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The Healthy Forests Initiative and Healthy Forests Restoration Act
Interim Field Guide

Old-Growth and Large-Tree Retention

General Information

Frequently Asked Questions About HFRA’s Old Growth and Large Tree Retention Provisions. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, HFRA Implementation Team.

Ecological Definitions of Old Growth

Borchert, Mark. 1991. Interim guidelines defining old-growth stands: coast redwood, southern Monterey County, California. Vallejo, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Region. 3 p.

Boughton, Jerry; [and others]. 1992. Definitions for old-growth forest types in southcentral Alaska. Juneau, AK: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Alaska Region, Old-Growth Definition Task Group. 33 p.

Capp, Jack; Van Zee, Bruce; [and others]. 1992. Final report: ecological definitions for old-growth forest types in the Alaska Region. Juneau, AK: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Alaska Region, Ecology Steering Committee. 56 p.

Fites, Jo Ann; [and others]. 1992. Preliminary ecological old-growth definitions for mixed conifer in California. Vallejo, CA:

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Region, Old-Growth Definitions Team 2. 22 p.

Fites, Jo Ann; [and others]. 1991. Preliminary ecological old-growth definitions for white fir. Placerville, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Eldorado National Forest. 23 p.

Gaines, Glen; [and others]. 1997. Guidance for conserving and restoring old-growth forest communities on national forests in the Southern Region. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Region, Old-Growth Team. 121 p.

Green; [and others]. 1992. Old-growth forest types of the Northern Region. Missoula, MT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Region. 58 p.

Hamilton, Ronald G. 1993. Characteristics of old-growth forests in the Intermountain Region. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Region. 86 p.

Jimerson, Tom; [and others]. 1991. Ecological definition for old-growth Douglas-fir/tanoak/madrone. Vallejo, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Region, Old-Growth Definition Team 1. 22 p.

Jimerson, Tom; [and others]. 1991. Ecological definition for old-growth Pacific Douglas-fir. Vallejo, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Region, Old-Growth Definition Team 1. 22 p.

Mehl, M. S. 1992. Old-growth descriptions for the major forest cover types in the Rocky Mountain Region. In: Old growth forests in the Southwest and Rocky Mountain Regions. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-213. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station.

Potter, Don; [and others]. 1992. Ecological characteristics of old growth in California mixed subalpine forests. Sonora, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Stanislaus National Forest. 17 p.

Potter, Don; [and others]. 1992. Ecological characteristics of old growth Jeffrey pine in California. Sonora, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Stanislaus National Forest. 17 p.

Potter, Don; [and others]. 1992. Ecological characteristics of old growth lodgepole pine in California. Sonora, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Stanislaus National Forest. 17 p.

Potter, Don; [and others]. 1992. Ecological characteristics of old growth red fir in California. Sonora, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Stanislaus National Forest. 18 p.

Smith, Sydney. 1991. Revised interim old growth definitions for interior ponderosa pine in northeast California. Vallejo, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Region. 10 p.

Smith, Sydney; [and others]. 1991. Interim guidelines defining old growth stands: Pacific ponderosa pine. Vallejo, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Region, Old Growth Definition Team 4. 11 p.

Tyrell, Lucy E.; [and others]. 1998. Information about old growth for selected forest type groups in the Eastern United States. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-197. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Experiment Station. 507 p.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1992. Recommended old-growth definitions and old-growth allocation procedure. Albuquerque, NM: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southwestern Region, Old-Growth Core Team. 53 p.

Various authors. 1993. Interim old growth definitions for Douglas-fir, grand fir/white fir, interior Douglas-fir, lodgepole pine, Pacific silver fir, ponderosa pine, Port Orford-cedar and tanoak, subalpine fir, and western hemlock series. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 124 p.

Publications

Acker, Steven A.; Harmon, Mark E.; Spies, Thomas A.; [and others]. 1996. Spatial patterns of tree mortality in an old-growth Abies procera-Pseudotsuga menziesii stand. American Midland Naturalist.

