Return to the main page - [LINK] US Forest Service - [LINK] Oregon Department Of Fish and Wildlife - [LINK] The Starkey Project
"Long-term studies of elk, deer, and cattle - examining the effects of ungulates on ecosystems"


[ ]  [ ]

Starkey Publications for Social Structure
[ ] [ ]

Kie, JohnPublicationKie, John G. 1999. Optimal foraging and risk of predation: effects on behavior and social structure in ungulates. Journal of Mammalogy 80:1114-1129.

[ ] [ ]








"Long-term studies of elk, deer, and cattle in managed forests."
Customer Service Comment Card- We welcome your comments and questions.
Privacy and Security Notice

If you have concerns, comments, or problems with this site, please contact the Webmaster