USDA Forest Service
 

Pacific Northwest Research Station

 
 
 
Pacific Northwest Research Station
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Green Cities Research Alliance
Urban Natural Resources Stewardship

Sustainable cities through science, policy and action

 

 

PUBLICATION AND PRODUCTS

Below you will find the research, technical, and focused science delivery products that have been prepared by Green Cities Research Alliance collaborators. Products include:

Scholarly and Academic Publications
Professional and Technical Publications
Research Outreach Briefings and Web Sites
Multimedia (podcast & video)
Recent Presentations

Scholarly and Academic Publications

Donovan, Geoffrey H.; Mills, John. 2014. Environmental Justice and Factors that Influence Participation in Tree Planting Programs in Portland, Oregon, U.S. Arboriculture & Urban Forestry. 40(2): 70–77
Asah, Stanley T.; Lenentine, Miku.M.; Blahna, Dale J.  2014. Benefits of urban landscape eco-volunteerism: Mixed methods segmentation analysis and implications for volunteer retention. Landscape and Urban Planning. 123: 108-113.

Poe, M., LeCompte, Joyce; McLain, Rebecca; Hurley, Patrick. 2014. Urban foraging and the relational ecologies of belonging. Social & Cultural Geography.

Dilley, Jana; Wolf, Kathleen L. 2014. Homeowner Interactions with Residential Trees in Urban Areas. Arboriculture & Urban Forestry. 39(6): 267–277.

Asah, Stanley T., Blahna, Dale J. 2012. Practical implications of understanding the influence of motivations on commitment to voluntary urban conservation stewardship. Conservation Letters 5: 470-477. DOI:10.1111/cobi.12058.

Richardson, Jeffrey J.; Moskal, L. Monika. 2014. Uncertainty in urban forest canopy assessment: lessons from Seattle, WA USA. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening. 13(1): 152-157.

Wolf, K.L. (in press). City Trees and Consumer Response in Retail Business Districts. In: F. Musso, & E. Druica (eds.) Handbook of Research on Retailer-Consumer Relationship Development. Hershey, PA: IGI Global.
Styers, D.M., L.M. Moskal, and J.J. Richardson. (in review). Evaluation of the contribution of LiDAR data and post-classification clean-up to object-based classification accuracy.

McLain, Rebecca J.; Hurley, Patrick T.; Emery, Marla R.; Poe, Melissa R. 2014. Gathering ‘wild’ food in the city: Rethinking the role of foraging in urban ecosystem planning and management. Local Environment: The International Journal of Justice and Sustainability. 19(2): 220-240

Daniels, Jean M.; Robbins, Alicia S.T.; Brinkley, Weston R.; Wolf, Kathleen L.; Chase, John M. 2014. Toward estimating the value of stewardship volunteers: A cost-based valuation approach in King County, Washington, USA. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening. 13(2): 285-289.

Poe, M., R. McLain, M.R. Emery, and P.T. Hurley. 2013. Urban Forest Justice and the Rights to Wild Foods, Medicines, and Materials in the City. Human Ecology. 41(3): 409-422.

Asah, Stanley T.; Blahna, Dale J. 2012. Motivational functionalism and urban conservation stewardship: implications for volunteer involvement. Conservation Letters. 5(6):470–477.

White, Rachel E.; Donovan, G.H.; Prestemon, J.P. 2011. Trees thwart shady behavior. Nursery Management and Production. February: 30-33.

Wolf, K.L. 2012. The Changing Importance of Ecosystem Services across the Landscape Gradient (pp. 127-146). In: Laband, D.N., B.G. Lockaby, and W. Zipperer (eds.) Urban–Rural Interfaces: Linking People and Nature. Madison, WI: American Society of Agronomy/Soil Science Society of America/Crop Science Society of America.

McLain, R.J., M.R. Poe, K. MacFarland, L. Brody, L.B. Buttolph, J. Hebert, P. Hurley, N. Gabriel, M. Emery, and S. Charnley, S. Gathering in the City: An annotated bibliography on urban non-timber forest products gathering. Pacific Northwest Research Station General Technical Report, PNW-GTR-849.

McLain, R.J., M.R. Poe, P.T. Hurley, J. Lecompte-Mastenbrook, and M. Emery, M. Producing edible landscapes in Seattle's urban forests. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening.