Bingham, B. B.; Sawyer, J. O. 1991. Distinctive features and definitions of young, mature, and old-growth Douglas-fir/ hardwood forest. In: Wildlife and vegetation of unmanaged Douglas-fir forests. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-285. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station: 363–378. (http://www.fs.fed.us/pnw/pubs/gtr285)

Bolsinger, C. L.; Waddell, K. L. 1993. Area of old-growth forests in California, Oregon, and Washington. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service.

Carey, A. B.; Johnson, M. L. 1995. Small mammals in managed, young and old-growth forests. Ecological Applications. 5: 336–352.

Chen, J. (1991). Edge effects: microclimatic pattern and biological response in old-growth Douglas-fir forests. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA).

Chen, Jiquan; Franklin, Jerry F.; Spies, Thomas A. 1990. Microclimatic pattern and basic biological responses at the clearcut edges of old-growth Douglas-fir stands. Northwest Environmental Journal. 6.

Chen, Jiquan; Franklin, Jerry F.; Spies, Thomas A. 1992. Vegetation responses to edge environments in old-growth Douglas-fir forests. Ecological Applications. 2(4).

Crow, T. R. 1990. Old-growth and biological diversity: a basis for sustainable forestry. In: Old Growth Forests. Toronto, Canada: Canadian Scholar’s Press, Inc.: 49–62.

DeBell, Dean S.; Franklin, Jerry F. 1987. Old-growth Douglas-fir and western hemlock: a 36-year record of growth and mortality. Western Journal of Applied Forestry. 2(4).

Franklin, J. F.; Cromack, K., Jr.; Denison, W.; [and others]. 1981. Ecological characteristics of old-growth Douglas-fir forests. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-118. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. (http://216.48.37.142/pubs/viewpub.jsp?index=5546).

Franklin, J. F.; McKee, A.; Swanson, F. J.; [and others]. 1979. Age structure analysis of old-growth Douglas-fir stands: data versus conventional wisdom. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America. 60.

Franklin, Jerry F. 1986. The ecology of old-growth Douglas-fir forests. Oregon Birds. 12(2).

Franklin, Jerry F.; DeBell, Dean S. 1988. Thirty-six years of tree population change in an old-growth Pseudotsuga-Tsuga forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 18.

Franklin, Jerry F.; Spies, Thomas A. 1991. Composition, function, and structure of old-growth Douglas-fir forests. In: Wildlife and vegetation of unmanaged Douglas-fir forests. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-285. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station: 71–82. (http://www.fs.fed.us/pnw/pubs/gtr285)

Franklin, Jerry F.; Van Pelt, Robert. 1990. Old-growth reference stand network in the Pacific Northwest: recording long-term ecosystem dynamics. Northwest Environmental Journal. 6.

Gholz, H. L.; Fitz, K.; Waring, R. H. 1976. Leaf area differences associated with old-growth forest communities in the western Oregon Cascades. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 6(1).

Harmon, M. E.; Chen, H. 1991. Coarse woody debris dynamics in two old-growth ecosystems. BioScience. 41(9).

Harris, Larry D.; Maser, Chris; McKee, Arthur. 1982. Patterns of old-growth harvest and implications for Cascades wildlife. Transactions of the North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference. 47.

Hunter, M. L., Jr. 1989. What constitutes an old-growth stand? Journal of Forestry. 87(8).

Isaac, L. A. 1956. Place of partial cutting in old-growth stands of the Douglas-fir region. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service.

Juday, G. P. (1976). The location, composition, and structure of old-growth forests of the Oregon Coast Range. (Doctoral dissertation, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR).

Lang, F. J. 1980. Old-growth forests of the Douglas-fir region of western Oregon and western Washington: characteristics and management. Sacramento, CA: Jones and Stokes Associates, Inc. 62 p.

