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"Long-term studies of elk, deer, and cattle - examining the effects of ungulates on ecosystems"


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Starkey Publications: Ballard, T.
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PublicationRiggs, R. A.; Tiedemann, A. R.; Cook, J. G.; Ballard, T. M.; Edgeton, P. J.; Vavra, M.; Krueger, W. C.; Hall, F. C.; Bryant, L. D.; Irwin, L. L.; DelCurto, T. 2000. Modification of mixed-conifer forests by ruminant herbivores in the Blue Mountains Ecological Province. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station Research Paper PNW-RP-527.

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"Long-term studies of elk, deer, and cattle in managed forests."
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