Moskal, L.M., and G. Zheng.2012. Retrieving forest inventory variables with terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) in urban heterogeneous forest. Remote Sensing 4, 1, 1-20.

Moskal, L.M., D.M. Styers, and M. Halabisky. 2011. Monitoring urban tree cover using object-based image analysis and public domain remotely sensed data. Remote Sensing 3, 2243-2262.

Styers, D.M., A.H. Chappelka, and G.L. Somers. 2011. Determination of alterations in forest condition using various measures of land use change along an urban-rural gradient in the West Georgia Piedmont, USA. ISRN Ecology Vol. 2011, Article ID 461310, 12 pages, doi: 10.5402/2011/461310

Donovan, G.H., Y.L. Michael, D.T. Butry, A.D. Sullivan, and J.M. Chase. 2011. Urban trees and the risk of poor birth outcomes. Health & Place 17, 1, 390-393

Wolf, K.L. (in press). The changing importance of ecosystem services across the landscape gradient In: Laband, D.N., B.G. Lockaby, and W. Zipperer (eds), Urban–Rural Interfaces: Linking People and Nature. American Society of Agronomy, Soil Science Society of America, Crop Science Society of America.

Wolf, K.L. (in press). Open space and parks. In: Carswell, A.T. (ed.), The Encyclopedia of Housing, Second Edition. Sage Publications, 920 pp

Wolf, K.L., D. Blahna, W. Brinkley, and M. Romolini. 2011. Environmental stewardship footprint research: Linking human agency and ecosystem health in the Puget Sound region. Urban Ecosystems doi: 10.1007/s11252-011-0175-6

Donovan, G.H., and D.T. Butry. 2011. The effect of urban trees on the rental price of single-family homes in Portland, Oregon. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 10, 3, 163-168.

Wolf, K.L. 2010. Urban ecosystem services: metro nature and human well-being. In: Laband, D.N. (ed), Linking Science and Society: Proceedings of Emerging Issues Along Urban/Rural Interfaces III. Atlanta GA.

Brinkley, W., K.L. Wolf, and D.J. Blahna. 2010. Stewardship footprints and potential ecosystem recovery: Preliminary data for Seattle and Puget Sound. In: Laband, D.N. (ed), Linking Science and Society: Proceedings of Emerging Issues Along Urban/Rural Interfaces III. Atlanta GA.

Donovan, G.H., and J.P. Prestemon. 2010. The effect of trees on crime in Portland, Oregon. Environment & Behavior doi: 10.1177/0013916510383238

Donovan, G.H., and D.T. Butry. 2010. Trees in the city: Valuing street trees in Portland, Oregon. Landscape and Urban Planning 94, 77-83.

Wolf, K.L., and L.E. Kruger. 2010. Urban forestry research needs: A participatory assessment process. Journal of Forestry 108, 1, 39-44.

Joye, Y., K. Willems, M. Brengman, and K. Wolf. 2010. The effects of urban retail greenery on consumer experience: reviewing the evidence from a restorative perspective. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening 9, 1, 57-64.

Styers, D.M., A.H. Chappelka, L.J. Marzen, and G.L. Somers. 2010. Developing a land-cover classification to select indicators of forest ecosystem health in a rapidly urbanizing landscape. Landscape and Urban Planning 94, 3-4, 158-165.

Styers, D.M., A.H. Chappelka, L.J. Marzen, and G.L. Somers. 2010. Scale matters: Indicators of ecological health along the urban–rural interface near Columbus, Georgia. Ecological Indicators 10, 2, 224-233.

Styers, D.M., and A.H. Chappelka. 2009. Urbanization and atmospheric deposition: use of bioindicators in determining patterns of land-use change in west Georgia. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 200, 1-4, 371-386.

Kuhns, M., and D. Reiter. 2009. Tree care and topping beliefs, knowledge, and practices in six western U.S. cities. Arboriculture & Urban Forestry 35, 3, 122–128.

Wolf, K.L. 2009. Strip malls, city trees, and community values. Arboriculture & Urban Forestry 35, 1, 33-40.