Lattin, John D.; Moldenke, Andrew R. 1992. Ecologically sensitive invertebrate taxa of Pacific Northwest old-growth conifer forests. Washington, DC.

Lertzman, K. P.; Krebs, C. J. 1991. Gap-phase structure of a subalpine old-growth forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 21.

Lienkaemper, G. W.; Swanson, F. J. 1987. Dynamics of large woody debris in streams in old-growth Douglas-fir forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 17(2).

MacMillan, Paul C.; Means, Joseph; Hawk, Glenn M.; [and others]. 1977. Log decomposition in an old-growth Douglas-fir forest. Northwest Scientific Association abstract of papers presented at the 50th annual meeting. Pullman, WA: Washington State University Press.

Marcot, Bruce G.; Holthausen, Richard S.; Tepley, John; Carrier, W. Dean. 1991. Old-growth inventories: status, definitions, and visions of the future. In: Wildlife and vegetation of unmanaged Douglas-fir forests. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-285. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station: 47–59. (http://www.fs.fed.us/pnw/pubs/gtr285)

McComb, W. C.; Muller, R. N. 1983. Snag densities in old-growth and second-growth Appalachian forests. Journal of Wildlife Management. 47.

Moldenke, A. R.; Lattin, J. D. 1990. Dispersal characteristics of old growth soil arthropods: the potential for loss of diversity and biological function. Northwest Environmental Journal. 6.

Morrison, Peter H. 1988. Old growth in the Pacific Northwest: a status report. Washington, DC: The Wilderness Society. 46 p.

Morrow, R. J. (1985). Age structure and spatial pattern of old-growth ponderosa pine in Pringle Falls Experimental Forest, Central Oregon. (Master’s thesis, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR).

Murphy, M. L. (1979). Predator assemblages in old growth and logged sections of small Cascade streams. (Master’s thesis, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR).

Nowacki, G. J.; Trianosky, P. A. 1993. Literature on old-growth forests of Eastern North America. Natural Areas Journal. 13: 87–107.

Old-Growth Definition Task Group. 1986. Interim definitions for old-growth Douglas-fir and mixed-conifer forests in the Pacific Northwest and California. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station.

Poage, N. J. (2000). Structure and development of old-growth Douglas-fir in central western Oregon. (Doctoral dissertation, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR).

Ripple, William J.; Johnson, David H.; Hershey, K. T.; [and others]. 1991. Old-growth and mature forests near spotted owl nests in western Oregon. Journal of Wildlife Management. 55(2).

Ruggiero, Leonard F.; Aubry, Keith B.; Carey, Andrew B.; [and others], tech. eds. 1991. Wildlife and vegetation of unmanaged Douglas-fir forests. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-285. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 533 p. (http://www.fs.fed.us/pnw/pubs/gtr285)

Schowalter, T. D. 1990. Invertebrate diversity in old-growth versus regenerating forest canopies. Northwest Environmental Journal. 6.

Spies, Thomas A. 1991. Plant species diversity and occurrence in young, mature and old-growth Douglas-fir stands in western Oregon and Washington. In: Wildlife and vegetation of unman­aged Douglas-fir forests. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-285. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station: 111–121. (http://www.fs.fed.us/pnw/pubs/gtr285)

Spies, Thomas A.; Franklin, Jerry F. 1991. The structure of natural young, mature, and old-growth Douglas-fir forests in Oregon and Washington. In: Wildlife and vegetation of unman­aged Douglas-fir forests. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-285. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station: 91–109. (http://www.fs.fed.us/pnw/pubs/gtr285)

Stewart, G. H. 1986. Forest development in canopy openings in old-growth Pseudotsuga forests of the western Cascade Range, Oregon. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 16.

Swanson, Frederick J.; McKee, Arthur. 1990. Old-growth research at the H. J. Andrews Experimental Forest. Northwest Environmental Journal. 6.

Tappeiner, J. C.; Huffman, D.; Marshall, D.; [and others]. 1997. Density, ages, and growth rates in old-growth and young-growth forests in coastal Oregon. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 27.

