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"Long-term studies of elk, deer, and cattle - examining the effects of ungulates on ecosystems"


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Starkey Publications for Predation
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Kie, JohnPublicationKie, John G. 1999. Optimal foraging and risk of predation: effects on behavior and social structure in ungulates. Journal of Mammalogy 80:1114-1129.

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"Long-term studies of elk, deer, and cattle in managed forests."
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