Wolf, K.L. 2008. Metro nature services: Functions, benefits and values, pp. 294-315. In: S.M. Wachter and E/L/ Birch (Eds.), Growing Greener Cities: urban Sustainability in the Twenty-First Century. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 416 pp.

Wolf, K.L. 2006. Assessing public response to the freeway roadside: Urban forestry and context sensitive solutions. Transportation Research Record: Journal of Transportation Research Board, No. 1984: 102-111.
Wolf, K.L., and N.J. Bratton. 2006. Urban trees and traffic safety: Considering U.S. roadside policy and crash data. Arboriculture and Urban Forestry 32, 4: 170-179.
Wold, K.L. 2005. Business district streetscapes, trees and consumer response. Journal of Forestry, 103, 8: 396-400.

Professional and Technical Publications

Wolf, K.L. 2014 (April 5). Water and Wellness: Green Infrastructure for Health Co-Benefits. Stormwater Report, a publication of the Washington Environment Federation.
Wolf, K.L. (in press). Greening the City for Health. Communities & Banking.
Wolf, K.L. 2013. Stewardship Mapping: Understanding the Groups That Work for Urban Greening. Arborist News 22, 6:54-58.
Wolf, K.L. 2013. The Urban Forest. Communities & Banking 24, 2, 25-27.

Wolf, K.L. 2013. Why Do We Need Trees? Let’s Talk About Ecosystem Services. Arborist News. 22, 4:32-4:35.

Wolf, K.L. 2012. Open Space and Parks. In: Carswell, A.T. (ed.) The Encyclopedia of Housing, Second Edition. Sage Publications, 928 pp.

Ciecko, L.; Tenneson, K.; and Wolf, K.L. 2012. Seattle's Forest Ecosystem Values: Analysis of the STructure, Function, and Economic Benefits. (pdf 20 MB)

Romolini, M.; Brinkley, W.; and Wolf, K.L. 2012. What is urban environmental stewardship? Constructing a practitioner-derived framework. Res. Note PNW-RN-566. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 41 p.

Wolf, K.L. 2011. Green cities for good health: a tool for urban forestry advocacy. City Trees: Journal of the Society of Municipal Arborists 7, 2: 8-15.

Moskal L.M., and D. Styers. 2011. Geospatial Canopy Cover Assessment Workshop Workbook. Online

Ciecko, L. 2010. Forest Ecosystem Values: Residential Private Property Outreach Report. Online:

Wolf, K.L. 2010. City trees, nature and physical activity. Facility Management Journal 20, 1, 50-54.

Wolf, K.L. 2009. Trees mean business: city trees and the retail streetscape. Main Street News 263, 1-9.

Wolf, K.L. 2009. More in store: research on city trees and retail. Arborist News 18, 2, 22-27.

Donovan, G.H., and D.T. Butry. 2008. Market-based approaches to tree valuation. Arborist News 17, 52-55.

Wolf, K.L. 2008. City trees and property values. Facility Management Journal, September/October:120-124.
Wolf, K.L. 2006. Roadside urban trees: Balancing safety and community values. Arborist News, 15, 6: 56-58.
Wolf, K.L., and S. Harris Ray. 2005. Trees are good for business: Urban forest planning guidelines for business associations. Portland, OR: Pacific Northwest Chapter of the International Society for Arboriculture.

Multimedia

PNW Ecotone, Episode 2—Beyond the Concrete Jungle: Cities as Sources of Ecosystem Services

October 2012—When you hear the word “ecosystem,” what comes to mind? A forest? A river, maybe? Well, how about a city? It turns out, the green spaces in our urban areas can offer a range of ecosystem services, just like forests and rivers. Station scientists are working to better understand cities as ecosystems and demonstrate how nearby nature provides important benefits and services. (4:19)

Transcript

Download (5.9 MB podcast)

 
Research Outreach Briefings and Web Sites

Moskal, L.M., D. M. Styers, J. Richardson and M. Halabisky, 2011. Seattle Hyperspatial Land use/land cover (LULC) from LiDAR and Near Infrared Aerial Imagery Using Object-based Image Analysis (OBIA). Factsheet # 18. U of WA Remote Sensing and Geospatial Analysis Lab, Seattle WA.