Thomas, Jack W.; Raphael, Martin G.; Anthony, R. G.; [and others]. 1993. Viability assessments and management considerations for species associated with late-successional and old-growth forests of the Pacific Northwest. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Van Pelt, Robert; Spies, Thomas A.; Franklin, Jerry F. 1992. Disturbance succession and species interactions around canopy gaps in old-growth Douglas-fir forests. Northwest Environmental Journal. 8(1).

Assessment-Level Information

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service; U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service; U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service; [and others]. 1993. Forest ecosystem management: an ecological, economic, and social assessment, report of the Forest Ecosystem Management Assessment Team [generally called the FEMAT report]. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service and U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 1039 p.

Executive Summary (7.6 MB Acrobat file) http://www.or.blm.gov/nwfpnepa/FEMAT-1993/1993_%20FEMAT-ExecSum.pdf

FEMAT Report (46.1 MB Acrobat file) http://www.or.blm.gov/nwfpnepa/FEMAT-1993/1993_%20FEMAT_Report.pdf

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 2000. Old growth management prescriptions for the Southern Appalachian Forests. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Region.

Regional Planning Direction

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1997. Guidance for conserving and restoring old-growth forest communities on national forests in the Southern Region: report of the Southern Region Old-Growth Team. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Region.

Examples of management direction can be found in the Northwest Forest Plan Standards and Guidelines, available at: http://www.reo.gov/library/reports/newsandga.pdf

Review the sections on ecological principles (Pages B–1 through B–9), riparian reserves (B–12 through B–17 and C–31 through C–32), and late-successional reserves (C–9 through C–20).

Planners should consider the three-part Arapaho-Roosevelt Land Management Plan Prototype (http://maps.fs.fed.us/fp/r2/arnf/) as an example for addressing provisions of the HFRA.

Planners should consider the forest health language that applies in the USDA Forest Service Strategic Plan (2000 revision, http://fsweb.wo.fs.fed.us/rpa/stratplan.pdf) specifically, Goal 1, objective 1.c, and related strategies, measures, and milestones.

Project-Level Guidance

Brown, P. M.; Kaufmann, M. R.; Shepperd, W. D. 1999. Long-term landscape patterns of past fire events in a ponderosa pine forest of central Colorado. Landscape Ecology. 14: 513– 532.

Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) and the Fire and Fuels Extension (FFE) are key tools for modeling the effects of proposed treatments to reduce the risk of wildland fire while achieving large-tree retention and old-growth stand conditions resembling those before fire suppression. More information is available at: http://www.fs.fed.us/fmsc/fvs/index.php.

Kaufmann, M. R.; Huckaby, L. S.; Fornwalt, P. J.; Stoker. J. M.; Romme, W. H. 2003. Using tree recruitment patterns and fire history to guide restoration of an unlogged ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir landscape in the southern Rocky Mountains after a century of fire suppression. Forestry (UK). 76: 231–241.

General

Graham, Russell T.; McCaffrey, Sarah; Jain, Theresa B., tech. eds. 2004. Scientific basis for changing forest structure to modify wildfire behavior and severity. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS–GTR– 120. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 43 p. (See http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/main/fire_plan/index.html)

Library Card

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service; U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 2004. The Healthy Forests Initiative and Healthy Forests Restoration Act: Interim Field Guide. FS–799. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 58 p.

Provides general guidance on implementing the Healthy Forests Initiative and Healthy Forests Restoration Act for resource managers and line officers in the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service and U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management. The field guide addresses the administrative and legal issues resource managers should consider when preparing fuel-reduction and forest-restoration projects. It includes three decision diagrams that are intended to help resource managers and includes references to Web sites and publications.

Keywords: collaboration, epidemics, fire management, fire suppression, forest health protection, Indian Tribes, old growth, planning, threatened and endangered species, watersheds, wildfire, wildland fire, wildland-urban interface.


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