaugh, PJ Temple. 1997. Ozone and its known and potential
effects on forests in the Western United States. Pgs. 39-67 In: H Sandermann, A Wellburn,
R Heath (eds) Ecological Studies 127, Forest Decline and Ozone. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Takemoto B, A Bytnerowicz, PJ Dawson, CL Morrison, PJ Temple. 1997. Effects of
ozone on Pinus ponderosa seedlings: comparison of responses in the first and second
growing seasons of exposure. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 27:23-30.
Arbaugh MJ, L Bednar L. 1996. Statistical considerations for plot design,
sampling procedures, statistical analysis and quality assurance. In, Miller, P.R., K.W.
Stolte and D. Duriscoe (eds.). Methods for monitoring ozone air pollution effects on
western conifers. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA, Gen
Tech Rep 155:*.
Bytnerowicz A, ME Fenn. 1996. Nitrogen deposition in California forests: A
review. Environmental Pollution 92:127-146.
Bytnerowicz A. 1996. Physiological aspects of air pollution stress in forests.
Phyton (Horn, Austria) 36:15-22.
Fenn ME, MA Poth. 1996. Preliminary evidence of nitrogen saturation in the San
Bernardino Mountains in southern California. Pgs. 97-102, In: R Cox, K Percy, K Jensen, C
Simpson (eds), Air Pollution and Multiple Stresses, Proceedings, 16th Annual Meeting of
IUFRO, Section 7.04, Specialists in Air Pollution Effects on Forest Ecosystems, 1994
September 7-9, Canadian Forest Service Atlantic Centre, Fredericton, New Brunswick.
Fenn ME, MA Poth, DW Johnson. 1996. Evidence for nitrogen saturation in the San
Bernardino Mountains in southern California. Forest Ecology and Management 82:211-230.
Grulke NE, PR Miller, D Scioli. 1996. Response of giant sequoia canopy foliage
to experimentally manipulated levels of atmospheric ozone. Tree Physiology 16:575-581.
Hahn SC, SF Oberbauer, R Gebauer, NE Grulke, OL Lange, JD Tenhunen. 1996.
Aboveground carbon and nutrient pools in the Imnaviate Creek Wilderness. Pgs. 109-128, In:
JF Reynolds, JD Tenhunen (eds). Landscape Function and Disturbance in Arctic Tundra.
Ecological Studies 120. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.
Krywult M, A Karolak, A Bytnerowicz. 1996. Nitrate reductase activity as an
indicator of ponderosa pine response to atmospheric nitrogen deposition in the San
Bernardino Mountains. Environmental Pollution 93:141-146.
Krywult M, J Hom, A Bytnerowicz, KE Percy. 1996. Deposition of gaseous nitric
acid and its effects on foliage of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.)
seedlings. Pgs. 45-51, In: R Cox, K Percy, K Jensen, C Simpson (Comp.), Proceedings, 16th
Annual meeting of IUFRO, Section 7.04, Specialists in Air Pollution Effects on Forest
Ecosystems, 1994 September 7-9, Canadian Forest Service Atlantic Centre,
Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada. Pgs 45-51.
Miller PR. 1996. Biological Effects of Air Pollution in the Sierra Nevada. In:
Sierra Nevada Ecosystem Project: Final Report to Congress, Vol. III: Assessments,
Commissioned Reports, and Background Information. Centers for water and Wildland
Resources, University of California, Davis, CA. p 885-900.
Miller PR, J Chow, J Watson. 1996. Assessment of Acidic Deposition and Ozone
Effects on Conifer Forests in the San Bernardino Mountains, Final Report, Contract No.
A032-180, Sacramento: California Environmental Protection Agency, Air Resources Board,
Research Division. NTIS No. PB97-115-612.