Moskal, L.M. and D. M. Styers , 2010. Land use/land cover (LULC) from high-resolution near infrared aerial imagery: costs and applications. Factsheet # 12. U of WA Remote Sensing and Geospatial Analysis Lab, Seattle WA.

Green Cities :: Good Health – a series of research summaries based on an extensive literature review about the relationship of nearby nature and human health and well-being. Co-sponsored by the University of Washington and the USDA Forest Service.

Human Dimensions of Urban Forestry and Urban Greening – reports on a program of social science research co-sponsored by the University of Washington and the USDA Forest Service.

Recent Presentations (2012-Present)

Recent presentations done at national, regional, and local conferences and meetings by Green Cities Research Alliance collaborators including:
aUSDA Forest Service/ University of Washington
bUSDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station
cForterra
dInstitute for Culture and Ecology
eUniversity of Washington, Remote Sensing and Geospatial Analysis Lab

2013


Wolf, K. L. June 2013. Nearby Nature and Human Well-Being: Exploring the Linkages, Telling the Story. Urban Forest Strategies: Linking People and Landscapes. Oregon Urban and Community Forestry Conference, Portland OR.
Ciecko, L. May 2013. Valuing Ecosystem Services. Puget Sound Urban Forest Symposium, Seattle WA.
Wolf, K. L. April 2013. Urban Ecosystem Services & SITES: Plants, Nature & Sustainability. Washington Native Plant Society: Central Puget Sound Chapter Meeting, Seattle WA.
Wolf, K. L. March 2013. Be Green, Be Well! Surprising Evidence about Health and the Natural Environment. Park Pride 12th Annual Parks & Greenspace Conference, Atlanta GA.
Poe, M. and R. McLain. March 2013. Urban Foraging and Food Security research report to the Puget Sound Regional Food Policy Council, Seattle WA.
Wolf, K. L. March 2013. Research on Trees, Nature & Public Benefits: Be Green, Be Well! The 2013 North Coast Urban Forestry Conference, Mentor OH.
Ciecko, L. February 2013. Characterizing and Valuing Urban Forests. Bartlett Tree Experts Annual Client Seminar, Seattle WA.
Wolf, K. L. January 2013. From Risk to Reward: How Nature Supports Human Well-Being. GreenPrint Summit, Sacramento CA.
Wolf, K. L. January 2013. With Plants in Mind - social benefits of civic nature and human dimensions of urban forest and ecosystems. Preserving, Creating, Restoring Our Urban Habitat: APLDWA Annual Design Symposium, Seattle WA.
Wolf, K. L. January 2013. Nature in the Neighborhood: Human Habitat for Well-Being. IslandWood ‘Deep Dive’ Seminar, Bainbridge Island WA.
Ciecko, L. January 2013. Characterizing and Valuing Urban Forests: How to Use Research to Support Tree Ambassador Efforts. City of Seattle Department of Transportation and Seattle Public Utilities, Seattle WA.
Wolf, K.L. January 2013. From Risk to Reward: How Nature Supports Human Well-Being. GreenPrint Summit, Sacramento CA.

 

2012


Wolf, K.L. December 2012. Urban Ecosystems and Public Health: Metro Nature as Provider of Cultural Services. ACES and Ecosystem Markets, Ft. Lauderdale FL.
Ciecko, L. November 2012. Characterizing and Valuing Urban Forests. ESRM 480 Class Lecture, University of Washington, Center for Urban Horticulture, Seattle WA.
Wolf, K.L. October 2012. Landscape Benefits: Balancing Risk and Livable Spaces. Green Gardening Program, Honing the Sustainable Edge: Integrating Design, Installation, and Maintenance South Seattle Community College, Seattle WA.
Wolf, K.L. October 2012. Urban Ecosystems & Human Health: Expanding Considerations of Cultural Services. EcoSummit, Columbus OH.

Wolf, K.L. September 2012. Human Response to Nature: human dimensions & evaluation for Sustainability in Prisons programs. Sustainability in Prisons Network Conference, Evergreen State College, Olympia WA.

Brinkley W., K.L. Wolf. July 2012. Volunteer Experiences in King County Forested Parks, 2011. King County Department of Natural resources and Parks, Capital Planning and Land Management Team (Seattle WA).

Brinkley, W. and L. Ciecko. August 2012. A Science Program for Urban Natural Resource Planning and Management. International Society of Arboriculture Conference (Portland OR).

Brinkley W., K.L. Wolf, S. Schell. February 2012. Exploring stewards experiences: Volunteerism in the Puget Sound region as social and ecological solution. Association of American Geographers Annual Conference (New York NY).

Ciecko, L., and K. Tenneson. October 2012. Characterizing and Valuing Urban Forests: Three i-Tree Eco Project Examples. 2012 Society of American Foresters National Convention (Spokane, WA).

Kimmett, D. October 2012. Forest Assessment of King County’s Park Lands. 2012 Society of American Foresters National Convention (Spokane, WA).

Wolf, K.L., W. Brinkley, J. Daniels, A. Robbins and D. Blahna. October 2012. Civic Environmental Stewardship and Urban Forestry. 2012 Society of American Foresters National Convention (Spokane, WA).

Bazinet, O., M. Romolini and D. Blahna. October 2012. Mapping Stewardship Organizations and Projects in the Seattle Metropolitan Region. 2012 Society of American Foresters National Convention (Spokane, WA).

Sheppard, J., C. Ryan and D. Blahna. October 2012. An Analytical Framework for Biophysical Impacts of Citizen Environmental Stewardship. 2012 Society of American Foresters National Convention (Spokane, WA).

Brinkley, W. and D. Blahna. October 2012. Green Cities Research Alliance: A Review and Reflection. 2012 Society of American Foresters National Convention (Spokane, WA).

Daniels, J., A. Robbins, W. Brinkley, K.L. Wolf and J. Chase. October 2012. Valuing Environmental Stewardship: A Cost Approach in King County, Washington. 2012 Society of American Foresters National Convention (Spokane, WA).

2011 Presentations

Wolf, K.L.a November 2011. Supporting Partnerships for Green Cities & Good Health. Partners in Community Forestry National Conference (Orlando FL).


Ciecko, L.c November 2011. Seattle i-Tree in Three Acts: Hydrology, Outreach, and Canopy. Partners in Community Forestry Conference (Orlando FL).


Wolf, K.L.a, W. Brinkley, and D. Blahna. November 2011. Civic Environmental Stewardship and Urban Forestry. Society of American Foresters 91st National Convention (Honolulu HI).


Ciecko, L.c November 2011. Forest Ecosystem Values Project. City of Seattle Urban Forest Commission (Seattle WA).


Brinkley, W.c October 2011. Increasing Ecosystem Knowledge and Application through Collaborative Research: Green Cities Research Alliance. 2011 Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference (Vancouver BC).


Ciecko, L.c October 2011. Urban Forest Ecosystem Services: Existing Tools, Model Limitations, and Policy Applications. Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference (Vancouver BC).


Brinkley, W.c June 2011. Understanding and Optimizing Volunteer Environmental Stewardship Motivations, Operations, and Capacity in Seattle, Autumn 2010.  Seattle Department of Parks and Recreation (Seattle WA).


Wolf, K.L.a June 2011. Urban Greening: Community Design for Health. National Healthy Homes Conference: Leading the Nation to Healthy Homes, Families, and Communities (Denver CO).


Moskal, L.M.e, and D. Styers. May 2011. Monitoring Seattle, Olympia and Tacoma Forest Canopies Using Object-Based Image Analysis and Public Domain Remotely Sensed Data. Annual Washington URISA Conference (Lynnwood WA).


Brinkley, W.c April 2011. Understanding and Optimizing Volunteer Environmental Stewardship Motivations, Operations, and Capacity in Seattle. Association of American Geographers Annual Meeting (Seattle WA)

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Moskal, L.M.e April 2011. Hyper-Resolution in Remote Sensing: What's All the Hype About? Association of American Geographers Annual Meeting (Seattle WA).


Styers, D.e, L.M. Moskal, et al. April 2011. Monitoring Urban Forest Canopies Using Object-Based Image Analysis and Public Domain Remotely Sensed Data. Association of American Geographers Annual Meeting (Seattle WA).


Styers, D.M.e, and M.D. Dunbar. April 2011. Urban Forestry, Ecology, & Natural Resources, Panel Session. Association of American Geographers Annual Meeting (Seattle WA).