Miller PR, M Poth, A Bytnerowicz, M Fenn, P Temple, J Chow, J Watson, C Frazier,
M Green, D Johnson. 1996. Ecosystem Level Alterations in Soil Nutrient Cycling; An
Integrated Measure of Cumulative Effects of Acidic Deposition on a Mixed Conifer Forest in
Southern California. Final Report,Contract No. 92-335, Sacramento: California
Environmental Protection Agency, Air Resources Board, Research Division. NTIS No.
Miller PR, KW Stolte, D Duriscoe, J Pronos. (Tech. Coor.) 1996. Monitoring ozone
air pollution effects on western pine forests. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest
Research Station, Albany, CA, Gen Tech Rep 155. 79 pp. <Downloadable PDF>
Tung G, PJ Temple. 1996. Histochemical detection of lead in plant tissues.
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 15:906-914.
Arbaugh MJ. 1995. Modeling bole carbon changes in ponderosa pine forests along
the Front Range of Colorado, PhD Dissertation, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, Co.
Arbaugh MJ. 1995. Spatial extrapolation and forecast uncertainty of three
simulation models for ponderosa pine along the Front Range of Colorado. Proceedings,
Western Global Change Workshop, April 25-27, 1995. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain
Research Station, Gen Tech Rep *
Bytnerowicz, A, G Riechers. 1995. Nitrogenous air pollutants in a mixed conifer
stand of the western Sierra Nevada, California. Atmospheric Environment 29:1369-1377.
Bytnerowicz A, M Tran, P. Andersen. 1995. Effects of charcoal air filtration and
ozone generation on concentrations of some N and S compounds in open-top field chambers.
Atmospheric Environment 29:1355-1358.
Bytnerowicz A, R Glaubig, M Cerny, M Michalec, R Musselman, K Zeller. 1995.
Ozone concentrations in forested areas of the Brdy and Sumava Mountains, Czech Republic.
Proceedings, 88th Annual Meeting in San Antonio, TX, Air and Waste Management
Association, Pittsburgh, PA, 12 pp.
Bytnerowicz A. 1995. Air pollution stress in forests - physiological
perspective. Proceedings, BIOFOSP, Ljubljana, Slovenia, August 22-31, 1995, pg 7-14.
Dmuchowski W, A Bytnerowicz. 1995. Monitoring environmental pollution in Poland
by chemical analysis of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles. Environmental
Fenn ME, MA Poth, A Bytnerowicz, GH Riechers. 1995. Throughfall chemistry of
ponderosa pine exposed to wet and dry acidic deposition, drought, ozone, and nitric acid.
Canadian Journal of Forest Research 25:88-100.
Fenn ME, TD Leininger. 1995. Uptake and distribution of nitrogen from acidic fog
within a Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.)/litter/soil system. Forest Science
Gonzalez-Caban A, ME Fenn, FN Scatena. 1995. Concepts, criteria, and indicators
for monitoring sustainability. In: C Aguirre-Bravo, L Eskew (eds), Partnerships for
Sustainable Forest Ecosystem Management: 5th Mexico/U.S. Biennial Symposium. USDA Forest
Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fort Collins, CO, Gen Tech Rep 226:13-23.
Miller PR, NE Grulke, K Stolte. 1995. Air pollution effects on giant sequoia
ecosystems. Proceedings, Giant Sequoia Symposium held 1992 June 24, Porterville, CA. USDA
Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA, Gen Tech Rep 151:90-99.
Poth M, IC Anderson, H Miranda, A Miranda, PJ Riggan. 1995. The magnitude and
persistence of NO, N2O, CH4 and CO2 fluxes from burned
tropical savanna in Brazil. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 9:503-514.
Temple PJ, GH Riechers. 1995. Nitrogen allocation in ponderosa pine seedlings
exposed to interacting ozone and drought stresses. New Phytologist 130:97-104.
Weber J, NE Grulke. 1995. Effects of air pollution on stem growth. Pgs. 343-364,
In: B Gartner (ed) Stems and Trunks in Plant Form and Function. New York: Academic Press.