Kazakova, A.e, L.M. Moskal, and S. Styers. April 2011. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Urban Tree Species. Association of American Geographers Annual Meeting (Seattle WA).


Kato, A.e, T. Kobayashi, and L.M. Moskal. April 2011. Evaluating Ecosystem Services of Urban Forests Using LiDAR. Association of American Geographers Annual Meeting (Seattle WA).


Romolini, M.b, K. Wolf, and D. Blahna. March 2011. From Sanitary to Sustainable: An Emerging Role and Reevaluation of Environmental Governance and Polycentric Networks In Cities. Resilience 2011 (Phoenix AZ).


Poe, M.R.d, R. McLain, S. Charnley, P. Hurley, M. Emery, L. Urgenson, and J. LeCompte-Mastenbrook. March 2011. Seattle Urban Foraging: A Deeply Interactive Nature Practice. Society for Applied Anthropology Annual Meeting (Seattle WA).


LeCompte, J.d, M. Poe, L. Urgenson, R. McLain. March 2011. Urban Foraging and Gleaning As A Place-Making Practice Amongst Newly Arrived Seattleites. Society for Applied Anthropology Annual Meeting (Seattle WA).


Urgenson, L.d, M. Poe, R. McLain, and J. LeCompte-Mastenbrook. March 2011. Urban Foragers' Perceptions and Use of ‘Invasive Alien Plants’ in Seattle Greenspaces. Society for Applied Anthropology Annual Meeting (Seattle WA).


Brinkley, W.c, and K.L. Wolf. March 2011. Understanding Volunteer Stewardship Experiences in Seattle. REI Puget Sound Stewardship Conference (Seattle WA).


Moskal, L.M.e, and D. Styers. February 2011. Mapping Impervious Surfaces and Canopy Cover in Seattle, Olympia & Tacoma Using Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA) & Public Domain Remotely Sensed Data. 2011 UW Water Symposium (Seattle WA)


Wolf, K.L.a February 2011. Ecosystem Services & Urban Green Infrastructure: Urban Greening & Public Health. National Green Infrastructure Conference 2011 (National Conservation Training Center WV).

 

2010 Presentations

Ciecko, L.c December 2010. Forest Ecosystem Values Project. King County Department of Natural Resources and Parks (Seattle WA).


Wolf, K.L.a December 2010. Ecosystem Services in the City: Urban Greening and Public Health. ACES: A Community on Ecosystem Services (Phoenix AZ).


Wolf, K.L.a October 2010. Geospatial Linkages of Green Infrastructure and Positive Public Health. ESRI Health GIS Conference (Denver CO).


McLain, R.d, M. Poe, P.T. Hurley, and J. Lecompte-Mastenbrook. June 2010. Greening and Gathering in the Emerald City: Producing Edible Landscapes in Seattle – Preliminary Findings. Annual Meeting for the Association for Environmental Studies and Sciences (Portland OR).


Wolf, K.L.a, D. Blahna, W. Brinkley, and M. Romolini. April. 2010. Stewardship Footprints and Potential Ecosystem Recovery Across the Wildland to Urban Interface: The Puget Sound Case Study. Emerging Issues Along Urban/Rural Interfaces 3: Linking Science & Society (Atlanta GA).


Wolf, K.L.a March 2010. Human Health & Well-Being: Evidence for an Expanded Framework of Ecosystems Services in Cities. Million Trees NYC, Green Infrastructure, and Urban Ecology: A Research Symposium (New York NY).


Wolf, K.L.a February 2010. Ecology in the City: Nearby Nature and the Restoration of Self and Society. Society for Ecological Restoration Northwest: 2010 Joint Regional Conference SERNW & TWS-WA (Tulalip WA).


McLain, R.d, P. Hurley, M. Emery, and M. Poe. February 2010. Finding Our Way Out of the Neoliberal Forest: Green Infrastructure Planning and Urban Gathering. Association of American Geographers Annual Meeting (Washington D.C.).

 

 


Contact for Information:

Kathy Wolf, Research Social Scientist; USDA Forest Service and University of Washington

 

 

 

 

 

US Forest Service - Pacific Northwest Research Station
Last Modified: Thursday,17July2014 at10:36:28CDT


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